Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 11
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 11
Eûzubillahimineşşeytânîrracîm Bismillahirrahmanirrahim Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve eshabihî ve edbâîhi ve etratîhi ecmaîn. Euzû bikelimâtillahi tâ’ammati min şerri mâ hâlaka ve zerâhe ve derâhe Rabbi euzûbike min’hemezatişşeyâtîyn ve euzûbike Rabbi enyehdûrûn. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.
Most valuable and venerable friends, our lecture about preliminary notes and discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar continues.
In reality, surrender is to be pleased with the verdict. Its meaning under Islam is being pleased with and surrendering to Allah Ta’ala’s commands about obligatory religious duties (fard) and prohibitions (haram). To be pleased with Allah’s verdict is through not objecting to the things being permissible (halal) and the things being prohibited (haram), or not seeing them imperfect. Islam is absolute surrender to Allah’s command. Whereas iman (belief) means to affirm your faith (iman) by heart. The Qur’an referred here to those who did not affirmed their faith (iman) by heart. Whereas Islam is to surrender. The place to affirm your faith is heart, and its interpreter is the tongue. Nevertheless, surrendering takes place by heart, tongue and all parts of the body. In this respect, surrendering has a more general aspect. Whereas the hypocrites, as a linguistic term, are counted amongst Muslims, they are not Muslim according to the sharia term. Moreover, those who are not believers (mu’min) in terms of linguistic meaning are not believers (mu’min) in the eyes of the sharia, too.
Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) commands in the Surah Al-Hujurat 14th verse (ayah): “The Bedouins said, ‘We have faith.’ Say, ‘You do not have faith yet; rather say, ‘We have become Muslims for faith has not yet entered into your hearts.’
Dear friends, the phrase, “Say, ‘We have become Muslims,” resides in the verse of the Qur’an, because uttering that you have faith, linguistically means you have iman of Islam, but this is not counted as iman, because there is no affirmation by the heart. For the iman requires absolute affirmation. Their faith has not reached their hearts, there for it is not affirmed by heart. Al-Iman (belief) is to testify and affirm the names and attributes of Allah Ta’ala in a way that suits His glory. You need to pay attention now. Muslims, all Muslims should understand that well.
Al-Iman (belief) is to testify and affirm the names and attributes of Allah Ta’ala in a way that suits His glory. Moreover, Islam cannot be Islam without al-Iman (faith) for it means to be strictly bound to Allah’s commands. Therefore, these are strictly bound to each other. You can’t separate one from the other. In terms of sharia it is a mu’min (believer) is always a Muslim, it is incomprehensible to think otherwise. Iman and Islam are two words that complete a single value, and they are inseparable. Iman and Islam are one in that respect, in other words they are flesh and bone, body and the soul. It is said that it would not be possible to separate them.
Dear friends, it is clear that Al-Imam Al-Azam thinks the iman and Islam are blended and bound together. There cannot be Islam without there being belief, and vice versa. Al-Imam Al-Azam had a discussion on this matter with Jahm bin Safwan who is the founder of the Jahmiyya which is the biggest branch of the Jabriyya Madhab. That day, Jahm bin Safwan, who died in Hijri 128, visited Al-Imam Al-Azam with a desire to talk to him. He said, “O, Abu Hanifa! I have come to you to talk about some issues I have prepared.” Now, who said that? That man is the founder of the Jabriyya Madhab and the Jahmiyya. Jahmiyya is a branch of the Jabriyya Madhab. Abu Hanifa said: “Speaking with you is absurd, and delving into a discussion with you is like delving into a blazing fire,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam. “How can you give that harsh judgment about me without hearing my words,” said Jahm bin Safwan. Al-Imam Al-Azam replied: “They have transmitted such words to me from you that cannot be uttered by the people of the qibla. How could you utter such things,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam to him. He replied, “Then you are judging me by what you have not seen.” “These things about you are so well-known that both the common folk and the elite have heard them. In what way this is unseen?” said Al-Imam Al-Azam and added, “I have said that because everyone knows that well.” “O, Abu Hanifa!” said Jahm, and added, “I will not ask you about anything except iman (faith).” “Haven’t you learned what faith (iman) was until this day before you have to ask me about it?” said Al-Imam Al-Azam. “Yes,” he replied, “but I have doubt about it in an area.”
