Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 30
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 30
Euzübillahimineşşeytânîrracîm, Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Elhamdülillahi Rabb’il âlemin Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve sahbihî ecmaîn. Bismillahizîşân azimü’l sultan şedidü’l bûrhan gaviyyûl erkân mâşaallahükân, eûzubillahi min külli şeytâni insin ve cân. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.
“wa-huwa lladhī yaqbalu t-tawbata ʿan ʿibādihī wa-yaʿfū ʿani s-sayyiʾāti,” – “It is He who accepts the repentance of His servants, and excuses their misdeeds.” That is the 25th verse of Surah al-Shura.
Valuable friends, we continue to convey you discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. In today’s lecture, our topic is repentance from gossip and slander, and asking for forgiveness. So, how can one repent from gossip and slander? Now, insha’Allah (if Allah wills) we will try to give discovery notes regarding the topic.
Valuable friends, we see that some of our valuable ālims said the following, and what they said resides in Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar, too: “They asked a question that says the following regarding the one who gossips, ‘Let’s say that a person repented from gossip before the person he had gossipped about has heard about it, would his repentance be accepted?’ In reply they said, ‘Yes, there is not a rightful due here if he repented from gossip before that person has heard about it.’ However, if he hears about it then this reverts only to being a sin. They asked again, ‘Well, but what happens if that person hears about the gossip after the one has repented?’ They replied, ‘His repentance would not be null and void.’ Allah forviges the gossiper for he repented, and forgives the other one for he is upset. They said that Allah forgives them both, forviges the gossiper for he repented, and forgives the other one for he is upset. It would be unsuitable to His glory to decline the other one after accepting the repentance,’ that’s how they replied.” Now, one of those who gave reply was Abu Muhammad. The above report also resides in his book named Bavdat’ül-Ulemâ. Now, the slander, when someone attributes someone with something that he is devoid of, this would be slander. The one whom was attributed with something is devoid of that evil. However, someone has slandered him saying that he has that thing. That is slander, for attributing someone with evil. Now, the one who slanders has to repent in three places. Look, he will repent in three places. The repentance of slander is not easy like the other repentances. Every repentance requires true sincerity. Its conditions has to be met. Look, it is said that the one who slanders needs to repent in three places. The first of which is that he should go amid the community he is with and say, “I had mentioned this or that person like this or that.”
“I had slandered him. You should know that I was not telling the truth in those remarks, I had lied. He had not have the evil which I had slandered, which I had attributed him with. In that time I had done such a misdeed.” He has to say these amid that community. The second place is that he has to go the person whom he slandered, and work in order to please him regarding that matter and ask for his blessing. He will receive his blessing, and he will please him. The third one is that he has to perform repentance in way that suits the rules as they are in the jurisprudence of Allah (jalla jalaluhu). There is no greater sin than slander. Slander is the greatest of sins. Ibn al-Ajami was asked, “I had slandered you. Is it enough to ask for blessing?” and he said the following in his book named al- Mansiq: “The contents of the the slander is not submitted to its owner if it you know that it will give rise to fitnah (distress),” he said. That is of course if it will give rise fitnah (distress). In out opinion, the fact that it is permissible to absolve someone from unknown rightful dues constitutes evidence to this. It is a rightful action for one to acquit someone who asks for pardon.
This way he saves him from the sin. In other words, he will have been saved from this with a grand reward, too. Moreover, it would be more beneficial for him to grant his blessing and absolve him from the sin if he can’t afford to collect the debt owedIt is more beneficial for him to give his blessing and absolve him from the sin rather than leaving that debt hanging from the neck of that person. Valuable friends, there is more benefit in doing what is better. Now, it is said that to shake hands with a person is a request for a pardon from him. It would be an obligation for them to give each other their blessings if two people cursed at each other, as it was reported from Şeref-ül-Eimme. It would be an obligation upon them to write off each other’s debts when they curse at each other. They have to do that immediately.
Now friends, “Everyone has a right over the other.” Therefore, they will have paid each others debts mutally via the gossip they had done,” this kind of opinion can’t be accepted. It is absolutely necessary to write off each other’s debts or please each other. Let’s say that one person inflicted cruelty upon the other, and then greeted that person a few times in a row, and let’s say that person received those greeting. He then treated that person in a good manner, thinking that he has given his blessings. In this case, the apogy of the one who inflicted cruelty is not accepted. It is an obligation upon him to ask for the blessing of the person whom he was cruel to. Friends, the word “wajib – obligation” here is actually a religious duty (fard). In other words, this is a religious duty. He has to immediately ask for blessing. If he does not ask for blessing, and if they person says, “He will not forgive me anyway,” then his apology is not accepted for he delayed it.
