Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 47-48
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 47
In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful. We continue on our life-giving lessons under the light of the life-giving holy values, and the inspirations we take from there. Insha‘ Allah, we shall continue on our endeavor towards a collective enlightenment under the light of the life-giving light. I shall start this lesson with the word of our beloved Prophet. In a hadith-i shareef narrated (rivayat) by Al-Nasā’ī and Ahmad ibn Hanbali, our Prophet made qunut for a month and made a baddua for a tribe. But of course, that tribe committed a terrible crime, a treason. They murdered hafizes, and Muslims were ambushed by them. They ambushed Muslims, and they did not keep their words, rather they committed treason. Now, our lesson is of course, qunut. There is the qunut dua (prayer) that we recite during namaz, and there is a qunut that we recite during witr namaz. Besides, qunut can be made in certain extraordinary circumstances, when Muslims are in distress and depression. In this case, qunut can be made just like our Prophet did. And that is done in namaz, and also out of namaz, and qunut can be carried out some other time. That is, trying to fulfill our physical and spiritual duties given by Almighty Allah. Qunut is one of these duties. We came to a verse of the Quran while talking about namaz. Namaz consists of tasbīh (glorification), takbir (magnification of Allah), and recitation (kira’at) of Quran. This is important, please pay attention. Namaz is tasbīh (glorification), takbir (magnification of Allah), and recitation of Quran. There is also “as-salawat” the particle of “al” is there for “ahd-i harici”. That is, five times of prayer is fard (religious obligation). If “ahd” was not present, then all namaz would have been fard (obligatory). and no one could afford that. You may ask if there are other types of namaz except the prescribed five times, and of course there are many namaz that have many virtues (fazilat), but the fard namaz (obligatory prayers) are the prescribed five times of namaz. That is why the “al” in the beginning of the word “as-salawat” is there for “ahd-i harici”. That is why it is said that five times of namaz are fard (obligatory). Had “ahd” was not there, then all namaz would have been fard (obligatory). And the nation (ummah) could not afford that. Another concept that is mentioned is “al-wusta” or “salat-e-wusta”. Janâb-i Haqq is talking about wusta namaz by mentioning that word. That is a feminine and ism al-tafdeel world. It was accepted as middle-namaz which is the most virtuous namaz. There are many opinions regarding this, which contemplate on which namaz is the middle namaz. Some say the middle namaz is the late-afternoon (asr) namaz. That is the opinion of many sahabah (companions). That is, when the enemy besieged Madīnah, some namaz were postponed in the Battle of the Trench. The late-afternoon (asr) namaz is one of these. The late-afternoon (asr) namaz was postponed due to fighting.
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Our Prophet said that they made them busy in the middle (asr) namaz on that day. He said that about the enemy. He made a baddua by saying, “May Allah (c.c.) fill their hearts and homes with fire,”. That is what our Prophet said because they caused them to miss a namaz. Now, let us study the contents of his words. The enemy came, and sieged the city. The Battle of the Trench is happening. And they missed the Asr Namaz. Our Prophet says the following to the enemy who caused them to miss this namaz: “May Allah (c.c.) fill their hearts and homes with fire,”. This is a narration (rivayat) of al-Bayhaqi. Now, the late afternoon is, especially in hot places like Arabia, the time when majority of business and trade begins. Late afternoon is mostly the time of trade in those regions. Late afternoon is hot, crowded, and the time when trade beings. That is why a special emphasis is put on not missing this late-afternoon namaz, because it is said that its virtue (fazilat) comes from that. It is said that the late-afternoon (asr) namaz is the time of gathering for the angels of night and day. It is the time of gathering for the night angels and the day angels. It is also said that it is in the middle of two morning, and two evening namaz. There are narrations (rivayat) that suggest that Abu Hanifa and Ahmad ibn Hanbali favored this view. And that was narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbali. Imam al-Azam also had the same opinion. There is another narration (rivayat) that say Umar and certain sahabah (companions) said that this middle namaz is the dawn (fajr) namaz. Imam al-Shafi’i and Imam al-Malik also favored this opinion. As for al-Bayhaqi, in his narration (rivayat) our Prophet said that this middle namaz is the dawn (fajr) namaz. Besides, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi reviewed Al-Bayhaqi’s narration (rivayat) that suggests this middle namaz is dawn (fajr) namaz, and he favored this view. Some say it is the early-afternoon (dhuhr) namaz. Our Prophet said that he felt in his heart the words, “may their homes burn upon them”. It is narrated (rivayat) in Bukhari Shareef that our Prophet uttered the afore quote for those who do not join the jama’ah (congregation) in the early-afternoon (dhuhr) namaz. The first namaz our Prophet performed with Jibril is the early-afternoon namaz, which is performed in Fridays as jumu’ah namaz. There is also this second narration (rivayat) from Al-Imam Al-Azam. And this narration (rivayat) is also narrated by some sahabah (companions). Some say it is the sunset (magrib) namaz. They say this namaz is performed as three, for it is single. Moreover, another approach suggests that it is the night (isha’a) namaz Another narration (rivayat) by Muaz ibn Cebel suggest that all five namaz are middle namaz. A narration (rivayat) that came from Muaz ibn Cebel suggest that all five namaz are middle namaz. He interpreted the middle namaz as all five namaz are more virtuous (fazilat) than the each other. As for the seventh, it is unknown. It may just be like that the Qadr Night and Ism-i Azam, and the hour of answering dua are unknown.
