Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 26
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 26
Elhamdülillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âli Muhammed. Rabbi euzûbike min’hemezatişşeyâtîyn ve euzûbike Rabbi enyehdûrun. Euzû bikelimâtillahi tâ’ammati min şerri mâ hâlaka ve zerâhe ve derâhe. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.
Most valuable en venerable audience, our lecture on the fundamentals (amantu) of Islam continues. “So, when their time (of death) will come, they will not be able to delay it for a moment, nor to bring it soon.” This is the 61st verse of Surah An-Nahl, and the following is the transliteration: “fa-ʾidhā jāʾa ʾajaluhum lā yastaʾkhirūna sāʿatan wa-lā yastaqdimūna,” commanded our Almighty Lord. You see, the people who die because their time has come. You should beware of this verse. You should not put forth false opinions and beliefs. There can’t be real imān by opposing to Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. For that reason, it is necessary to know the fundamentals (amantu) of Islam well, and one should also pay attention to these discovery notes. It is necessary to not oppose to Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, the primary sources of Islam, and its mutawatir reports. Otherwise, the imān may fall into danger. “Allah wipes off what He wills and affirms (what He wills), and with Him is the Mother Book.” – “yamḥū llāhu mā yashāʾu wa-yuthbitu wa-ʿindahū ʾummu l-kitāb,” commanded Almighty Lord in the 39th verse of Surah Ar-Ra’d. “He is the One who created you from clay, then destined a term (time to live). The fixed term (time of life) lies with Him.” The Qur’anic verses you have heard so far are from Surah al-An’am, Surah Ar-Ra’d, and Surah An-Nahl. These are the verses that reside in those surahs. “He has created everything and designed it in a perfect measure,” this is the 2nd verse of Surah al-Furqan. O, friend! Everything in created in measure and destiny. “wa-khalaqa kulla shayʾin fa-qaddarahū taqdīra” – the transliteration of the 2nd verse of Surah al-Furqan. “Verily, We have created every thing according to (Our) predestination,” commands our Lord. Look, this is the transliteration of the 49th verse of Surah al-Qamar: “ʾinnā kulla shayʾin khalaqnāhu bi-qadar.” Friends, “ʾinnā kulla shayʾin khalaqnāhu bi-qadar.” We have created every thing according to (Our) predestination,” He commands.
Again, our Almighty Lord commands, “Allah Ta’ala, fifty thousand years before creating the earth and the heavens, when arş-i ala was above water, designated the destinies of all creatures.” Now, when we take a look from here, we see that after the verses from Surah al-Furqan, Surah al-Qamar, and Surah Munafiqun, we also see that our Beloved Prophet explained this situation in this way in Sahih Muslim. Now, “wa-lan yuʾakhkhira llāhu nafsan ʾidhā jāʾa ʾajaluhā” – “But Allah shall never respite a soul when its time has come,”
The death won’t come until one’s hour has come. This is the 11th verse of Surah Munafiqun. The hour of death is a clock which can’t be adjusted forward or backward. The death comes when that hour comes. We see that our Beloved Prophet had explained those Qur’anic verse. So, what did he say? Let’s remember it once more: “Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu), fifty thousand years before creating the earth and the heavens, while arş-i ala was over water, has designated the destinies of all creatures.” It is clear that with Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and Sunna al-Sharif, our Beloved Prophet had brought forth the situation loud and clear. The foundations of everyone should be the real fundamental values of Islam and its imān.
You see, the importance of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is too great. We are dwelling on its discovery notes due to their importance.
Furthermore, let’s see what the Lord commanded in the 145th verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran: “It is not the choice of a person to die without the will of Allah, death being a time-bound destiny.” – “wa-mā kāna li-nafsin ʾan tamūta ʾillā bi-ʾidhni llāhi kitāban muʾajjalan,” commanded the Lord. Friends, let’s also see what our Prophet (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) said in a Hadith-i Sharif reported in Sahih Muslim: “My Allah! Please prolong the lives of my husband, Messenger of Allah, and my father, Abu Sufyan, and my brother Mu’âwiya.” Let’s see what our Master Prophet (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) said upon that while our mother begged like this: “You asked about the predestined hours (of death), countable days, and divided provisions. Allah does not create nothing before its time, and does not postpone anything if its hour has come. It would be more benevolent and virtuous for you had you asked from Allah to protect you from the torments of Fire and the punishment in grave,” he said. You see friends, firstly there are many important lessons to be learned in this Hadith-i Sharif.
Allah knew, ordained, and decreed that this person will die due to terminal illness; his death due to that illness is predestined in pre-existence. His death is due to his hour. In other words, the one who died of illness died for his hour has come. The same goes for those who drown and others. This or that person may be murdered to death. This or that may die under wreckage. The other may die due to old age, drowning, or burning. Another one may die without there being a reason, because his soul is collected. This one may be poisoned to death, that one may catch cholera, and the other may die due to grief. Allah Ta’ala created both life and death, and also created the reasons of both.