No way, absolutely not! “Doubt in iman (faith) is blasphemy (kufr),” retorted Al-Imam Al-Azam. “You have to clarify in what way you attach blasphemy (kufr) to me?” said Jahm bin Safwan. “Ask me so I can clarify,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam. “So, tell me, a person recognizes Allah with his heart, besides, he knows that He has no partners or equals. He acknowledges Allah’s attributes but dies before uttering his belief by tongue. Does that man die as a believer (mu’min) or a blasphemer (qafir)?” “He dies a blasphemer (qafir). He is amongst the people of Hell unless he uttered what he knew from the heart by tongue,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam. “How can he be a blasphemer (qafir) when he acknowledges Allah with His attributes,” said Jahm bin Safwan. Al-Imam Al-Azam replied, “If you believe in the Qur’an and accept it as evidence, then I will reply you with it,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam and added, “If you believe in the Qur’an but do not accept it as evidence, tell me, so I can speak to you as one speaks to someone who opposes the nation of Islam.” Jahm bin Safwan said, “I have faith in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim,” and added, “I accept it as evidence.” “Then listen,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam, and added, “Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’an that iman (belief) has two limbs: the heart and the tongue.” Surah Al-Ma’idah 83rd and 85th verses (ayat): When they listen to what has been revealed to the Apostle, you see their eyes fill with tears. For they recognize the truth and say: “Our Lord, we believe; so, write us down among the witnesses.” Look, they have affirmed by heart and testified by tongue. 84th Verse: “Why should we not believe in Allah and the truth that has come to us, eager as we have that our Lord should admit us among the righteous people.” 85th Verse: “So, for what they said, Allah requited them with gardens with streams running below them, to remain in them forever,” because their hearts affirmed and they tongue testified, “wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of doers of good.” Almighty Lord puts them in Paradise for they have known Allah and testified that with utterances. He counts them as believers (mu’min) because of they have affirmed by heart and have uttered by tongue.
Furthermore, Allah Ta’ala commands: “Say, ‘We have believed in Allah. We have believed in what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are amongst who submitted to Him.” “If they believe in the same as you believe in, then they have been rightly guided.” These were from Surah Al-Baqarah 136th and 137th verses. Almighty Lord says here, “Say, ‘We have believed in Allah.”
Al-Imam Al-Azam explained these Quranic verses to Jahm bin Safwan. : “Say, ‘We have believed,” means “verbal articulation”.
Almighty Lord commanded, “He made them abide by the word of taqwa [piety],” in Surah Al-Fath 26th verse (ayah). “They shall be guided to the purest speech,” This one is from Surah Al-Hajj 24th verse (ayah). “To Him ascends good speech,” this one is from Surah Al-Fatir 10th verse (ayah). “Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in this life and in the Hereafter,” this one is from Surah Ibrahim 27th verse (ayah). The word of faith (iman) is mentioned in all these Quranic verses. To say is done by tongue (language). Prophet Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) said, “Say, ‘La ilaaha illallah,” so you can find falah (success – self-improvement). He is not link finding falah (success) to only merit before uttering the Islamic testimony of faith. Our Prophet also said, “Whoever says ‘there is no god but Allah, and says that from the heart, that person is freed from Hell.” He did not say, “Who acknowledges Allah is freed from Hell.” He linked it to articulating by tongue. In other words, the second step of faith (iman) after affirmation is firm confession. If we had not had to articulate our faith with tongue, and if ‚acknowledging it‘ had been enough, then a person who denied Allah with his words would still be considered a believer (mu’min) the minute he acknowledged Allah by heart. The Satan would be considered as a believer (mu’min) too, because he never said he denied Allah. He knew Allah but did not testify, he rather stood against His commands. For he knew his Lord. Who knew his Lord? The Satan. He recognized his Lord. He knew that who grants him refuge, who creates, kills and resurrects is Allah. Let’s see how he says it. The Satan says: “My Lord! Why have you accommodated me? Give me time until the Day of Judgment. You have created me out of fire, and you have created out of clay.”If that had been the situation, the disbelievers (qafir) would be considered as believers (mu’min) when they knew their Lord, even though they deny him. Allah Ta’ala commands, “They denied even though their hearts knew of these,” in Surah Al-Naml 14th verse (ayah). They are not counted amongst believers (mu’min) for they denied with their tongues even though they acknowledged Allah as the only god. Allah Ta’ala commands, “They recognize the blessing of Allah and then deny it. Most of them are disbelievers (qafir),” in Surah Al-Nahl 83rd verse (ayah).
“Say, ‘Who provides for you out of the sky and the earth? Who controls your hearing and sight and who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living, and who directs the command?’ They will say, ‘Allah.’ Say, ‘Are you not afraid?’” “That, then, is Allah, your true Lord.” The last two quotes were from Surah Johan, 31st and 32nd verses (ayat). They knew, but that brought no benefit due to their denial. “They recognize Muhammad just as they recognize their sons,” Surah Al-Baqarah 146th verse (ayah).
The Christians and the Jews knew about Prophet Muhammad from the Bible and the Torah but that action did not bring any benefit because they have denied Allah. For they neither affirmed nor testified. Jahm bin Safwan listened all these explanations and said, “You have taught me many things. I will come again and consult you,” and he left.
So, dear friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam thoroughly explains that iman (belief) cannot be true iman (belief) without affirmation and declaration in the afore paragraphs. Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar shouts out the true iman (belief) to the world.