It is necessary for him to ask for pardon and receive his pardon somehow. You should never postpone it to the grave, the Day of Judgement, or the Hereafter. You should receive his pardon right away. However, there is no pardon to rightful dues. Nonetheless some of our ālims said in their valuable works that if the person repents in a firm way Allah Ta’ala will definitely accept his repentance, without a doubt. Moreover, as we have learned from the afore verses whose meanings we gave, the decision of accepting the repentance is up to Allah Ta’ala. Because, Almighty Lord definitely accepts repentances, but the decision is up to Him. The hidden meaning behind this is that we don’t know if the repentance is authentic and sincere, so, it is up to Allah when you look from this aspect. Or else, Almighty Lord always accepts authentic repentances. Furthermore, it is also ignorance to say that He won’t accept sincere and authentic repentances. It is also said that it is feared from disbelief of that person for he will have contradicted the verse of the Qur’an. This is because there is an absolute promise of Allah in the matter that the repentances will absolutely, definitely be accepted. The authentic repentances are considered to be accepted in the presence of Allah. Besides, if the person who repents starts having doubts whether it will be accepted or not, he will have committed a greater sin than his original sin which led to repentance. For there can’t be second thoughts in repentance, Almighty Lord definitely accepts authentic repentances. Moreover, we seek refuge in Allah from this and similar thoughts and behaviours that lead to destruction. So, can you repent by relying on a verse while possessing second thoughts about that verse? That repentance of his about which he has doubts may convey him to a much more dangerous environmens for he is having second thoughts. Can one have a suspicion about the verse? Having doubts regarding the verses will definitely bring harm to imān (faith). Moreover, he is face to face with the danger of becoming a kāfir (infidel). Besides, he will become a kāfir (infidel) if he completely opposes to the verse.
Friends, the repentance is absolutely acceptable when its conditions are fulfilled. In other words, there are many conditions of the repentance. It is said that the repentance is acceptable when these conditions are fulfilled, the verse is self-explanatory.
So, let’s say a person abandons committing adultery because he is not strong enough anymore, and he can’t do it anymore. Can that be accepted as repentance? No, it can’t be accepted as repentance. This is because he is not committing adultery for he is not able to. Otherwise, it was not the situation while he could afford it. Now, in here, it is said that you should repent while you still can afford doing it, and while you have strength to commit every sin. You should not be late. You should do it before it is too late.
For that reason friends, if a person commits adultery, and later in life he can’t afford it anymore, or gets close to his demise, it is inconceivable for him to repent saying he will abandon that sin. In spite of this, the forerunner scholars unanimously agreed in that the repentance of that person is acceptable if he is really sorry for what he had done. The repentance is crucial for being honestly sorry. The ālims of the salaf said, “The repentance is accepted if the person is really sorry.”
May Allah grant mercy upon the souls of all of our ālims. Now, the repentance he will make is valid even if he knows that he is unable to do that work. However, he still needs to sincerely repent, and be sorry for all of his sins. The repentance which fulfills the conditions by being sorry for the sins is acceptable and valid.
Now, repentance from all of the sins. Friends, it is necessary for the person who wants to become a Muslim to repent from all major sins. That should be conveyed to the people as they become Muslims, it should be inculcated to them. It is necessary for him to shield himself through being wary of Allah from the matters that will make him a disbeliever. For the remark that requires blasphemy cancels all good works, actions, and deeds. The deeds may all go to waste. The person immediately repents and repeats declaration of faith (shahada), that is if the remark that requires abandoning the religion is uttered by him.
Furtermore, as it is recorded in our valuable books, the imān (faith) in the state of agony is not acceptable. Let’s say that a person is in death-agony, and declared his belief at that moment. That imān (faith) is not acceptable. However, the preferred opinion says that repentance in this case is acceptable. May Almighty Lord admit us amongst the servants whose imān (faith) is perfect and everlasting, and whose repentances are all acceptable. Friends, “Indeed Allah accepts the repentance of His servant unless he is in death-agony,” they reported this narration from our Prophet. It was narrated by our invaluable muhaddiths (hadith scholars) such as Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, and Muwatta. “innallahe Teâlâ yakbelüt tövbete yebbelüt tövbetel ardı malen yuğarrir,” commanded our Prophet. May Almighty Lord admit us amongst the servants whose repentances are accepted.