In other words, He creates all of the reasons of death just like He created life and death. For that reason you should never say, “He died before his time,” for those who die. Those who die, or murdered have died due to their time of death; everyone dies due to their time of death. Dearest friends, let’s have a look at the fundamentals (amantu) of Islam also about the soul. The soul is created. The soul is a creature. You should not be deceived by looking at the animists. There is no doubt that the soul is created. It is an entity under the command and will of Allah. You should pay attention to the fundamentals (amantu) of Islam. When one asks, “What is your belief regarding the soul?” you should be able to know the answer without having second thoughts.
In the end some people emerged whose intellect and understanding is limited when it comes to understanding the book and the sunna. Those people claimed that this realm is ever-existent. Their intellects are short. Its proof is that this universe is a soul that came into existence by the command of Allah. So, that opinion is only according to them. Allah’s order is not created. Allah Ta’ala said the following while relating the soul to Him: “quli r-rūḥu min ʾamri rabbī wa-mā ʾūtītum mina l-ʿilmi ʾillā qalīla” – “Say, ‘The Spirit relates to the command of my Lord (the Spirit is of the command of my Lord), and you have not been given of the knowledge except a few [of you].” This is the 85th verse of Surah al-Isra. Also in another Qur’anic verse, in the 72nd verse of Surah Sād, “wa-nafakhtu fīhi min rūḥī” commanded our Almighty Lord. Its translation is this: “I have breathed into him of My spirit.” So, they said that Allah Ta’ala related this universe to Him, just like He related His knowledge, power, hearing, seeing, and hand to Himself. Some other ālims kept quiet regarding this topic. However, the ālims of Ahl al-Sunna wa-ljamā’at unanimously agreed in the createdness of this realm. The valuable ālims of ours such as Muhammad ibn Nasr al Marwazi conveyed that there is consensus (ijma) in this topic. In other words, the reamls are creatures. They were all created later. You should never be deluded by those who believe the kudüm of this realm. We see that they have aggrandized their idols lately. The naturists became worshippers of the nature. They started to divinise it. They have fallen into polytheism, voluntarily or involuntarily. Moreover, some of them had said that the soul is mortal because it also is a self (nafs). “Every soul shall taste death.” The other part of ālims are also saying that the soul will not die. For the soul is created to be everlasting. Only the bodies die. The hadiths regarding that the souls will be blessed or punished until they will be returned to the bodies constitute conclusive evidence. For the thinkers the answer resides within the question. The soul is a creature and its death is not in its hands, it is bound to Allah’s sustenance. One of them is the relation of the soul to the fatus in the womb. However, the soul and the body have five different types of relations in terms of provision, and they are all opposites.
The first is the soul’s relation to the fetus in the uterus. The second is its relation after being brought to the world. The third one is the soul’s relation with the body in sleep. The soul has a relation with the body in a way, and also in another way it disconnects that relation. The other one is the relation of the soul to the body in the grave. Friends, despite the fact that the soul gets seperated from the body because of death, it does not cut the entire relation. Now, friends… There have been Hadith-i Sharif reported about a dead person responding to the salute of a Muslim, and also that the dead could hear the footsteps of the Muslims who leave their grave. The soul will have a relation to the bodies in the Day of Judgement in which the bodies will be resurrected. Now, this type of relation from soul to the body is its perfect relation. Because, folowing this relation the soul will not accept death or sleep eternally, it will not be affected by bodily disorders either.
The questions that will be asked in the grave do not belong only to soul like Ibn Hazm and other ālims claimed. What is more disturbing than that opinion is the one that suggests that the questioning in the grave will be done with the body without there being the soul. This opinion is also a disrupted one. Now, when we study these, it is self-evident that the soul is a creature. It lives for Allah makes it live; it dies when Allah kills it. When the soul is to live continuously, it lives due to Allah’s sustenance. For that reason, the soul is a creature.
The partitioning of the sustenance.
Editor’s note: The word “rızık” is translated as “bounty – sustenance – provision,” their uses may differ but they all mean the same thing. It means the things people eat or make use of. You may also encounter these three words in different translations of the Qur’an, they mean the same thing if they refer to what is explained above.
Friends, the fundamental values of a Muslim suggests that it is necessary for a Muslim to have profound knowledge also in the topic of sustenance/provision. That is according to the Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and the Sunna. Now, according to the opinion of al-Baqıllani the disbelievers are given provision in the earth. Another opinion from the Mu’tazila suggest that Allah Ta’ala has given the disbelievers both apparent and hidden strength, goods and properties. In fact, Almighty Lord says the following in the 74th verse of Surah al-A’raf: “a-dhkurū ʾālāʾa llāhi” – “So remember Allah’s bounties. Also our Prophet said, “The world is the dungeon of the believers, and the paradise of the denier.” Now, this carries an apparent and a hidden meaning. You should know well that this world, the grave, and the Hereafter are the Paradise of the believer. Its apparent meaning is that the disbelievers and the deniers metaphorically are fooling around in the world for a limited time, that does not mean paradise. You should know for a fact that the microbes in the dirtiest environments advance and multiply.