Dear friends, what does yakin (true knowledge) and m’arifat (knowledge of Lord) mean? Now, Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) says: “We can only know Allah Ta’ala righteously by what He attributed Himself in His Book, and all His attributes. No one can worship Almighty Lord perfectly as He deserves to be worshipped. We can only worship Him according to His orders, as He commanded in His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger.” So, this is due to our ignorance, unwariness and inability. Humankind, including the ones who know the best, are in service of Allah with their inability. Plus, think about those who do not know the truths and what they are doing. We can only know the Almighty Lord as He attributed Himself in His al-kalam al-qadim (timeless-eternal speech); and with His beatific names, which are stated in the book and the sunnah. Otherwise we are not strong enough to know of the essence of His Being, and His nature, no one has enough power for that. The true meaning behind saying, “We have not known you like you deserved.” This is important. “Otherwise no one is strong enough to know of His essence and His nature,” which is also the true meaning behind saying, “We have not known you like you deserved.” Worship is exalting Allah and showing respect to Him. Nevertheless, there is no end to His a’zamat (infinite grandness) and His everlasting jalal (glory and majesty). This is the reason that it is not possible for any servant to perform the worship that suits His a’zamat and jalal.
Again, it is also not possible for anyone to perform the worship whose thawab (reward) always the same, in other words, whose reward is always equal. The thawab or reward Allah gives is never calculable. Yet the actions of people are calculable and subject to decline. Therefore, it is not possible to show enough gratitude to the bounty Allah shall give. The gratitude a person shows is measurable whereas the bounty Allah gives upon his servants are incalculable, no one can count them, no one has such power. Thusly, let’s see what Almighty Allah commanded in the verse of the Qur’an. Allah (jalla jalaluhu).
Let’s see what the Almighty Lord commanded in this verse of the Qur’an: “He gave you all that you had asked him. If you enumerate Allah’s blessings, you will not be able to count them,” is that possible? Can you count them? You couldn’t be able to count them even if they all had been in one place “indeed man is most unfair and ungrateful!” That is what is was commanded in Surah Ibrahim’s 34th verse (ayah). The believers are all equals in m’arifat (action), yaqeen (knowing Allah), tawakkul (trust in Allah), muhabbet (love), consent, havf (fear), reca (hope). They are also equal in believing in these fundamental values. People are in different status than one another in all things we have counted other than iman (faith). They are indeed equal in the things that must be believed but they are different than one another in the things we have named and things other than iman (faith). M’arifat (action) means, knowing the semantic meaning of a thing, in sense of ilm (knowledge). In terminological meaning, it is knowing Allah by His names and attributes and then establishing that truth into your hearth through worship. Look, there can be many differences amongst people between knowing Allah and establishing that knowledge one with the truth.
Yaqeen, linguistically means undoubtably knowing something. In technical term, it means seeing something clearly by means of the strength of faith without evidence or guidance. In Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, ‘yaqeen’ was mentioned as three degrees. Firstly, Ilm-ul-yaqeen (the knowledge of certainty), which occurs by sound evidence, and utterance, and sight. Secondly, Ayn-ul-yaqeen (the vision of certainty) which is knowledge that occurs by eyesight. Lastly, Haqq-ul-yaqeen (the final level of certainty gained through experience), which occurs by having the first and the second degrees together. The first of these knowledge types is ordained to the âlims (Islamic scholars) of the folk, the second one is ordained to the elite âlims (Islamic scholars), and the third one is ordained to the Prophets. There is no higher ilm (knowledge) for the creatures than the third degree. The highest ilm (knowledge) is the ilm which Prophets have. Ilm-ul-yaqeen arises when revelation is grasped with divine evidence. The sciences of the sharia are ilm-ul-yaqeen. Tawakkul, is abandoning hope from worldly things but trusting in and relying on the things that are in the presence of Allah. Muhabbet, linguistically means love. In technical term, it means loving Allah. That is an emotion in the servant’s heart which he feels for Allah. It is not possible to explain how that happens. It is also not possible to ascribe a “how” modality to this feeling. The closest we can word to explain this emotion is the word “muhabbet.”
In our previous lectures we have given many valuable information, and we are now giving preliminary nots from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar.
Some of the elders said, “A servant’s love of Allah is an honour, and choosing the acceptance. It is the duty of who came from Allah to increase acceptance, decreasing staying away from Him, and being always busy with worship.” Acceptance means freeing the heart from the arrows of the evil and the bad that touches it. It means accepting Almighty Lord’s commands, His decree and ruling so that your heart can be free from arrows of the evil and the bad. The awliya says, “Both the suffering You give and the reward that You give are pleasant.” Which means, accepting Almighty Allah’s every command, submitting to Him, surrendering Him with your entire being, being bound to Him with your entire being, and accepting what comes from Him. There is also have (fear) which is the fear of losing something beloved or fear that something undesired happening to one. Reca linguistically means ‘to hope’, but its terminological meaning is to hope that the thing which is loved will occur in the future. The hope that we call ‘reca’ occurs with the fear that we call ‘havf’. There is a correlation between them. Hope without fear is getting carried away by pride, and being certain about oneself. And fear without hope means being hopeless and abandoning hope from Allah’s blessing. It is a disaster if these two are separated from each other. In other words, there cannot be fear without hope and hope without fear. The believer (mu’min), the Muslim is somewhere between hope and fear. He flies to his Lord via these wings. The believers are not at the same rank in terms of the presence or lacking of these things we have counted in them, them being less or more, and the degree of power of affirmation in the iman (belief). But they are all equals in believing the fundamentals that must be believed and not believing the things that must not be believed.