For that reason, it is necessary for everyone to know the things that require blasphemy more than knowing the things that are necessary to believe. The person may fall into blasphemy in some matters, the Muslims have to know these matters well. A Muslim has to know in which matters he will fall into blasphemy, every Muslim should know that. He won’t be able to protect his imān (faith) from disbelief unless he knows those things. It would be sufficient if he declares al-īmān al-ijmalī (faith in general). In the matters regarding faith, it would be sufficient if one declares only al-īmān al-ijmalī (faith in general). But you should never forget this, it is necessary for everyone to know the things that require blasphemy more than knowing the things that are necessary to believe. Do not forget that. This is one of the reasons that we are presenting Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar to the world, for them to consider it. This is a favor of Almighty Allah. However, even if al-īmān al-ijmalī (faith in general) is enough for the person, that is not the case for the primary information of things that necessitates disbelief, one should know them in order to avoid them. Especially for the imam of our madhab; according to Abu Hanifa Al-Imam Al-Azam, there should be detailed information regarding this topic.
The person has to know in which matters he may fall into blasphemy one by one. In the aspect of fulfilling the purpose, it is easy to convert to Islam, however, they said that it is hard to follow the rulings of Islam, and be steadfast. For the man had believed. It is easy to believe, and become a Muslim. However, what shall your imān do for the eternity? It shall be everlasting, and it shall not approach to blasphemy. The person has to stay away from the ways which lead to blasphemy. For that reason, he has to know all kinds of dangers that require blasphemy, and stay away from them. Look, our Almighty Lord commanded the following in the 30th verse of Surah Fussilat: “ʾinna lladhīna qālū rabbunā llāhu thumma staqāmū tatanazzalu ʿalayhimu l-malāʾikatu ʾallā takhāfū wa-lā taḥzanū wa-ʾabshirū bi-l-jannati llatī kuntum tūʿadūn,” (Sadaqa Allaah al-‚Azeem) – “Indeed those who say, ‘Our Lord is Allah!’ and then remain steadfast [in faith], the angels descend upon them, [saying,] ‘Do not fear, nor be grieved! Receive the good news of the paradise which you have been promised.” Friends, you have seen in this verse that one should eternally be steadfast in imān, and be steadfast in imān forever. You shall stay away from all of the dangers which lead to blasphemy. Yes friends, “Indeed those who say, ‘Our Lord is Allah!’ and then remain steadfast, the angels descend upon them, [saying,] ‘Do not fear, nor be grieved! Receive the good news of the paradise which you have been promised.” There are reports saying that these angels will give those good news to you in the grave and the time when you resurrect.
So, is istiqamat superior, or karamat (supernatual wonders)? They said that istiqamat is superior to karamat. For there can’t be karamat unless there is istiqamat. You should get you mind together. The nafs (self) requires karamat (supernatual wonders). Allah Ta’ala wants istiqamat. Would you rather do what your nafs (self) desires than doing what Allah wants? The devil acts together with the nafs (self). Almighty Allah wants istiqamat. You should bear that in mind. So, what is this istiqamat? It is said that istiqamat (being steadfast) is more beneficial than thousand types of karamat (supernatual wonders). They said istiqamat (being steadfast in faith) is better than thousand types of karamat (supernatual wonders). Now, one day they said, “Would you become a Muslim?” to one of the neighbours of Bayazid. Let’s hear what he said back as a story. He is a neighbour of Bayazid Bastami, who is one of the grand wali servants (may Allah bless their valuable souls). His neighbour was a non-muslim. They said to him, “would you become a Muslim?” He said the following as reply, “If being a Muslim is something like what Bayazid Bastami experiences, then I will not be able to bear it. However, if it is something like what you are experiencing, then I am not liking your situation one bit,” the guy said. Now, look, there is the aspect of the Muslim that is reflected to the other people. This might be a “cruel”.