So, the disbeliever having freedom in his blasphemy for a limited time is in the dirtiest environment for him. That is just like the microbes multiplying in filth. Now, for those microbes, can you say that the filth is the paradise? You can say that metaphorically, of course. For they enjoy being in that environment. However, for the believer the paradise is the world, the grave, and the Hereafter. It is necessary to discovery these Hadith-i Sharifs quite well.
Friends, just think for a moment. That freedom may be a misfortune, a punishement. For the bounties and properties given to the disbelievers bring about their destruction. Those things destroy him. In what way is this paradise? For that reason, it is necessary to understand and discover the remarks of our Prophet very well.
“Do they think that by consistently providing them with wealth and children, We are accelerating the (real) good things to them? The fact, however, is that they do not understand (the reality).” These are the 55th and 56th verses of Surah al-Mu’minun. The sultanates, kingdoms, or bounties that are given to the deniers do not matter; they are all istidraj for them, which brings about their destruction. However, when they suffer today, the believers excel in rank, and their sins pour out. When he suffers in Allah’s way he receives the reward in rank. For the believer is the one in Allah’s way. Yet the bounty that is given to the deniers in the wordly life is their punishment in the Hereafer. It may look like bounty in the world. For the denier may own a kingdom, sultanate, and may have affulent wealth, he may have palaces but his inner world is miserable, and his end is destruction. The words of those who discover Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and Islam well.
Now, the microbes develop in filthy environment, and just like it, the denier’s development in blasphemy, polytheism and cruelty are metaphorical bounties in this world for those who look at the apparent, and have no idea of the inside story; it looks like the Paradise to them. However, when you look at the inside story, blasphemy and polytheism equals the Fire. The cruelty equals the Fire. We should understand and narrate the topics well, by Almighty Allah’s kindness and generosity. In other words, success, assistance and guidance are all from Allah. Friends, we are not saying that we know or understand well. We always wish to only express what is the truest, and what is more righteous, by Allah’s kindness. We strive for that purpose. Our discovery notes rely on the truth one by one. The discovery notes with true evidence are self-evident. Now, it is not a debt of Allah to do what is helpful to the servant. Allah does not force anyone to do anything. So, also in this topic our Almighty Lord is not obliged to do anything. However, His justice is a fact. His kindness and generosity is endless. He is devoid of falsehoods. However, no one can force Allah upon nothing. Allah üzerinde bakın faydalı olan bir işi yapmanın Allah üzerine vacip olmadığıdır. The Mu’tazila, again, deviated from the Ahl al-Sunna in this topic.
Now, is haram a bounty? All bounties are sustanance, of course, but some people have earned that in a haram way where he could earn it in a halal way. For that reason, that bounty came to existence as a haram bounty. Whereas it was possible for all humanity to earn their provisions in halal way. Such a shame that some have provided their provision through haram. The humanity fails their test in this matter.
Friends, the bounty is what people eat or make use of in the course of their lives. You should understand this correctly. The Mu’tazila had also opposed to this. Now, let’s say that someone stole a man’s possession which is earned in halal way. Look, what happens when the thief gains possession of that halal thing? It is the same bounty, the same provision, but one earned it in halal way, and the other earned it in haram way by stealing. The same thing. Now, do you have a chance to say, “This is not bounty.”? It is a bounty but one earns it in halal way, the other earns it in haram way. For that reason, Allah is the sole creator. In other words, Allah has no equals nor comparables in creating. So, let’s see what our Almighty Lord commands in the 6th verse of Surah al-Hud: “There is no living entity on earth to whom Allah did not give his sustenance.” Her canlının rızkı verilmiştir. This is the transliteration: “wa-mā min dābbatin fī l-ʾarḍi ʾillā ʿalā llāhi rizquhā.” We see that it is stated in this Qur’anic verse.
“They and spend out of what We have provided for them (in Allah’s way).” Now, what does the people to whom Allah gave bounty are doing? The believers to whom Allah gave bounty are spending it in Allah’s way. Now, some of them also spend these bounties in in the way of tawagiti, and haram. For that reason the believers should understand both the sustenance, and the fundamentals of Islam. Allah Ta’ala creates deviancy and guidance according to the servant’s will. In other words, Allah creates the return of what servant earns. The servant earns and Allah creates. The one may earn halal and ask for halal, thereafter Allah creates what is halal for him. The other may work to earn what is haram. This is the test, so when he asks for haram Allah creates it. This is a field of test. This would not have been a test had Allah not created what they asked. Sevgili Peygamberimiz’e (sâllâllâhu aleyhi ve sellem) de mecaz yoluyla nispet edilir. As a matter of fact Allah Ta’ala commands this regarding the topic: “wa-ʾinnaka la-tahdī ʾilā ṣirāṭin mustaqīm” – “And indeed you guide to a straight path.” This is the 52nd verse of Surah al-Shura. Now, our Prophet is the leader of guidance, and Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the book of guidance. Now, Prophet Muhammad always conveys the humanity to the truth. And when people acknowledge the truth Allah favours and guides them. The prophet is who conveys to the rightheous path, and announces. Now, it is also necessary to pay attention to these parts.