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There is a narration that says the middle namaz which is wustā (most valuable) is hidden here just like Qadr Night, Ism-i Azam, and the hour of answering dua was hidden. The narration (rivayat) that says it is hidden in five times of namaz comes from al-Qurtubi. Al-Qurtubi is a revered figure among our grand âlims, and grand mufassirs. May Janâb-i Haqq bestow on all our âlims abundant rahmat (mercy), forgiveness. May they never lack rahmat (mercy), and be filled to brim with light. May Janâb-i Haqq pleased with all of them. Moreover, another narration (rivayat) on the authority of Ali says it is Dhuhr and Jumu’ah namaz. Another narration (rivayat) that says that it is Isha’a and Fajr namaz comes from Umar and Uthman. As for the narration (rivayat) that says it is Fajr and Asr namaz it is narrated on the authority of Abu Bakr, Ehberî, and Malikites. There is another opinion that says it is Jumu’ah (Friday) namaz. That is to be a congregation (jama’ah) in every fard. So, there is this view that says most virtuous middle namaz is that. There are also views that say that it is Fear Namaz, Witr Namaz, Eid Namaz, Salat al-Duha. Abu Hayyan said that it is the Asr Namaz, and according to Hanafites and al-Tabari, it is also Asr Namaz. Some say it is the namaz that is performed in crowded moments. In the Day of Ahzāb, four times of namaz were postponed to qaza. They made up for the missed namaz in the Battle of the Trench. All of these narrations (rivayat) are correct when we look from this perspective. That is the prescribed five times namaz, and each of them are more virtuous than the other. And there is another narration (rivayat) that says Fajr Namaz is the double of Isha’a Namaz. There are also narrations that say Isha’a Namaz is more virtuous (fazilat) than others. The virtue (fazilat) of namaz that is performed in crowded places are greater. That is because when a person does not abandon namaz even in crowded environments then it is understood that he will not abandon it in more convenient places as well. You see, the virtue (fazilat) here is the sincerity (ihlas) of the Muslim. And all worships (ibadat) are splendid, and they are all much virtuous and their degrees are indeed very high. Each and every worship (ibadat), and command of Allah is holy and exalted. After hearing all that, let us see what Janâb-i Haqq said about being a nation, a state, having a powerful will, and founding powerful states. Let us see the life-giving commands of Janâb-i Haqq that explain us the matters we should be careful about. You see, Janâb-i Haqq has given commands, and good advice to us in these matters. The religion of Islam brought forth whatever is necessary for us to take all measures. Almighty Allah has manifested what is best along with the rahmat (mercy) with Islam. Astaizu Billah: [2:240] “wa-lladhīna yutawaffawna minkum wa-yadharūna ʾazwājan waṣiyyatan li-ʾazwājihim matāʿan ʾilā l-ḥawli ghayra ʾikhrājin fa-ʾin kharajna fa-lā junāḥa ʿalaykum fī mā faʿalna fī ʾanfusihinna min maʿrūfin wa-llāhu ʿazīzun ḥakīm”.
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[2:241] “wa-li-l-muṭallaqāti matāʿun bi-l-maʿrūfi ḥaqqan ʿalā l-muttaqīn”. [2:242] “ka-dhālika yubayyinu llāhu lakum ʾāyātihī laʿallakum taʿqilūn”. Dearest friends! While giving you core meanings of these verses, we see what the religion of Islam wants us to become a powerful family, a powerful nation, and a powerful state. A blissful family, nation, and state is a powerful state which is the one that is established under the rulership of Almighty Allah. The entirety of Muslims, or rather the ummah (nation) are incumbent here. It all starts with this family. [2:240] “Those of you who shall die make a bequest for them which is enough for them for the year without being expelled from their homes. But if they leave of their own accord then there is no responsibility on you in a legitimate action, they do about themselves. Allah is too powerful, and owner of huqm (decree), and hikmat (wisdom).” [2:240] “For divorced women there is a right of usufruct in a legitimate and recognized way, and that is an obligation to give upon those who fear Allah.” [2:241] “This is how Allah explains you the verses so that you may understand.” In other words, women have rights in heritage, and these should be given properly. There was a world before Islam, in which women were disregarded. It was like that in Arabian Peninsula, and everywhere in the world, including the west. However, the religion of Islam said, “Janna (Paradise) is under the feet of mothers,” and gave the finest value to women. Fathers and mothers are equally valuable, and they are both valuable beings. Besides, the most honorable creature are people. When we say people, man and women are both people. What is the use of one without the other? In that case, the world will lose its charm. The goals and purposes will be gone too. That is why the religion of Islam gave the finest and greatest value to women and men. As for human rights, they were published to the world fourteen centuries ago in Medinah by our beloved Prophet. And he especially mentioned women in his last will. “Best of you is those who behave well to their families,” he said. “You have a right over them, and they have a right over you,” he said. In the root of Islam lies the family and principles of belief (iman), love, respect, and following the measures of Allah. If these are not present in a family, then it is a fabrication, and a temporary affair. You were astounded by physical beauty but if your partner does not have moral and spiritual beauty, or belief (iman) and Quran, then he/she will lose his/her charm in a matter of days. It is better if a person has belief (iman), conscience, spiritual and physical beauty. Physical beauty is one thing but what is essential is spiritual and inner beauty, and belief (iman) and Quran. And there is no reason to prevent happiness in a family founded by such a man and women who have love of Allah in their hearts. The families other than these are not essential but auxiliary. If there are problems in essentials, then there is a heavy problem, which will crack the family, which will cause storms inside the family, leading to a battle in the home, and an environment which has turned to Jahannam.