Dear friends, havf is the fear that scares all fears, it is fear of Allah. It means loving him thoroughly and being connected to him with complete hope. Who should they love? Allah Ta’ala. For that reason, fear without hope or vice versa is disaster. Do not forget that. Hope without fear is disaster, and vice versa. One does always fear Almighty Allah Ta’ala’s wrath, and never ceases hope from his blessing. So, reca (hope) is between hope and fear, the believer (mu’min) lives amid havf (fear) and reca (hope), he flies via these wings, do not forget that. Allah Ta’ala grants generous gifts to his servants. He is fair, too. Allah rules with His justice. Sometimes, He gives so much more to His servant than he deserves. Sometimes, He punishes His servants for their sins due to His justice. And sometimes, He forgives his sinful servant out of His kindness.
The servants can win rewards for their good deeds but that is due to Allah Ta’ala’s Decree and Promise. Almighty Lord says in Surah Al-An’am 160th verse (ayah): “Whoever comes to Allah with a good deed will have ten times of the credit of that deed. And whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except for the credit of that deed.” So, one punishment for one evil deed. “And they [both the ones who did good and evil] will not be wronged.”
“When the deeds of the son of Adam is good, it is multiplied by ten times,” and that is what our Beloved Prophet said. This was reported by Sahih Muslim, and Ibn Majah. This reward that is multiplied by ten may be also multiplied up to seven hundred times. It is not an obligation of Allah to reward multiple times the good deeds the servants did. That is only due to Almighty Lord’s bounty and generosity. Allah punishes His servant for their sins, and that is due to His justice. For that is a fully owned right of Almighty Lord to do that in his property. His cruelty is for the ones who do evil things in His property without His approval. All realms are Allah’s property. Indeed, He will implement His justice on those who commit crimes, whether minor or major, Allah may forgive the sins of the servants that are not counted as sins that are committed against other people, with or without needing repentance. To forgive, is the punishment being lifted from the one who deserved it by Allah. Surah Ash-Shuraa 25th verse (ayah) says: “And it is He who accepts repentance from his servants and pardons misdeeds, and He knows what you do.”
So, dear friends, we have given you the whole of the glorious Qur’an as preliminary notes. We are now continuing to give you preliminary notes from Al-Imam Al-Azam’s Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. The current topic is intercession (shafaa’ah) of prophets. Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) said: “The intercession of the Prophets, alayhem assalatu wassalam is an established fact.” The intercession (shafaa’ah) of our Prophet for the sinful believers who deserve punishment, and those among them who have major sins is an established fact and a right of our Prophet. The intercession (shafaa’ah) is a right and that is established by the book, sunnah and ijma of ummah. The verse of the Qur’an says: “To Him belongs whatever is in the skies and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that may intercede with Him without His permission?” It is evident from what we’ve just read that intercession is done by Allah’s permission and command. The Hadith-i Sharif says: “Şefaatî, li ehlil kebairi min ümmetî,” which means Prophet Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) said, “My intercession is for the people amongst my ummah who have major sins.” That is what he said.
The one who denies intercession (shafaa’ah) cannot attain it. Today you must have started to hear a lot about the ones who deny intercession (shafaa’ah). Nevertheless, Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar, the glorious Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, splendorous Islam and eminent Islamic individuals have come to this day by proving them wrong by scholarly evidence; and they will keep on refuting them. According to the Qur’anic verse it is established that intercession (shafaa’ah) is a right with Allah’s permission. In another Hadith-i Sharif it is said that, “There are three classes of people who will be allowed to intercede with Allah on the Day of Judgment. They are Prophets, ulama (the âlims) and martyrs.” Now, this Hadith-i Sharif was reported on the authority of Uthman. Ibn Majah also reported it and al-Suyuti mentioned it in his Sharh Jami As Sagheer and Et Tac; al-Ajluni commemorated it in his Kashf al-Khafa. The ones who deny intercession (shafaa’ah) will be devoid of these intercessions (shafaa’ah).