The guidance of the prophet is metaphorical. Otherwise, it is Allah who guides. The one who invites to guidance, and announces the way of guidance is the prophets. “Surely, this Qur’ān guides to something that is most straightforward.” – “ʾinna hādhā l-qurʾāna yahdī li-llatī hiya ʾaqwamu.” We can see that in the 9th verse of Surah al-Isra. Look, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the book of guidance, and the Prophet is the leader of guidance. However, the one who gives guidance, the one who guides is Allah Himself. Saptırma işi de bazen sebep olma mânâsında mecaz yolu ile şeytana da nispet edilmektedir. The Satan does not create enormity, he promotes it. The Satan is not a creator. There are some people who who want to manifest the human and satan as creator. Never! The Satan promotes enormity to people by means of whispering. He does not create a thing. For that reason, the creator is Allah Ta’ala. The servant asks and Allah creates. The return of your earnings are created, whatever you earn, as you earn them. This work of deviating people is sometimes pointed to the idols. The person goes and worships idols. Then says, “The idols made me go astray.” That is also metaphorical. Is that idol there forcing you by saying, “You will only worship me!”? No, it is not. This is also metaphorical. Furthermore, the humanity is asking to deviate and worship idols themselves. They earn it and its returns are created. Same goes for good things and enormities alike. “My Lord, indeed [with those idols] they have led astray many among the people.” – “rabbi ʾinnahunna ʾaḍlalna kathīran mina n-nās” commands the Lord. This is the 36th verse of Surah Ibrahim. The idols lead people astray in a metaphorical sense. The one who worships idols and earns polytheism is the person himself. “wa-ʾaḍallahumu s-sāmiriyy” – “and the Sāmirī has led them astray.” This is the 85th verse of Surah Ta Ha. Samiri onları buzağıya teşvik etti. Buzağıyı da yaptı. Ama tabanca beyinlerine tutup da “İlla buzağıya tapacaksın” demedi. He lead them to devaiancy and they acknowledged it. The Satan does what he does. So, Sāmirī did what he did. When the idolaters do what they do, they earn it so the return of their actions are created. The creator is Allah Ta’ala. Kim neyi kazanırsa o yaratılır. Friends, the Mu’tazila interpreted “guidance” as “explaining the right way.” The Mu’tazila could not comprehend the truth also in here. For Almighty Lord says, “You cannot guide whomever you wish, but [it is] Allah [who] guides whomever He wishes, and He knows best those who are guided.” Now, the one who grants guidance is Allah Ta’ala. The one who promotes guidance, and announces it is the servant. These are the good people, foremost prophets. Now, he can do his best to explain to them the way of guidance but guidance itself is granted by Allah. Allah grants guidance.
How can you interpret it by only explaining it? It is clear that the Mu’tazila did not understand the verses correctly, they even linked Allah’s guidance to explanations. The prophet does his announcement in the best way. However, Almighty Lord says, “You cannot guide whomever you wish.” So, he can’t guide anyone. He can only show the way to guidance. “I am the one who guides” says Almighty Lord. Therefore, the Mu’tazila could never understand the verses of the Qur’an correctly. İşte onun için Mûtezile bir türlü ayet-i kerimeleri pek doğru anlayamamış. İslam yoluna çağırdığın hâlde Allah Teâlâ dilediğini doğru yola getiremezsin, buyurmuştur. The prophet calls to the true way which is the way of guidance. However, the Prophet can’t bring them on that path, he has no chance of guiding, so he only explains. It is Allah who guides. According to the Mu’tazila, guidance is showing the thing that will lead one to the destination. They only got the announcement aspect of the guidance; true guidance is granted by Allah Ta’ala, they could not understand that part.
“As for Thamūd, We showed them the way, but they preferred blindness to the guidance.” This is the 17th verse of Surah Fussilah. You saw, there is showing the way of guidance here but the guidance itself is not present. That tribe is also on the deviated path. For the ones on that deviated path can’t come to the way of guidance unless Allah guides them.