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[2:243] “ʾa-lam tara ʾilā lladhīna kharajū min diyārihim wa-hum ulūfun ḥadhara l-mawti fa-qāla lahumu llāhu mūtū thumma ʾaḥyāhum ʾinna llāha la-dhū faḍlin ʿalā n-nāsi wa-lākinna ʾakthara n-nāsi lā yashkurūn”. [2:243] “Did you not see them, who were in thousands, they left their homes for fear of death. Allah said to them, ‘Die,’ and killed them. Then, Allah gave them a life, and resurrecting them. There is no doubt that Allah has a favor over people, but many of the people do not give thanks.” It is almost impossible for a Muslim to exhibit a completely normal behavior, contemplation, heart, intellect, and a moderate behavior in every matter until he meets Janâb-i Haqq closely. That is why when Almighty Allah and the servant (qul) meets everything happens properly and in a measured manner. The servant (qul) is full of respect and love towards his Rabb (Lord). That is why the servant (qul) does not cause distress in family, in children or in anywhere. The servant (qul) does not distort his nation, state, the humanity, or the ecosystem. He cannot do these upon having that love and respect. The servant (qul) wishes for everything to happen properly, in measure. That is because Janâb-i Haqq bestowed i’tidâl (moderation) upon the servant (qul). That is the normal Muslim, and normal human type. [2:244] “wa-qātilū fī sabīli llāhi wa-ʿlamū ʾanna llāha samīʿun ʿalīm”. [2:245] “man dhā lladhī yuqriḍu llāha qarḍan ḥasanan fa-yuḍāʿifahū lahū ʾaḍʿāfan kathīratan wa-llāhu yaqbiḍu wa-yabsuṭu wa-ʾilayhi turjaʿūn”. [2:244] “Then fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah hears and knows everything.” In other words, save the world and humanity from tyrants. Save the world from disbelief (kufr), polytheism (shirk). Save the humanity from fitnah (conflicts). [2:245] “Who is the one who shall lend Allah a fine loan, and Allah shall return it by multiplying it many times.” In other words, when you do a charity for Allah, and lend someone a thing, then Janâb-i Haqq returns it to you by multiplying it many times. Allah gives you such barakat (blessings) and favors that you do not see, but feel with your belief (iman). But how do you feel it? You see, it is Allah who creates all things, along with their causes. You should not observe that comes to you or who brings it, rather you should look at the Creator, the creator of all causes. [2:245] “Allah may give hardship, and immensity. And all of you will be returned to Allah.” Janâb-i Haqq may tighten many hearts, narrowing them. For if a heart lacks belief (iman), but has polytheism, disbelief (kufr), and nifaq (hypocrisy) do you think there will be peace in that heart? It does not matter which chair that brave fellow may sit. His property, or wealth does not matter. You will see them in a stress, and nuisance in life even while living in all that wealth and property.
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You see, Janâb-i Haqq gives happiness in life and ease in spiritual world (alam al-anfus). And where does that come from? Janâb-i Haqq gives jalali (glorious) manifestations to whom Allah wishes. Allah will create manifestations with jamal (beauty), rahmat (mercy), and favor for those whom Allah wish. Allah looks into your heart. And you may not know what is in your heart. You should know, but you may not know. But Allah always looks into your heart, and your intention. Allah always tests you with what comes to your heart as muspat (positive) or manfi (negative) things. Allah sends muspat (positive) and manfi (negative) things to see whether you will pass the test. That is to test whether you call what is right as wrong. Or, whether you affirm what is wrong by calling it true. Allah tests you with what comes into your heart in such a way that Almighty Allah is nearer to your heart than you. That is because Allah created you. [2:246] “ʾa-lam tara ʾilā l-malaʾi min banī ʾisrāʾīla min baʿdi mūsā ʾidh qālū li-nabiyyin lahumu bʿath lanā malikan nuqātil fī sabīli llāhi qāla hal ʿasaytum ʾin kutiba ʿalaykumu l-qitālu ʾallā tuqātilū qālū wa-mā lanā ʾallā nuqātila fī sabīli llāhi wa-qad ʾukhrijnā min diyārinā wa-ʾabnāʾinā fa-lammā kutiba ʿalayhimu l-qitālu tawallaw ʾillā qalīlan minhum wa-llāhu ʿalīmun bi-ẓ-ẓālimīn Sadaqa Allaah al-‚Azeem (Allah Almighty has spoken the truth). Dearest and most venerable friends! In order to ensure the predomination of haqq and haqiqa (truth), justice, and peace in the world Muslims have to be awake and prudent in order to establish the peace of humanity against the transgressors. That is why Muslims are obliged to found a powerful state. It is said that he who shall rule should be a well-versed person who has all qualities of a complete ruler. And he should be equipped with knowledge. A nation should choose people who came from the heart of the nation that are faithful, erudite who are able rulers equipped with true qualities of a ruler. The nation should appoint them as the head of the state. The first condition is that there should be belief (iman) and Islam in his inner and outer world, and he should implement the justice of Allah. That is, ruling by the decrees of Allah. The person who shall rule the Islamic state should be a good and powerful and able ruler who is scholarly, good, and powerful. Now, let us see what our Prophet said in narration (rivayat) that are conveyed by Ibn Kathir and Ibn al-Abbas. The angels brought the box to the presence of Talut (Saul). And they were tested by a stream that was a trial. It is said that this “Nahr al-Sharieat” is the Jordan River that is between Palestine and Jordan. Now, let us talk about the right of usufruct. Peace in family, nation, and the state. Islam establishes and settles serenity in all hearts for it is the religion of peace and serenity. Peace in the family is peace in the nation, and the state. That is why the foundation should be laid well. Right of usufruct is fixed in inheritance, as law of inheritance. Do not expel women whose husbands pass away from their homes for a year, and provide for them. This verse came before the verses of inheritance and that is why it is said to be mansuh (abrogated); it was abrogated (naskh) by the verses of iddah (waiting period) and inheritance.