“Weighing the deeds on the scale is a fact.” Friends, look what Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) said, “Weighing the deeds on the scale on the Day of Judgment is a fact.” “The Basin of the Prophet, (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) is also a fact.” “Retribution among enemies through the redistribution of good deeds in the Day of Judgment is a fact.” The rights will be taken back. That day no one will keep rights of the other. If they have no good deeds, then the burden of evil deeds is redistributed; this too is a fact and permissible.” Weighing whatever people had done in the world is a fact on that day. The “how” modality of weighing people’s deeds is only known by Allah. According to the school of the people of the Sunnah it is necessary to testify that by articulation. These things are undeniable.
Let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam said in his work named Al-Wasiyyah. Surah Al-Isra 13th verse (ayah): “…We shall bring it out for him on the Day of Resurrection as a wide-open book that he will encounter.” This is also the same Surah, 14th verse (ayah): “Read your book! Today your soul suffices as your own reckoner.” These are commanded. Now, pay attention to this, just like he said, “reading the books is a fact,” he also said, “My hawd [pond] in the Paradise…” This was said say Prophet Muhammad. The previous one was a Quranic verse and this is saying of our Prophet: “My hawd [pond] in the Paradise is as large as the distance of a month’s journey. Its water is whiter than milk, its scent is better than musk. Its drinking vessels are like the stars of the sky and whoever drinks from it will never thirst again.” The main idea of this Hadith-i Sharif is that our Prophet have said ‘the hawd [pond] in the Paradise is a fact.’ Dear friends, you have heard the verse of the Qur’an and the Hadith-i Sharif, so let’s continue.
We have previously given the meanings of Surah Al-Isra’s 13th and 14th verses (ayat). The full text of the 13th Qur’anic verse is this: “We have attached every person’s omen to his neck, and We shall bring it out for him on the Day of Resurrection as a wide-open book that he will encounter,” (Sadakallahülazîm’ül âlâ), is commanded.
Our Beloved Prophet also commanded, “Whoever does something malicious to his religious fellow himself or his property,” in other words, whoever stole his share, or stepped on it, “shall ask forgiveness from that innocent in this world before the Day of Judgment on which there is no dinar or dirham comes,” in other words, he says you should write off each other’s debts and forgive them in this world, take care of that and do not die before paying what is due. Try to pay their share immediately. “Otherwise if the wrongdoer had some righteous deeds, they are taken from him and transferred to the innocent in proportion to his wrongdoing.” In other words, entire namâz, fasting and zakat of the wrongdoer is given to the innocent one. “If he has no hasanaat some of the sins of the innocent is taken and added to the burden of the wrongdoer.” This Hadith-i Sharif was reported in Sahih Bukhari. The other was reported by al-Bukhari and al-Muslim.
Dear friends, we must pay extra attention to the ranks of the Hadith-i Sharifs, especially the ones who reach the status of tawatur (unanimity). The retaliation that will take place in the Day of Judgment is narrated in another Hadith-i Sharif as follows. Our Beloved Prophet (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) commanded, “Do you know who is bankrupt?” Ashab-i Kirâm (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) said, “We think that the one without money or goods is bankrupt.” Our Prophet said upon their answer, “Verily the bankrupt of my ummah (nation) are those who come on the Day of Resurrection with prayers, fasting, and charity, but they also come with insults, slander, consuming wealth, shedding blood, and beating others. For that reason, the hasanaat of them are given to each of the oppressed, so his good deeds are distributed to the oppressed. “If his good deeds run out before justice is fulfilled,” so he says that his namâz, hajj and zakat are gone, but the justice is not fulfilled, the rights of the righteous are not paid. So, what then? “Then their sins [of the oppressed] will be cast upon him and he will be thrown into Hellfire.” “These are the ones amongst my ummah [nation] who are bankrupt,” he said. Who said that? He was our Beloved Prophet (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam). This Hadith-i Sharif was recorded by al-Muslim in his Sahih. It is also mentioned in Mishkat al-Masabih. Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) commanded this about Paradise, “And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord and a garden as wide as the heavens and earth, prepared for the righteous. He also commanded this about Hell, “And beware of the Fire which has been prepared for the faithless.”
The word ‘prepared’ that is used in both verses are words have the regular past tense suffix – ed. These expresses that they were prepared before the time these verses were sent down. The issue about the eternity of the Paradise and Hell is that they will never be destroyed. In other words, Paradise and Hell are both immortal but that is possible for Allah Ta’ala is immortal. So, even if they were affected by mortality, and died, that would not be continuous, they said. Friends, even if Paradise and Hell were destroyed that would be the situation for only a short period of time, after that Paradise and Hell would have continued to exist everlastingly. In Surah Al-Qasas 88th verse (ayah) Allah commanded: “Everything is to perish except His Face.” This ayah shows that Paradise and Hell will indeed perish because they are created therefore, they have beginning and end. For they were created later, they are in the rank of non-existent within Almighty Lord’s existence, for Almighty Lord is wajibul wujud. Therefore, the immortality of Paradise and Hell are a type of immortality that is bound to Allah. True immortality is only for Almighty Lord, in other words only Allah may render Paradise and Hell immortal. The one who can render them immortal is only the Almighty Lord. The houri (splendid companions) in Paradise cannot be immortal either; their status of immortality is the same with Paradise. Houri as a word means black-eyed, splendidly beautiful women, the companions of Paradise. Ali (Radeyallahu ‚Anhu) narrated: “Our Prophet said that there is a group of haura in the Paradise that they shout with a high-pitched voice that people cannot hear: “’We are immortals, we are not mortals. This beauty is given to us as a bounty. It does not fade away. We have always smiling faces. We do not have long faces. Good news be upon those who are for us, and we are for them.” That is because they are prepared for the believers (mu’min).