Friends, correctly understanding Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and Islam is amongst the greatest favours of Allah. For that reason, we should really pray for the Islamic scholars and the ālims of Ahl al-Sunna day and night. Our ālims had understood these quite well. It is impossible to not admire to people like Al-Imam Al-Azam as the ones who know Al-Qur’an Al-Karim well. Had we not knew Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, had we not have our knowledge, we would have been blindly imitating someone. However, endless and limitless thanks and praises to Almighty Lord for He granted us the knowledge of the way of Ahl al-Sunna. “O, Lord! Please render your kindness and generosity upon us lasting. Please render your guidance and assistance lasting. O, the Lord of the realms,” we should pray by saying that. We should praise Him, and we should be thankful. Look, there are the ālims ahlul bid’ah (deviated innovators) who deviated to disrupted ways. They are also ālims but they could neither understand nor find the truth. For example, there are such branches of the Mu’tazila and its similar Shia that they call Alī as Allah. Never! Never in ever! They misunderstood many facts, they can’t even pass by the fact. There are many disrupted groups such as these. There are good people amongst them, too but also there are the deviant innovators who deviated into a complete perversion and has many mistakes. Now, it is one of the obligatory provisions. However, the provision can only be the absolute truth through the sharia. There is no one who preaches sharia over Allah. The lawmaker who broughts forth the sharia is Allah Himself. Allah vaadinden dönmez, vaidinden dönebilir. Look, the Ahl al-Sunna understood this very well. Those who could not understand this, those who don’t understand what is vaad and what is vaid are acting randomly and immaturely.
It is necessary to profoundly comprehend the qiyas, ijma, sunnah, verses, and proofs in order for the imān to be a real iman, and for the fundamentals of Islam to be a straightforward. Especially the primary evidence. Almighty Allah’s going back from the provisions regarding punishment is a kindness for the servants. For example, the man repented and asked for forgiveness, and started having imān. Had he not, then Allah Ta’ala had a vaid, not a vaad, but a vaid. So, what does Allah Ta’ala do for the servant repented and started having imān? He would have punished him, but does not anymore. This is a vaid.
“The Word is not changed with Me, and I Am not so unjust to My servants,” this word is His promises. His word does not chance neither in vaad nor vaid. However, he may not punish or even forgive some people he would punish. This is vaid. On the other hand, He says that He will admit the servants who commit good deeds into Paradise. This is a promise, and Allah does not return from His promises. He will admit whomsoever he willed into the Paradise. This is an example.
Now friends, it is necessary to understand these parts quite well. For that reason, we continue to give you discovery notes of the fundamentals of Islam. Punishment for minor sins is permissible (jaiz). However, Almighty Lord may do a favor and forgive and not punish. That is up to him. For that reason friends, “Allah may forgive lesser sins than polytheism if He wills.” – “wa-yaghfiru mā dūna dhālika li-man yashāʾu.” This is the 48th verse of Surah An-Nisa. Look, He says, “li-man yashāʾu.” Let’s repeat the transliteration: “wa-yaghfiru mā dūna dhālika li-man yashāʾu,” – “but He forgives what is less than polytheism for whom He wills.” Now, this verse is the 48th verse of Surah An-Nisa. Moreover, in another verse, in the 49th verse of Surah al-Kahf the Lord says, “ mā-li hādhā l-kitābi lā yughādiru ṣaghīratan wa-lā kabīratan ʾillā ʾaḥṣāhā,” – “What a book is this! It has missed nothing, minor or major, but has taken it into account.” In the deed books of people all sins and rewards, whether minor or major, is written. Had minor sins not been a reason for punishment, then they would not reside in the book. Whether minor or major everything is being written. The ones whom He had mercy upon will be saved if Allah forgives them. O, Muslim! You should repent day and night.You should keep repenting and asking for forgiveness day and night! You should beg to your Lord in deserted corners as if you are going crazy. You should beg by fear, and hope and tazarru. You should keep begging to your Lord in deserted corners as if you are going crazy. You should never abandon hope but know how to fear with every fibre of your being, and know how to ask for forgiveness, and how to beg. However, you should never abandon hope. He is not an entity from whom you can abandon hope. You can not be sure either, the punishment is too severe. There is no escape from His justice. You should get your mind together, and not act like the ignorant people or the drifters. “If you abstain from the major (sins) out of what you have been forbidden from, We shall write off your minor sins,” this is from the 31st verse of Surah An-Nisa.
We see here that he forgives. Otherwise those minor sins would pile up insistently into big ones. The minor sins are becoming haram, they are becoming major sins in time. Perişan olacak duruma geliyorsun. Moreover friends, we know that blasphemy is the greatest sin. Now, this word comes in variety of meanings which is because it includes all types of disbelief or disbelief. May Allah protect us from all types of blasphemy. The disbelief destroys the people’s faiths. There is no imān where there is disbelief. Blasphemy, polytheism, and discord are hypocrisy in the Muslim. These and their similars should not reside in the Muslims. “If you avoid the major sins [types of disbelief] which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins.” This is the 31st verse of Surah An-Nisa. However, in the case that the opinion of Mu’tazila is acknowledged, it would not be permissible to punish anyone who has whether major or minor sins according to this verse, other than disbelief. That is the opinion of the Mu’tazila. It is not the point of view of Ahl al-Sunna.