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That is because the woman is now an inheritor of his husband, and takes her share from the heritage after his husband dies. She whose husband dies gets 1/4 or 1/8 share. The nafaqa (alimony) of iddah (waiting period) is an obligation upon he who entered zifaf (sexual intercourse) according to his means. In other words, a woman who waits iddah is given nafaqa (alimony) as well. There were people in the Dâverdân town of Iraq who were escaping black death. They said that people were dying from the plague. They wanted to escape and be saved. Whereas one cannot leave or approach the place where plague occured. There is such a commandment in Islam. They did the opposite of the commandment. So, what did they do? These people who were in Dâverdân town of Iraq escaped from the plague. And then, they all died. Then, Janâb-i Haqq resurrected them, as an object lesson to the humanity. And some of the Israelites escaped jihad (struggle). As for those who escaped from jihad (struggle), no one may escape from the decree of Allah. As it is clear that no one may escape from the decree of Allah, escaping from death means running to death. Death has a prescribed hour. You should take precautions, do your duty as a servant (qul), but you will certainly die when your hour comes. Do not ever forget that escaping death means running to death. The hour of death is a prescribed hour, which cannot be postponed or moved back. And it is our Almighty Rabb (Lord) who said that. So, what did Janâb-i Haqq do with them in order to teach the humanity a lesson? Allah killed all who escaped death. Then, Allah gave them life again, resurrecting them, so that they may learn. Janâb-i Haqq had resurrected the death from their graves in the person of Isa (Jesus) Alaihissalam, Hızkıl Alaihissalam, and Dhu al-Kifl Alaihissalam. Allah ordained this to them as a miracle, and miracles occurred in all prophets. But the creator of these miracles, and all things is no one but Allah. The prophets are not creators. Janâb-i Haqq proves that their cause is just and haqq (true) by creating miracles in their person. That is why there are miracles of all prophets. These miracles were demonstrated in accordance with the situation. And that is the taqdir (divine decree) of Allah. Now, let us see what our Prophet said about generous people. You see, there is Ebü’d-Dahdâh (r.a.) as an example of people who earned entrance to Janna (Paradise) with his entire family. Our Prophet told Ebü’d-Dahdâh to prepare for their place in Janna (Paradise) with his wife and children. Our Prophet gave glad tiding of Janna (Paradise) to an entire family. But why did he do that? That was because they were generous and faithful Muslims. They gave their most beloved garden of date-palm to charity. They donated it to the orphans, the poor, and bayt al-mal (state treasure) so that the poor and needy may find shelter. This glad tiding is given to them after their act of charity. It was a garden named Hunainiyah, in which date-palms grow.
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A beautiful garden indeed. He had given up his most beloved property to charity to attain the riza (approval) of Allah, for he loved Allah much more than his property. And in return he received that glad tiding. O, Muslim! O, son of Adam! In a hadith-i shareef narrated (rivayat) by Muslim Shareef, Janâb-i Haqq says, “O, son of Adam! I got sick!”. No, Allah does not get sick, but there is a hikmat (wisdom) here. “O, son of Adam! I got sick and you did not come visit Me. I was hungry and thirsty, and you did not bring me food or drink,” says Janâb-i Haqq. And of course, the servant (qul) says, “O, Rabb (Lord), you are exalted above these, and free of such thing.” Then, Janâb-i Haqq says, “O, son of Adam! Had you visited the sick, had you asked them how they are, I would have liked you as if you visited Me. Had you fed the hungry and the poor, and given water to the thirty, I would be pleased with you as if you fed Me, and I would have given plentiful rewards to you.” Allah asks why they did not do these, to those who do not. As for those who do, their reward is clear, they receive glad tidings of Janna (Paradise). The acts of charity done by faithful people are returned to them amply by Janâb-i Haqq, and even with eternal favor and blessings (nimet). Now, as for the matter of a happy heart, happy nation, and happy state, and victory, Janâb-i Haqq shows us the State of Tālūt (Saul) against State of Jalut. Between Egypt and Palastine there was the State of Amalikans, which should not be confused with America. The Amalikans had devastated Israel. And they also devastated the Jews of that day. They had ruined, burned, and slain them. And this State of Jalut imprisoned 440 people among their lineage. They had taken their Book, and placed heavy taxes. Islam does not offer anyone what they cannot afford. That is what Almighty Allah commanded. Allah has never offered anyone what they cannot afford, and does not. But if you fall into the hands of wrongdoers, they may do everything. In Bani Isra’il there was left a woman who was from the lineage of the Prophet. And she gave birth to Prophet Ismoil (Samuel). There are narrations (rivayat) like Ismoil ibn Alkame or Ismoil ibn Halkabe, and Yuşa bin Nûn or Şemun ibn Sade. They were 313 people against Jalut. You see, they were few in numbers against a powerful state, with a powerful ruler like Jalut. They were 313 people who were steadfast in fight. Janâb-i Haqq made them appoint Talut (Saul) as ruler, by revealing the command to one of the nabis (prophets) of the time. Allah told them to appoint Talut (Saul) as ruler.