If a person is not living Islam correctly in faith, actions, and morals, he can be named a Muslim but if one can expect from him all kinds of evil, and if he commits some enormities; when he does that the non-muslims are looking at his bad aspects, and they are not wanting to become Muslims. The non-muslims are looking at the hardships Bayazid Bastami, and grand ālims, and the grand awliya had lived, and they are thinking that Islam is hard. They are being deceived in that matter. However, the ones who recognize Islam from Islam are immediately becoming Muslims. Friends, in another source, it is said that it is blasphemy to acknowledge something evil as halal. One of these sources is Umdat al-Nafasi. Now, they are saying that it is blasphemy to acknowledge something haram as halal. They are also saying this: “That is necessary if he referred to a misdeed that was clealry prohibited by a nas [the word of Allah or the Prophet].”
For if it is certain that it is haram, as it was mentioned in previous lessons, you can’t call that thing halal. It is blasphemy to say that thing is halal. Acknowleding that provision is halal is contrary to the provision of the book. However, when it comes to some evil that is set in stone via assumption based evidence, such as Habar al-Wahid, it is said that the one who did not acknowledge the ruling of that becomes a fasiq (venial sinner) if not a blasphemer, and this is the correct opinion. That was mentioned in our previous lectures, too. We have pointed it out also in here.
So, why is istiqamat a condition for a Muslim. What is istiqamat? It is being steadfast as Allah commanded. “fa-staqim ka-mā ʾumirta,” our Prophet said, „This verse made me age.“ He was saddening in the name of his ummah (nation). This is the 112th verse of Surah al-Hud: “So be steadfast on the right course as you have been commanded,” says Almighty Lord. This is what istiqamat is.
It is not permissible to declare one amongst people of qiblah a disbeliever. Friends, the existence of Allah Ta’ala is explicit. It is not possible to deny Allah. Whoever denies Allah has lost everything forever. You can’t call anyone amongst the people of qiblah a kāfir unless he denied Allah Ta’ala, or ascribed partners to Him, or denied the prophethood, or denied an essential ruling that was set in stone via absolute knowledge, or acknowledged something haram as halal, or denied a judgement in which there is consensus. That person would not be counted among the people of qibla if he denies any one of the things counted above. The one who calls a person among the people of qiblah a kāfir is a fasiq (venial sinner). Friends, they said that he is a fasiq (venial sinner) but not a kāfir. However, the person who declares a Muslim as a kāfir possesses the danger of becoming a kāfir. It is not only about one turning himself towards the qiblah. For example, the Ghulāt group amongst the Rafidhis are thinking that Gabriel Alaihissalam made a mistake in sending down the revelation, they say that Allah Ta’ala had originally sent Gabriel to Alī, but he brought the revelation to Muhammad by mistake, this is what they are claiming. Now, who is claiming that? They are the Rafidhis.
There is the Ghulāt group amongst them, however, they are not even amongst the ahlul qibla (people of qiblah). In that Ghulat groups some of them went so far as to say that Alī is the god. These people are disbelievers even if they perform namāz while facing the qiblah. For the ones who call Alī as, “Allah,” and the ones who divinize him, saying ,”Gabriel was wrong,” and “He should have taken that prophethood to Alī rather than Muhammad,” are not amongst the ahlul qiblah (people of qiblah). They are still disbelievers even if they perform namāz while facing the qiblah. For their beliefs are contradictory to Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and there is slander to Allah Ta’ala, and there is slander to Gabriel Alaihissalam. Can Gabriel be wrong? He is an archanel under the command of Allah. Then, the Allah who sent Gabriel, would He not warn Gabriel had he made a mistake? Such a nonsensical, and heretic creed can only serve to the enemies of Islam, not anyone else can make you of it. Friends, the meaning referred in the following remark is this, Friends, the meaning referred in the following remark was what is above, “Whoever performs the namāz we perform, and faces towards our qiblah, and eats from the animal we sacrificed, is the Muslim who is entrusted in Allah and His Messenger. You do not disrupt that entrustment of Allah.” In other words, ahlul qiblah strictly puts their imān (faith) in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and won’t oppose to it. The above quote and what is mentioned was said by our Prophet, “men sallâ salâtenâ vestakbele kıbletena,” (ilâ âhiril hadis). That is what our Prophet said. For in order for a person to be admitted amongst the ahlul qiblah (people of qiblah) he has to truely acknowledge the entirety of Islam, and testify that through his tongue, and won’t oppose to Allah and His orders. Those who divinise Alī by saying that Gabriel was wrong, and those who divinize Isa, the sheikhs, the leaders, and pioneers are not counted amongst the ahlul qiblah (peope of qiblah). Our Prophet was talking about ahlul qiblah (people of qiblah) also in that. The imān (faith) of ahlul qiblah is complete. They have believed in the values that are to be believed. So, what is it if a person voluntarily uttered blasphemy? That is blasphemy. It turns the person into a blasphemer. We are saying, ‘voluntarily’ this is important. The one who speaks blasphemy enters into blasphemy. They said that if a person voluntarily utters blasphemy although he is not a believer becomes a blasphemer. For the word of blasphemy has no business in the mouth of a Muslim, what is he looking for that he was pleased with it? This is because consent to blasphemy is blasphemy. If a person utters those words although he knows that he will become a blasphemer, they said that this turns the person into a disbeliever for he had consented to blasphemy. Now, he can’t be excused for he did not know. You can’t say, “he didn’t know” either. The judgement of the majority of the scholars is like that. However, some ālims had thought differently, and defended the otherwise of that opinion.