“ʾinna llāha lā yaghfiru ʾan yushraka bihī.” You should pay attention to this part, O Muslims in the world, and the humanity! Let’s see what Almighty Lord commanded in the 48th verse of Surah An-Nisa. Our Lord is Allah who is the Lord of the Realms. He says: “Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him.” In other words, there is no pardon for the polytheists. So, how can they be saved? In order for that they have to abandon polytheism and embrace the monotheistic faith and come to imān. They have to repent from polytheism, and start their work by the monotheistic faith. Otherwise, the hypocrites, the disbelievers, and the polytheists can’t get out from the Hell, they stay there forever. The forgiveness and pardon of the sins must be bount with something else, too. So, what is it? It is Allah’s will and wish. Şimdi tabii ki tövbe, istiğfar gerçek tövbe, istiğfar edilince zaten Allah’ın affedeceğine dair vaadi var. One should sincerely repent. One should also meet the conditions for repenting. You should repent honestly. You should not fool yourself. If one is not honestly repenting, then foolery, dishonesty, and deceitfulness manifests themselves. You should repent honestly. The afore verse means that if you avoid major sins we have forbidden, He will forgive the lesser sins for the sake of your good actions. The following verse of Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) also points to that: “ʾinna l-ḥasanāti yudhhibna s-sayyiʾāti” – “Indeed good deeds efface misdeeds.” This is he 114th verse of Surah al-Hud.
Now, friends, let’s endeavor to understand the fundamentals of Islam well. May Almighty Lord admit us amid the servants who lives with absolute imān, whose imān is everlasting, who are real believers, real Muslims, and whose deeds are all sincere and good. We will strive and beg for this. We will act by scholarly documents. That can’t be done without knowledge.
So, are the good deeds done for the dead give them any benefit? Yes, they do. You should keep doing charity and good deeds.
So, what about praying for the dead, and giving to charity on their behalf? These are all legitimate, these give them benefit. However, the Mu’tazila, again, opposed to this opinion. Efendim, ölülerin kendilerine nispetledir. Especially there are Hadith-i Sharifs about the funeral prayer. Had the good deeds people do for the dead did not benefit them, we would not be performing a funeral prayer. Look, what do we do for the dead in the funeral? We pray and we perform namaz. We are praying for His forgiveness, for His mercy. We are standing in the presence of Allah by the Rukūʿ, Qiyam, and Takbir. “rabbi rḥamhumā ka-mā rabbayānī ṣaghīran.” Now, this and the transliteration above is the 24th verse of Surah al-Isra: “Say, ‘My Lord! Have mercy on them, just as they reared me when I was [a] small [child]!’.” You see that this prayer is one that is made for the mother and father, it is also a verse in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Now, the Mu’tazila can’t think what will happen to those who opposes to these verses of Qur’an. May Allah Ta’ala grant us having faith with the true fundamentals of Islam and his knowledge and wisdom. My brother, being a scholar is not enough. Allah’ın lütfu, keremi, hidâyeti ile gerçekleri bir bir Cenab-ı Hakk’ın insanoğluna lütfetmesi gerekiyor. Allah granted them, and grants us, too. These valuable conversation we are having continues in the whole world. These are Allah’s blessings for the realm of humanity. İslam âlimleri dünyada ne kadar âlimler varsa o âlimlerle Allah bu âleme lütfediyor. The greatest blessing of Allah is that this knowledge shines through the universe through the ālims. So, our discovery notes at this moment is the reflections of the knowledge about the fundamentals of Islam. “My Lord, grant pardon to me, and to my parents, and to everyone who enters my home as a believer, and to all the believing men and believing women.” You see, this is from the 28th verse of Surah Nuh. This is a verse of the Qur’an but also a prayer. So, these are in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, these are the words of Almighty Lord Himself. It means that we should always pray for our predecessors who died as believers. We should send gifts for their souls and do charity in their name. You see that the good actions that are done in the name of the dead gives then benefit. This is the creed of Ahl al-Sunna but it is a factual belief that relies on Al-Quran Al-Karim. Verily, this is the absolute truth. You should not follow false madhabs and do wrong things. These lectures of ours are manifesting the truth in the face of all falsehoods in the world. The world is swimming over falsehoods. Just look at the number of those who explain the basics of Ahl al-Sunna, His knowledge and wisdom. How many of them are in this world? Or, are they present or not?
Just look at the world. These are written in the books in a way that people will understand. However, some people do not understand them. So, it is necessary to narrate these in a way that they will understand. If you want to do the greatest favor to the humanity you should contribute to a better humanity. You should foremost start with imān, His knowledge, the truth, and the divine revelation which is manifested by Almighty Allah, the Qur’an and the Sunna. Here we are presenting the discovery notes of hayat veren nur one by one by relying on Islamic evidence, and we are conveying the discovery notes we obtained from truth those proofs manifested.