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Talut (Saul) was known as a powerful and scholarly person who knew religion, politics, and tactics, but it is said that he was a poor man. Even though he was a poor man he was known as a powerful and erudite person who knows religion, politics, and tactics. So, it means that these qualities and similar qualities that are required by the conditions of the age that is lived in should be present in a ruler who shall rule the Islamic state. And they had a box. In other words, Bani Isra’il had a box, it was called the Box of the Torah. They lost it due to the rebellions. They had lost their state, and the Box of the Torah, by the loss of which they lost their Book. And at that time there were no two books. As we know, Al-Quran Al-Karim is in the hearts, souls, memories, today. The Quran came this fourteen-century journey in the hearts, and it was copied in great numbers. Now, Al-Quran Al-Karim is spread in all towns, provinces, and states of the world. It was not like this back then, there was only one Torah in a box, which was taken away by the enemy. They took it as an insult, not to worship. Now, according to narration (rivayat), Allah Ta’ala had sent down a box to Adam, which included images of people who shall be prophets. The box was made of boxwood, in 3×2 dimension. The box stayed with him until his demise. Then, by inheritance it was passed to Ya’qub (Jacop) Alaihissalam, and then passed on until Musa (Moses) Alaihissalam. This box would be in front of the army while they go to war, and they would decide according to it. They used to hope for barakat (blessing) and victory. They would emerge victorious when they hear from it. As a result of rebellion and fesad (corruption) the Amalek (Jalut) state imposed themselves on Israel. They took the Box of the Torah and left them in dirt, and toilet. Such is a doing only disbelievers would do. And Allah sent disasters upon them. They had all caught hemorrhoids disease. Five of their cities were destroyed (halaq). That is because one cannot insult the book of Allah. On that day, there was the Torah in that box, which is the book of Allah. They sensed that the disasters were due to the box. They had driven the box away by loading it on two oxes. In other words one ox-driven cart and two oxes. And the angels flew by the sky and brought it to the home of Talut (Saul). You see, the angels had brought the box to the home of the one who shall be the ruler. The box was brought to the home of Talut (Saul). When the box came to the home of Talut (Saul), this was accepted as a sign and proof of his rulership. Metaphorically, it means the heart and the knowledge (ilm) in it. Sakinah also means peace, honor, steadfastness, trust, ease of heart. It also means the antonym of panic. Again, Janâb-i Haqq encouraged them via this occurrence. And the narration (rivayat) says that this was shown as the sign and document of the rulership of Talut (Saul). And of course, there is the sakinah that were revealed to the hearts. Picture, a special and mild wind, speaking soul, a golden bowl from Janna (Paradise) in which the heart of the prophets are purified, rahmat (mercy), box of tablets, box of rahmat (mercy), and a certain sign.
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Resembles a creature that has two wings made of chrysolite and ruby. As a picture is revealed they go forward, and as it fades away, they stop while going to war. In another narration (rivayat) conveyed by Ali, he describes “reyhi heffafe” similar to a human face, a pleasant wind. In other words, what did Janâb-i Haq with their hearts? Allah took away their anxiety and fear, and placed in them courage and trust, which is sakinah. There are tidings of aid and victory of divine books starting with Musa (Moses). There are narrations (rivayat) that explain what is in that box. As for the narration (rivayat) of Bakiyya ibn Walid, it suggests that the box contained the Tablets, Staff of Musa (Moses), the Torah, heritage of knowledge (ilm), and heritage of religion (din). In other words, there is narrations (rivayat) of Bakiyya ibn Walid that suggests that the box contained the Tablets, the Staff of Muse (Moses), the Torah, a heritage of knowledge, and a heritage of religion (din). As for the matter of trial with stream, Janâb-i Haqq tested them with a river. A handful of water would suffice the one who drank it and his ride. Drinking a handful of water is enough and the water is too harmful for those who drink a lot. Those who drink a lot collapse in a heap, and lose their strength. Because, the command is to drink only a handful. They were ordered to drink only a handful of water while passing the river. And those who drank more had collapsed in a heap, turned pale, and they had gotten a fever. As for the others who followed the command, they passed the test. They drank only handful, and did not take any more water with them. What is important is obedience to the command of Allah. The other things are means of test. Thus and so, Davud Alaihissalam went to fight. And Davud Alaihissalam killed Jalut. Davud was a young soldier under the command of Talut (Saul) back then. Then, Talut (Saul) gave away his daughter to Davud Alaihissalam in marriage. Davud Alaihissalam became the ruler of Jerusalem and the surrounding land, after Talut (Saul) . Davud Alaihissalam knew how to cast armor. He could speak bird language, and knew how to speak eloquently. He gave advice to people of virtue and order to not set free the mischief makers and transgressors. What did he say here? He instructs virtuous people who shall ensure the peace and order to not set free the transgressors and mischief makers, and to not leave the world to them. You would be responsible when they take over the world. O woe to those in the world after that. There will not be any peace among the humanity. In the 195th verse of Surah al-Baqarah, Janâb-i Haqq said: [2:195] “wa-ʾanfiqū fī sabīli llāhi wa-lā tulqū bi-ʾaydīkum ʾilā t-tahlukati wa-ʾaḥsinū ʾinna llāha yuḥibbu l-muḥsinīn”. So, what does Janâb-i Haqq say here?
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“Spend in the way of Allah, and do not cast yourselves into danger with your own hands, and do charity and compete in charity for Allah loves muhsin people, Allah loves who do good.” Allah wants everyone to be muhsin people. And if you ask about what a muhsin person is, they are revered figures who serve and worship Allah as if they see Allah.
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– The End –
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 48
[2:252] “They routed them by the will of Almighty Allah. Davud Alaihissalam had killed Jalut (Goliath). Then, Allah gave him rulership, hikmat (wisdom), and prophethood. And Allah taught him what Allah liked. Had Allah not stopped people by means of one another, then surely the world would have been corrupted. However, Allah has a divine grace upon all worlds. [2:252] “These are the signs of Allah, which We truly recite to you, Indeed, you are one of the rasuls (prophets) that were sent.” Dearest friends! The story of Talut (Saul), Jalut (Goliath), and Davud (a.s.). And the story of the river, which was a trial for the Muslims who passed it. These are major lessons from which we should learn. The Nation (Ummah) of Muhammad, and all humanity are being put to test in all settings. Now, let us talk about the test, they had a prophet and that prophet designated a ruler; there are two groups here, one obeyed the command of their ruler, and the other did not. Those who obeyed had passed the test, and they had past the river. As for those who refuse to obey, they got sick, and stayed there. An army consisted of a handful of people who had passed the test defeated a massive enemy army. That is, Allah has always been with the believers. Allah has an eternal promise. [2:253] “tilka r-rusulu faḍḍalnā baʿḍahum ʿalā baʿḍin minhum man kallama llāhu wa-rafaʿa baʿḍahum darajātin wa-ʾātaynā ʿīsā bna maryama l-bayyināti wa-ʾayyadnāhu bi-rūḥi l-qudusi wa-law shāʾa llāhu mā qtatala lladhīna min baʿdihim min baʿdi mā jāʾathumu l-bayyinātu wa-lākini khtalafū fa-minhum man ʾāmana wa-minhum man kafara wa-law shāʾa llāhu mā qtatalū wa-lākinna llāha yafʿalu mā yurīd” [2:253] “Are there not the rasuls (messengers), some of whom We have given superiority over the others. There are some of them to whom Allah has spoken directly, and Allah raised some of them higher via degrees. We have given those proofs to Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam as well, and we have strengthened him by Ruh al-Qudus (Gabriel). Had Allah willed, his successor nations them would not have killed one another after the evidence came to them. But they fell into dispute, some believed, others denied. Again, had Allah willed, they would not have killed one another. Bu Allah does what Allah wishes.” Dearest and most venerable friends! The prophets are mentioned here in this verse. The Prophet who has been magnified by ranks, the Prophet of Darajāt (rank) is Prophet Muhammad. The Kalimullah is Prophet Musa (Moses). In the verse it is said that Isa (Jesus), son of Mary was strengthened and supported with Ruh al-Qudus (Gabriel).