Dear friends, this hadith was mentioned in Masabih al-Sunnah, and Mishkat al-Masabih, and et-Tac. Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh) said, “The punishment and the reward of Allah Ta’ala, never ceases everlastingly.” So, in the whole Paradise and Hell the punishment continues everlastingly with Allah’s decree while in Paradise the rewards and pleasures continue everlastingly. “Truly wicked are their misdeeds, which have earned them Allah’s wrath. And they will be in everlasting torment.” This Qur’anic verse is from Surah Al-Ma’idah 80th verse (ayah). Al-Qur’an Al-Karim has the text of the following ayah which we gave its meaning and it refers to immortality of both the blessings and the people of the Paradise. Surah An-Nisa 122nd: “And those who believe and do good, We will soon admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there for ever and ever,” They will admit them into Paradise. They are people who deserved Paradise. “Allah’s promise is ‘always’ true. And whose word is more truthful than Allah’s?”
Most valuable and venerable friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam brought forth the real amantu (creed) of Islam which manifests the fundamentals of iman (faith) by taking them from Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, the sunnah, the people of the sunnah. Today, some people came forward and they are opposing the people of the sunnah, they also deny lots of truths, and ignore them. This shows that they lack the truths in their minds. You see the verses (ayat), the sunnah, and our prominent âlims (Islamic scholars), we have established the foundations of the truths. We also gave you the entire Al-Qur’an Al-Karim through preliminary notes. May Almighty Lord admit us amongst the servants, whose deeds are all good, whose iman (faith) is perfect and everlasting, and who have earned true iman (faith) by following the people of sunnah. There are many other Hadith-i Sharifs and Qur’anic verses about the everlastingness of the bounty of the people of Paradise, and torture of the people of Hell. How can you think that you can ignore them? This day, someone came forth and said Hell is not everlasting. How can they ignore these verses (ayat), these Hadith-i Sharifs, and Allah’s words? Do they not understand, or do not want to understand, or are they doing that on purpose. Whatever the reason be, the true evidence put forth by the people of sunnah and the community will continue to shout out.
Moreover, Al-Imam Al-Azam said, “Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) Taqaddas bestows guidance to truth to the ones He wish, and that is solely due to His generosity. He also makes the ones He wished, deviate that is also solely due to His justice. He makes them bankrupt through the falls into deviancy. To go bankrupt means not making the servant succeed in the thing that would Allah appreciate, which is His justice. The punishment to the person who deserves the punishment due to his sins and earned that acceleration is the result of His justice. He knows well to punish whom with what punishment. This is a result of His justice. If you need examples; a man insist on blasphemy, insists on denial, insists on shirk (polytheism) and insists on hypocrisy. He keeps insisting on denial. He refutes the truths and insists on denial. So, if you insist, you will get the punishment of Allah’s justice. For Allah is never cruel towards His servant. Cruelty is doing something to the one who do not deserve it. Allah is devoid of cruelty. He implements His justice. They interpreted the word ‘idlal’ which Al-Imam Al-Azam used for ‘to deviate’ but they interpreted it as ‘to go bankrupt.’ They then stated that ‘going bankrupt’ means that the servant not being successful in the deed that suits Allah’s appreciation. Guidance means divine assistance, they are the reasons that Almighty Lord creates to make the servant successful in the deed that suits Allah’s appreciation. Allah knows the time to assist which servant with which guidance.