Yes friends, “He digged a water-well and said that it belongs to the mother of Sa’d.” Look, he made a fountain, a water-well in the name of his mother so that people can draw water from it, and living creatures can make use of it, and so that the thawābs (rewards) may reach his mother. There are similar type of tidings from Ashab-i Gûzin. That hadith was reported by Abu Dawood on the authority of al-Nasā’ī. Also, according to the companions of Abu Hanifa, rahmatullahi alayh, Al-Imam Al-Azam it is permissible to donate the thawābs (rewards) of worships to the dead. They said that the donated thawābs (rewards) will reach the dead. “wa-ʾan laysa li-l-ʾinsāni ʾillā mā saʿā” – “And a man shall not deserve but (the reward of) his own effort.” This is the 39th verse of Surah al-Najm. Now, alongside this verse Prophet Muhammad, sallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, said: “izâ matel-insânü ingataâ amelühü illâ min.” So, it is also necessary to understand these verses right. In the Hadith-i Sharifs, in the interpretations our Prophet made, and his explanations are discoveries. The Prophet is the real discoverer (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām). Let’s see what our Beloved Prophet says, “When son of adam dies the thawābs (rewards) of all his deeds are cut except three things.” So, what are those three things? First one is Sadaqah Jariyah (ceaseless charity). We have mentioned all these in our other lessons. However, we are giving preliminary notes, and discovery notes in order to continue our lesson. Distance and proximity is one, regarding the Power of Allah Ta’ala. For Allah Ta’ala commands: “Rabbükümüd’ûnî estecib leküm-Bana dua edin ki kabul edeyim” (Mü’minûn Suresi 60. ayet). There is no distance or proximity when it comes to Allah. His is the most exalted. The Most Exalted has encompassed the infinite past just like He encompassed the infinite future. He is the Most Exalted without how/modality. He is deviod of imperfections and He is Almighty. All realms are under His siege. He is devoid of time and space. For that reason, should look towards praying. He knows. He knows without how/modality. His glory is unmatched and divine. Your mind, together with every mind there is do not have the slightest chance of encompassing Allah. No, you don’t. So, with that intellect you should acknowledge His exaltation. You should believe with true imān. Your foundations (amantu) should be solid. There is the Glorious Qur’an, there are the ālims of Islam who are in the way of the Gloriour Prophet, there is Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama’ah, ther is al-firqa al-nājiya, there is Sawad-Al-Azam. And if the prayer suits the decree it will expel troubles.
Friends, prayer is like the nail of worship. It alleviates troubles. The prayer itself is also a worship. When one finds in their heart a sign to pray it is time to pray for him. „When the doors of praying opens for a person the the doors of mercy and the doors of the Paradise will also open for him.” When Ibrahim Alaihissalam was thrown into fire, Gabriel Alaihissalam told him, “Do you have a need?” so he gave this answer upon that question: “To you I do not need.” But look, he stated to whom he needed here. So, when Gabriel Alaihissalam told him, “Then ask from your Lord,” he said, “He knows my situation, this is far sufficient than asking from Him.” This is another type of prayer. This means that you know that Almighty Allah sees you in every state, and you have believed it. And every believer should believe like that. This is another type of prayer, and it is like the soul of the souls of prayers. This is how Ibrahim Alaihissalam is saved from the fire. That occured by putting absolute trust in Allah, and by his silence. Ibrahim Alaihissalam had stayed in that fire for seven days. Also according to another narration he stayed in it for fourty days, and in another report his age was sixteen when he was thrown into fire. Now, pay attention. Almighty Lord is closer to us than our jugular veins. He sees everything. He knows. He knows everything. He sees, and He makes us see. He hears, and He makes us hear. O, Muslim! You should know your Lord well. You should recognize your Lord well. “Ya Rabb! Allahümme arrifni bi kevibi nefsi.“ Ve ceâlni min arafi ibâdike bike min nefsi.” You should recite this prayer often. I am telling this to myself but you are my mu’min brother, too. How can I neglect you? I am also telling you my brother. O, brother! O, Muslim brother! You should be a good Muslim. You should believe with absolute imān. O, the realm of humanity! You are my father’s children. You are the children of my father Adam, and my mother Hawwā. We, as humanity, are brothers also with you in terms of being human and being the servants of Allah. Come, we are all servants of Allah. Come and put your faith in Allah, and become Muslims. Discovery Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Listen to these lectures and listen to whoever narrates the truth, wherever in the world. We are calling to Allah, the Truth, the primary and scholarly proofs of Islam. We are not amongst the ones who call to themselves. We are not calling you to us. We are calling you to being a servant of Allah, together. For that reason, come and let us have pity on each other. Let’s be benevolent. Let’s work for the good of each other. Blasphemy and disbelief destroyes the people in the eternal world, in the grave, and in the Hereafter. The blasphemy, polytheism, discord are the fire of ignorance. Let’s be saved from it and conduce toward the salvation of humanity. We are not guiding you. We are calling to the way of guidance. It is Allah who guides.