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That is why foremost among these ulu’l azm prophets come the following. All of these ranks and degrees were given, or rather gifted to them by Janâb-i Haqq. Muhammad Alaihissalam, Ibrahim (Abraham) Alaihissalam, Musa (Moses) Alaihissalam, Isa (Jesus) Alaihissalam, and Nuh (Noah) Alaihissalam were the ulu’l azm prophets. Each and every prophet is great, but these are the greater prophets. The greatest of all prophets, Sultan al-Anbiya (Sultan of the Prophets), Rasul al-Kibriya (the Grand Messenger), Master of Ruz-i Cezâ (the Last Day), and owner of Maqam Mahmud is Prophet Muhammad (asw). That is why all prophets have a grand rank of prophethood in the eyes of Allah. But of course, some of them have superior ranks. Some are many times more superior than the others. So, Janâb-i Haqq said the following after announcing the aforementioned.  “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū” “O you who have believed (iman),”.  “anfiqū mimmā razaqnākum min qabli ʾan yaʾtiya yawmun lā bayʿun fīhi wa-lā khullatun wa-lā shafāʿatun wa-l-kāfirūna humu ẓ-ẓālimūn” Before a day comes, in which there is no trade, no friendship, and no shafa’ah (intercession), o you who believe! Spend out of the provision (rizq) We have given you in the way of Allah. Do your charity and good acts in a complete manner. Do not have a debt out of fards and wajibs, and do your charity, goodness, zakat (poor-dues), and fitre (alms-charity) in a complete manner. As for the disbelievers (kāfirs), they are the zalimun (wrongdoers). And now, we have arrived at Ayatul Kursi that you all know.  “allāhu lā ʾilāha ʾillā huwa l-ḥayyu l-qayyūmu lā taʾkhudhuhū sinatun wa-lā nawmun lahū mā fī s-samāwāti wa-mā fī l-ʾarḍi man dhā lladhī yashfaʿu ʿindahū ʾillā bi-ʾidhnihī yaʿlamu mā bayna ʾaydīhim wa-mā khalfahum wa-lā yuḥīṭūna bi-shayʾin min ʿilmihī ʾillā bi-mā shāʾa wasiʿa kursiyyuhu s-samāwāti wa-l-ʾarḍa wa-lā yaʾūduhū ḥifẓuhumā wa-huwa l-ʿaliyyu l-ʿaẓīm”  “lā ʾikrāha fī d-dīni qad tabayyana r-rushdu mina l-ghayyi fa-man yakfur bi-ṭ-ṭāghūti wa-yuʾmin bi-llāhi fa-qadi stamsaka bi-l-ʿurwati l-wuthqā lā nfiṣāma lahā wa-llāhu samīʿun ʿalīm”  “There is no deity other than Allah.” That is, Allah Ta’ala who is One in Person, Attributes, and Actions. Allah is One in every aspect. Allah is always alive (hayy), and kayyum, who sustains and manages all existence. Neither sleep nor gaflet (unawareness) overtakes Allah. All that is in the heavens and earth belong to Allah. Who is it that shall intercede (shafa’ah) in the presence of Allah except by His leave? Allah knows all that is before and behind the servants (qul). As for they, they cannot comprehend nothing of Allah’s knowledge (ilm) except what Allah wished. Allah’s kursi (throne) has embraced all of the heavens and the earth. It does not give any weariness to Allah to see and look after both. Allah is the Most-Exalted, and Most-Magnificent.” Allah is much exalted, unique, and grand. Allah is too grand, and there is nothing greater than Allah.