Can the Satan take one’s iman (faith) by force? He cannot. Al-Imam Al-Azam said, “It is not permissible (jaiz) for us to say: ‘Satan yanks the iman (faith) from the believer (mu’min) forcefully, and unwillingly. We can rather say: ‘When man abandons his iman (faith), then Satan snatches it from the believer (mu’min).” If you deny, then Satan can steal the iman (faith) from you. He snatches it. He robs your faith just like a pickpocket. When does he do that? The time when you deny. He does not take it forcefully and unwillingly. The goal of Satan is to have the believer deny his iman (faith) so that the believer may be punished. Satan continuously takes revenge from the sons of Adam. Why? For he deserved Hell. For that reason, he wants to deceive everyone so that they too can deserve the hell. He wants every son of Adam to go to Hell. But he cannot take one’s iman (faith) by force. He can only try to deceive. Do not be deceived, do not be fooled. Listen to Allah’s words. Listen to Allah. Listen to the Prophet. Listen to the Qur’an, the sunnah, ijma, qiyas, and the true knowledge of Islamic scholars (âlims). For that does not happen forcefully and unwillingly. In other words, Satan does not take one’s iman (faith) forcefully and unwillingly. If saying, “Satan takes iman (faith) from mu’min (believer) by force,” was permitted, in that case the believer whose iman (faith) is taken should not receive punishment for it. Because if that was the case, they would say, “our faith was taken by force.” The Satan did not get such opportunity of force. The Shaitan only whispers (waswasa), do not be fooled. There is inspiration, the Qur’an, splendour of m’arifat, Islam, sharia, the Prophet, the Qur’an and the knowledge of âlims (Islamic scholars), Allah’s divine guidance and assistance. You should not turn your back on them. If you side with Shaitan, listen to him and follow his words then you will go down to his level. We say that when the believer (mu’min) abandons faith, Shaitan takes it. If you leave iman (faith), and if you have denial, that means you have abandoned iman (faith). We say that Shaitan takes your faith only after that. For if it had been permissible for Shaitan to snatch the believer’s faith before he abandoned it, then that would mean that Allah Ta’ala forced the servant to disbelief (kufr). Never! We know that Allah does not create disbelief within the servant’s heart if he did not ask for it voluntarily. This is important. The servant may abandon iman (faith) by his free will. If the servant abandons iman (faith) by his own free will and wanting, in other words if he commits blasphemy (kufr), Allah does the following. He creates disbelief (kufr) in the heart of the one who abandoned iman (faith). Why, does he create that? He creates that for the servant had earned it.
“The questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakeer is a fact. The earning of every person is given to him. If you earn by good deeds, then that will be your reward. If you earn by disbelief (kufr), sin, and haram, then those will be given to you.
The good and the bad are both being written down to your deed book. The questioning of Munkar and Nakeer is a fact. The questioning in the grave shortly after death by Munkar and Nakeer is a fact. The tightening of the grave and the punishment therein are also facts. The re-join of the soul and the mind shortly after death for questioning is a fact, too. The punishment in the grave is a fact that affects all blasphemers and the rebellious believers. Munkar and Nakeer, their meaning is, ‘the unknown.’ The dead in the grave has neither seen them before or knew them. It is said in the ‘sifaf’ that these two are names of angels. They give punishment to the one in the grave by tightening the grave. The following Hadith-i Sharif was reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah and it is recorded in al-Masabih: “Our Prophet said: ‘When the deceased is buried, there come to him two wide eyed black angels. One of them is called al-Munkar and the other al-Nakeer. They say: ‘What did you say about this man?’ They ask, and the believer (mu’min) replies just like he used to say when he was alive: “Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) is Allah’s servant and Messenger.” So, what Munkar and Nakeer do here is to ask, ‘Do you know Muhammad.’ The believer, the Muslim replies with what? He says, “Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) is Allah’s servant and Messenger.” Then he adds: “I bear witness that there is no god that deserves worship but Allah and that Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) is His servant and Messenger.” That is his reply. Then these angels say: “We knew that you would utter that when you were alive, too.” Do you see? They say, ‘We knew.’ Then the grave of the believer (mu’min) expands seventy cubits by seventy. Then this field is illuminated thoroughly for the glory of that believer. Then they say to the Muslim and mu’min person, “Go back to sleep and find peace.” The mu’min says: “I should go back to my family and tell them about this.” The angels say: “Sleep like the bridegroom until Allah raises you from that sacred resting place. That bride and groom, they will be woken by none but the dearest of their family.” A splendid sleep, just like sleep of the bride and groom. If the one in the grave is a hypocrite; in other words, if the one who entered the grave is a hypocrite he replies to the question of the angels, “I heard the people saying ‘true prophet’ about Muhammad. I said something like what they said, otherwise I do not know,” says that hypocrite. The angels say: “We knew that you said that in world, and you were going to say that now.” Then it is said to the earth, the land, the world, the earth’s surface, “Squeeze him.” Then the earth squeezes him well until his ribs interlock, and he will continue to be tormented therein until Allah Ta’ala saves him from that pit of torment; in other words, until Allah raises him from that place.
You see that they say the punishment is continues until the day he will be resurrected from that grave comes, that is the Day of Qiyamah. Now, the sanad (backings) of this Hadith-i Sharif are Al-Baghawi, Masabih al-Sunnah, Mishkat al-Masabih, Sahih Bukhari and Tajrid al-Sarih and the others. There is also extensive information about punishment in the grave on the Tawhid Translation. Some people come forth and they want to deny these. The deniers should think that severe punishment in the grave happened to them. Dear friends, may Allah not admit us among the ones who are unaware of the truths. The ones who die in the state of denial are the ones who destroyed themselves.