Valuable friends, if a person denies the caliphate and companionship of Abū Bakr, and also denies the caliphate of Abū Bakr and Umar, he would fall into blasphemy, they said.
Now, the reason for this is that it is clear that the caliphate is set in stone by consensus. For there is a certain ijma (consensus) here. Moreover, the Caliphate of Abū Bakr is set in stone also via the sign of Prophet Muhammad. As for Umar’s caliphate, it was set in stone through Abū Bakr as-Ṣiddīq’s indication of Umar’s appointment.
In other words, Abū Bakr pointed to the caliphate of Umar. However, the public had elected them by means of acknowledging them. In contrast, that was not the case for the caliphate of Uthman and Alī. There was no ijma (consensus) in their caliphate.
It is said that the one who denies the companionship of Abū Bakr would be a disbelief for he is also denying the primary evidence of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. For there are verses of the Qur’an concerning that Abū Bakr had accompanied our Prophe. For example, Allah Ta’ala says the following about him in the 40th verse of Surah al-Tawbah: “ʾidh humā fī l-ghāri ʾidh yaqūlu li-ṣāḥibihī lā taḥzan ʾinna llāha maʿanā,” – “When they [Prophet Muhamad and Abū Bakr] were in the cave, and he [Muhammad] was saying to his companion, ‘Do not grieve. Allah is surely with us.’.” The mufassirs (glossators), all of them has unanimously said that the one who is referred as “his companion” in the above verse is Abū Bakr. You see that there is both unanimity and ijma (consensus) here, and in addition there is the verse. Moreover, the following is said in an invaluable book of ours, “If a person was asked to do something for Allah, and if he said, ‘I won’t do it,’ he would become a disbeliever.” Now, as this is also understood, it is a rightful action to work towards making a person be right in their oath. The one who says something like that should not become a disbeliever. They said that if he comes up with an explanation such as, “I won’t do it to please Allah, but I will do it for someone else.” However, there is a misinterpretation here. Now, the matter of takfeer (declaring another Muslim as a non-believer) is too complex, and it is a matter that is debated quite a lot, and may lead to disorder. Friends, they are exiling that work in public opnion by saying, “We do not declare anyone amongst the people of qiblah as a non-believer.” However, these people know that amid the people of qiblah there are worse people than the Jews and the Christians, and that there are some mischief-makers, and that some of them are exhibiting their disbelief whenever they find opportunity. In other words, you can’t declare a man of qiblah a disbeliever but the ones who deny the absolute provisions of Islam are not counted amongst the people of qiblah when if they perform namāz facing towards the qiblah, and they are disbelievers. Because, a person can’t oppose to the absolute rulings of Islam while performing namāz looking to the qiblah. These people are not counted amongst the ahlul qiblah (people of qiblah), even if they sleep under the Kabaa, or even if they have died in the bottom of The Black Stone (al-Ḥajaru al-Aswad). For there can’t be imān (faith) where there is denial. This is the point. The ahlul qiblah (people of qiblah) are believers who have real imān (faith), and who never opposes to the absolute orders of Allah, who acknowledges, and testifies, and tries to fulfil the orders of Allah with pleasure, and who are firmly pleased with qaza and qadar, and who accepts Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and Islam along with all of the commands in them without having any hardships, these are the believers who are the ahlul qiblah (people of qiblah). Yes friends, may Almighty Lord admit us amid the servants whose imān (faith) is perfect and everlasting; and may He admit us amid the servants who are devoid and far from all kinds of disbelief, polytheism, and fitnah (distress).