Time Stamp: 10:00
[2:256] “There is no compulsion in the religion (din), for the rightness has been distinguished from deviance. So, whoever denies the taghuts and believes in Allah, has held fast a firm handle. That handle shall never break. Allah hears and knows everything.” It is Allah who hears, and makes us hear; it is Allah who knows, and who gives knowledge. That is why, dearest and most valuable friends! Let us dwell on the discovery of the verses of Ayatul Kursi for a little bit. And let us endeavour to convey the life-giving meanings of these holy verses to the souls and selves (nafs). You see, when the life-giving and enlightening meaning of the glorious Quran reaches the hearts, and encompasses the selves, and when they merge with belief (iman) and obedience to Allah, we see that a blissful, life-giving form of living occurs. That is why the divine ihsan (gift), the divine bounty, along with endless and boundless favours were given to Prophet Muhammad. And other prophets were given degrees. Prophet Muhammad is a rahmat (mercy) upon the worlds. [21:107] “wa-mā ʾarsalnāka ʾillā raḥmatan li-l-ʿālamīn”. He is the only Prophet who ascended to miʿraj (the night journey), passing the Lote-tree, the seven layers of the sky, and reaching qāba qawsayni ʾaw ʾadnā (within two bows’ length or even nearer). He has ascended to miʿraj, and reached a rank that is qāba qawsayni ʾaw ʾadnā (within two bows’ length or even nearer), which is a degree of closeness to Allah. The praised station (Al-Maqam Al-Mahmud) was given to him. He was promoted to the praised station (Al-Maqam Al-Mahmud) was given to him. And who promoted him? Prophet Muhammad is a Murad (Will) prophet, and beloved of Allah. Janâb-i Haqq has magnified Janâb-i Haqq’s beloved. Musa (Moses) is Kalimullah. As for Isa (Jesus) Alaihissalam, he is Ruhullah. It is Isa (Jesus) Alaihissalam who said: “Should someone hit your cheek, turn your other cheek.” He had spoken in the cradle, he could resurrect the dead, and could heal a man born blind. Janâb-i Haqq gave a miracle to each and every prophet. But of course, it is Allah who creates these miracles, for prophets cannot create anything. Janâb-i Haqq creates and reveals the miracle in their person. Fighting was forbidden. That is, in the sharīʿah of Isa (Jesus) Alaihissalam, fighting was forbidden. Let us see what Isa (Jesus) had said: “If someone slaps your cheek, turn your other cheek and do not you ever hit him back,” said Isa (Jesus) Alaihissalam. However, you should pay attention to the fact that those who say they follow Isa (Jesus) have organised crusades throughout the history and shed the blood of millions of people. No matter who they are, they have who deviate from the way of the prophet’s sharīʿah (law). And today, the sharīʿah (law) of the entire world is the rules and decrees of the religion of Islam that Almighty Allah sent down, and Prophet Muhammad introduced.
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Whoever denies, and advocates the opposite of these, that mindset shall never be free from troubles no matter what he does. Mind you that they are still waging war, dropping bombs from the sky, and killing people in masses. They still say they believe in Isa (Jesus). Their actions have no correlation whatsoever with Isa (Jesus) or the Bible. They are killing one another, and it has not been that long since those who used to butcher one another, started raining down bombs upon the Islamic world. The concept of jihad (struggle) is nothing like what they understood. Jihad (struggle) is performed to establish the predominance of Allah in the world. Jihad (struggle) is saving the world from the hands of taghuts, transgressors, and those who bleed the humanity dry. That is, the divine rulership, and divine justice. Jihad (struggle) is rendering the command of Haqq victorious. That is, establishing the rulership of Haqq against violations, disunity, and those who are against tawhid (monotheism), and those who are against peace in general. That is defence, so prepare your defence in order to resist. Almighty Allah orders that Muslims should always have a powerful and deterrent force. That is why we have read the stories of Talut (Saul) and Jalut (Goliath). We have also seen the other verses so far, and we shall see the ones we did not yet see. Jihad is making the command of Haqq prevail, and establish tawhid (monotheism), general peace, and the predominance of Haqq against violations, disputes. Janâb-i Haqq tells Muslims to prepare a defence force. Allah tells Muslims that they shall stand ready to withstand with a deterrent and powerful force at all times. You should have a force that is powerful to withstand, so prepare it. You should have a powerful national defence, says Allah. That is for the manifestation of divine justice, brotherhood, and peace of the humanity. Praise be to Allah who does not call wrongdoers disbelievers (kafir). We have to draw attention to an important point here. Every disbeliever (kafir) is a wrongdoer, but every wrongdoer may not be a disbeliever (kafir). For each disbeliever (kafir) is a wrongdoer due to his disbelief (kufr) and transgression. On the other hand, there are many wrongdoers who say they believe and they are Muslims, but they still transgress. You see, they are doers of wrong and owners of a major sin. And these are major sinners, who commit murder. Now, unless a person denies, he cannot be a disbeliever (kafir) by major sins. In that case, he becomes a wrongdoer, and goes deep in Jahannam (Hell). They shall burn in the Fire as long as they are sentenced. However, there is a difference between he who is a disbeliever (kafir) and he who is not. One has belief (iman) along with major sins, and the other has disbelief (kufr) and lacks belief (iman). You see, a disbeliever (kafir) is he who does not have belief (iman). Major sinners are counted as wrongdoers if they do not have denial but belief (iman). That is why every wrongdoer is evaluated according to his wrongdoing.
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Their actional and creed aspects are observed. For example, instead of using the phrase, “he who abandons giving zakat (poor-dues)” Allah used the word “disbeliever (kafir)”. That is used for conveying a firm meaning. For example, the phrase, “whoever becomes a disbeliever (kafir)” is used instead of “whoever abandons hajj (pilgrimage”. “The mushriks (polytheists) who do not give zakāt (alms-giving).” [41:7] “Woe to the mushriks (polytheists) who do not give zakāt (alms-giving).” That is just like what we see in the 6th and 7th verses of Surah al-Fussilat. We should know their tawil (allegorical interpretation) well while discovering these verses. Now, let us talk about their tawil, so what is being said here? The word kāfir (disbeliever) is used instead of he who abandons zakāt (alms-giving). That is because if a person denies that zakāt (alms-giving) is a fard (obligation) he becomes a kāfir (disbeliever) because there are clear verses in Al-Quran Al-Karim that command zakāt (alms-giving). You see, a person becomes a kāfir (disbeliever) when he denies the decree in those clear verses. He becomes a kāfir (disbeliever) when he says zakāt (alms-giving) is not valid. Then, there are verses that clearly command Hajj (pilgrimage). A person who denies and rejects Hajj (pilgrimage) becomes a kāfir (disbeliever). This is how the tawil (allegorical interpretation) of the verses are according to the Ahlus-Sunnah. That is why if you are to call someone a kāfir (disbeliever) you should know Al-Quran Al-Karim well before saying that. Our kalam alims of ahlus-sunnah had made a splendid research on Al-Quran Al-Karim, and the principles of truth which are brought forth are clear. That is why you cannot call everyone kāfir (disbeliever). The kāfir (disbeliever) is obvious. That is, he who do not accept the divine laws, rules, and the divine order. As for the wrongdoers, they say they accept these but they do what the kāfirs (disbelievers) do. These are kāfirs (disbelievers) in action, but they may be believers (mu’mins) in belief. So, they may be wrongdoers who do not fulfil the necessities of their belief even though they believe in their hearts. The religion (din) of all prophets is one. Their risalat (message) is one, but their ranks may differ, and there is benefit in knowing this. The religion (din) of all prophets is one, which is none other than Islam. They were all appointed in the religion (din) of Islam. As the times and conditions chance, rasuls (messengers) of Allah came with new sharīʿah laws and renewed the past. As for the nabis (prophets), they supported the rasuls (messengers). The ranks and degrees of the prophets vary. When the conditions of the differ, the rasuls (messengers) came with new sharīʿah laws, thus renewing the past. Prophet Muhammad’s sharīʿah law has renewed the entirety of the past, and it is still brand-new. The ages, the world, and all things may grow old, but Islam is brand-new. Islam continues to exist with brand-new and holy values that never grow old. Islam continues to give life forever and ever. Islam is the life-giving religion (din). Islam is what protects life against the batil (wrong) mindset that ruins and takes lives. Belief (iman) is requisite for knowing this. Entering the ocean of meaning and enlightenment that is Quran, and drinking from the beverages of that ocean, and drinking abundantly from the springs connected to that ocean is essential.