The servant’s closeness to Allah. Al-Imam Al-Azam said the following about the subject: Allah’s (jalla jalaluhu) name and attributes are mighty and unique just like Him. It is permissible (jaiz) to mention the things which the scholars quoted in the Persian language with the exception of “Yad” which is amongst Allah Ta’ala’s almighty attributes. It is also permissible (jaiz) to say “bro khodai” [which means the face of God] without a how/modality.” It is also permissible to say Allah Ta’ala’s names in a language other than Arabic. You should pay attention, he says, “Allah’s names.” He is not talking about fabricated names he is saying, “Allah’s names.” It is only not permissible (jaiz) to mention the Persian translation of the word “yadullah” which is mentioned in the Arabic Qur’an, it is not permissible because it literally means “the hand of God.” It is not true to say “the hand of God. It is permissible (jaiz) to say “Bari Huda”, which means Almighty Lord/God. It is possible to say, “Huda al-Ta’ala [Almighty Lord/God] is All-Powerful,” in order to express that Allah Ta’ala’s power is capable of all things. The meanings of the names and attributes that are said for Almighty Lord that are not in Arabic must exalt and glorify him without likening Him to the creation. They must not liken Him to the creation or carry a how/modality. Look, this part is very important. The people must hear what they are saying. Everyone should know what to say. They must not speak randomly. Al-Imam Al-Azam also said: Allah’s (jalla jalaluhu) closeness or remoteness to His servants does not refer to any spatial distance. They rather refer to the honour rank or disgrace [of someone]. Therefore, the obedient [worshipper] is close to Him, without a how/modality. And the sinner is far from Him, without a how/modality. Closeness and farness or approaching is a how/modality about the person that captivates the beseecher. The same goes for being in close proximity to Allah in Paradise, and standing in His presence without a how/modality. Now, that closeness lacks a how/modality, so no one can know their “how” or “quantity.” Almighty Allah is devoid of things such as closeness, farness, time and space, or similar things. He is Almighty with all His Glory. Therefore, only Almighty Allah Himself can know the meaning of that closeness and farness. So, be wary of this explanation of Al-Imam Al-Azam. I will repeat it so that you will not forget.
“Allah’s closeness or farness to His servants are not in terms of spatial distance. Allah does not need spatial distance. He is free of distances. That distance is in terms of honour (karamat) and disgrace [of someone]. The obedient worshipper is close to Allah without a “how” [modality]. Who is close to Him? The obedient.” He says, “without a ‘how’ [modality],” so no one except Allah can know the “how” or “modality” of that. The sinner is also far from Allah, without a “how” [modality]. So, no one can know the “how” [modality] of that except Allah. Who is far from Him? The sinner. Closeness and farness or approaching is a “how” [modality] about the person that captivates the beseecher. In other words, the words closeness-farness are only applicable to the servant. Distance is a concept for the people. They are about the servant who begs Allah. To Allah Ta’ala, the concepts closeness-farness cannot be ascribed. For He is devoid of time, space, distance, direction and all things that are created. The same goes for being in close proximity to Allah in Paradise, and standing in His presence without a “how” [modality]. The humankind has no chance of knowing the “how” or “quantity” of these things. These can only be submitted to Allah’s knowledge. The servant is neither close to nor far from Allah in terms of distance. For closeness and farness can only be ascribed to an object that are in a place which move towards one direction, or the other. Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) Taqaddas is devoid of space, moving, directions or aspects. For he is neither jawhar (substance) nor a’rad (a thing that lives within another). He is the creator of those things. The servant’s closeness to Allah is due to his goodness and honour. Whereas the servant’s farness is due to his dishonour and vileness. The closeness is due to wonders, whereas the farness is due to disgrace. Therefore, the terms ‘being close to or far from Allah’ are used as metonyms. In the end, explaining one thing by explaining it by another is an example to this.
So, valuable audience, and venerable folks. The servant who shows humility admits his helplessness against Allah, so, that distance is an inner feeling within his status and soul, it is a devotion and closeness in that respect. That feeling does not occur in Allah, it occurs in His servants. To be close to or far from Allah, feeling closeness, being next to him in Paradise, such sayings are all metaphors. They are considered as “mutashabih.” Hence, that proximity does not entail physical place, it is used as an attribute. If the one who was not previously close becomes close, his rank is surely changed. It means that he has turned towards the good due to dealing good and benevolent deeds. In other words, he has turned from insurgency towards obedience. According to one of our elders (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) the meaning behind the servant being close to Allah refers to having good-manners, acting on the moral values He commanded and attaining closeness as an attribute. If the person escapes from being an insurgent in order to beautify his manners, and becomes a blissful one, then he becomes close to Allah not in physical distance but as an attribute. Another individual who made the same explanation is Imam al-Ghazali (rahmatullahi alayh).
Dear friends, as you see our discoverer âlims (Islamic scholars) continue to explain the truths to the humanity. Revealing the truths that were previously unknown is called discovery. The one who discovers them is discoverer. Each and every one of Islamic âlims (scholars) are eminent discoverers.