Only Allah can guide. Allah Al-Hadi (The One Who guides). The one who guides is Allah.
So, friends, our current topic is asking for the forgiveness of sins, and giving to charity. People should on the other hand do good actions, and do good deeds, and at the same time they should give to charity, repent, and ask for forgiveness. They should keep on doing those. However, there is opposition regarding whether the thawabs (rewards) of physical worships reach the dead or not, these physical worships are to fasting, reciting Al-Quran Al-Karim, and mentioning Allah. Abu Hanifa, Imam al-Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and the majority of predecessor ālims said that the thawabs (rewards) of such worships will reach to the dead. These people mentioned above are real ālims. However, the prominent view in the Shafi’i School and the Maliki School is that the thawabs (rewards) of such worships will not reach to the dead. Also according to some of the kalamists and deviant innovators (ahlul bid’ah) nothing will reach the dead except for prayer, which is a wrong opinion. That opinion was rejected by the book and the sunna. There is an example of these in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. You should keep praying for your dead, the ones who were believers and Muslims. However, you should never pray for the polytheists, deniers, and hypocrites. It is nor permissible. You should however pray for even the most sinful believer. You can pray even for the most sinful Muslim. However, it is a requirement for him to be a believer and Muslim. He may however be a sinner. Who is not a sinner anyway? Everybody has sins in his or her own way. So, look there is this narration from our Beloved Prophet. Jabir (Radeyallāhu ′Anhu) said the following: “I performed the Eid al-Adha (Festival of the Sacrifice) Namāz with our Beloved Prophet. He returned with a goat and sacrified it after the namāz.” He is talking about our Beloved Prophet. “While sacrificing it he said, “ Bismillāh Allāhu Akbar. My Allah, this sacrificial animal is for me and those amongst my nation who do not sacrifice animals.” This way, he sacrificed that animal both for himslef and his nation. This is a Hadith-i Sharif. Look, so far we have seen the evidence from the verses of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. These are the evidence from Hadith-i Sharifs. He said, “anca birîn radıyallahu teâlâ anhukâ’l – (ilâ ahiril ahadis)”. This Hadith-i Sharif was narrated by Abu Dawood and al-Tirmidhi. In the Hadith-i Sharif that Ahmad ibn Hanbal reported he said that the Prophet had sacrificed two goats, one of which is for himself, and the other is for those amongst the nation who do not sacrifice animals. So, in conclusion, the believers can do charity and good deeds in the name of one another, and they can sacrifice animals, too. Friends, they can also do nafila (supererogatory) fasting, and donate its thawābs (rewards). They can also donate the thawābs (rewards) of nafila (supererogatory) namāz. The believers donate to the souls of the passed away their thawābs (rewards) gained from much benevolent and good deeds.
A Muslim from Mecca can fulfil this mission without there being a requirement of wealth if he can afford walking. From here, we see the evidence in the Hadith-i Sharifs. These are even in the book and the sunna. To recite the Qur’an free and nafila (supererogatory), this is important, to recite the Qur’an free and nafile (superegatory), and donating this recitation of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim to the soul of the dead is possible, it will reach to the soul of the dead. There have been people saying that it is wrong if a person speaks his last will and says that he wants Al-Qur’an Al-Karim to be recited at his grave, and wants to give something from his wealth to the person who recited Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. This is because it is just like a fee. This is how its written in El-İhtiyar. This opinion is based on that it is not permissible to charge someone due to worships. However, it is permissible to give a gift to the one who learns or teaches Al-Qur’an Al-Karim but that should be given as charity and donation. Then also according to a narration that suggests it is abominable to reacite Al-Qur’an Al-Karim near the graves according to Abu Hanifa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and Imam al-Malik. Because, this is an innovation that is fabricated later. There has never been such a thing in the tradition, they said. Also according to another narration, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Muhammad ibn Hassan says that it is not abominable to recite the Qur’an near the grave. Çünkü İbn-i Ömer’den vefatında defnedilirken kabri üzerinde Bakara Suresi’nin başının ve sonunun (yani Fatiha ve elif-lâm-mîm ile Amenerresulü) ayetlerinin okunmasını vasiyet ettiği rivayet edilmiştir.
Valuable friends, now both the ones who say it is abominable and the ones who say that it is permissible have their own rightheous reasons. These should sincerely be for Allah. One should not turn this into a false innovation. Therefore, our lesson regarding the discovery notes of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is continues. May Almighty Lord admit us amid the group of beneficient servants, and rightly guided servants. May He admit us amid the pious ones who are the followers of taqwa (piety). May He admit us amid the servants who has fulfilled zuhd (ascetism), and to whom has opened the doors of ma’rifat (spiritual truth).