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[20:111] “wa-ʿanati l-wujūhu li-l-ḥayyi l-qayyūmi wa-qad khāba man ḥamala ẓulma”. All faces (people) have bowed down humbly before the Living and Oft-Sustainer. Those who bear wrongdoing (evil deeds) have been truly visited by frustration. Those who bear evil deeds are losers, and they are the most frustrated ones. The situation of the wrongdoers is indeed bad. The wrongdoers are as evil as disbelievers (kāfirs). Now, let us talk about Ism-i Azams (the greatest names) again. It is said that this Ayatul Kursi is Ism-i Azam (the greatest name). There are narrations (rivayat) of Ahmad ibn Hanbali and Ibn Kathir. Besides, Ism-i Azam (the greatest name) is mentioned in the first and second verses of Surah Ali Imran. The 111st verse of Surah Ta-Ha which I have just recited is also considered Ism-i Azam (the greatest name). There are narrations (rivayat) about this Ism-i Azam (the greatest name). Each and every name of Allah Ta’ala is great. And they are all Ism-i Azam (the greatest name), and Allah has names that are greater from each other. So, the name “al-hayyu” means the owner of perfect (kâmil) life. Allah is the owner of essential life. It is Allah who gives life to all. Allah is the owner of life, and it is Allah who gives life to the creatures, no one else. So, it means that Allah is the Life-Giver, who is “al-hayyu”, the Sustainer of life. Islam is the life-giving religion, for it is the order established by Allah. As for the name “al-qayyūm”, as you know these two names are generally used together. So, the name “al-qayyūm” in “al-hayyu l-qayyūm”, is the Creator and Sustainer of all things, moments, the worlds, the universe, and all things. Allah is wajib al-wūjūd (necessary existent), who manages and rules all things. Allah is necessary existent, who preserves the existence of all things. Allah’s divine existence is the necessity of Allah’s being (zat). Allah’s existence is a necessity of Allah’s being (zat). Allah is extant by Allah’s being (zat). And it is Allah who sustains the existence of all things. In other words, Allah is al-hayyu l-qayyūm. It is Allah who directs and preserves things. It is Allah who sustains all existence, for Allah is wajib al-wūjūd (necessary existent). And Allah’s existence is due to Allah’s Being (zat). It is seen in Qiyām that everything is mortal. It is Allah who creates and sustains all existence, that is why everything other than Allah is mortal. Only Allah is al-Baqi (the Infinite). What philosophies are doing wrong is that there are philosophies that believe in the kûdum (power) of the universe. These are the naturists, and they are wrong. They have deviated. What they do is one of the greatest shirks (polytheism). They divinized the nature. It is none other than Allah who creates and preserves the nature, all laws, this universe, the galaxies, the stars, all systems, the heavens, arş-i ala (the ninth heaven), the kursi (throne).
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It is Allah who creates and sustains the existence of all things. Allah is extant due to Allah’s Being (zat). Allah does not need the ninth heaven (arş-ı âlâ), kursi (throne), the havens or any other thing. That is, all things are in need of Allah (to exist). This belief occurred with the meaning that explains the truth in the names of Allah, and this is what we call Islamic belief. Such a belief only exists in Muslims. As for the others, they divinized the creatures, Isa, Musa, Ali or some other person. Those who do not know Allah divinize one another and worship. That was the situation back then, it is today, and it will be tomorrow. Go ahead, and study the mindsets who are not under the command of Allah, who do not know Allah by the almighty sifats (attributes), who do not accept the rulership of Allah and the order established by Allah. They bow down before others but not before Allah. Study them, and tell me, who is their god? Dearest and most valuable friends! You see, the first wisdom (hikmat) behind that Islam came to the earth as saviour is to break the idols. That is, the idols in the souls, and remove the tabus in the brain. Islam came down to introduce the Creator, and teach how to be a servant (qul) to the Creator. Islam gives us these lessons, and the life-giving lessons start there. And if a heart that lacks belief (iman) it cannot find life. It has to have true belief (iman). That is, you should truly know Allah Ta’ala. Every remembrance (dhikr) is indeed virtuous (fazilat) but why? The virtue (fazilat) of reciting asma ul-husnā (names of Allah) is immense, but why? This virtue (fazilat) is high when you know the names of Allah with their correct meanings, and when you correctly know Allah. So, if you do not know the names and misunderstand them, then you will not be able to earn the virtue (fazilat). You should act with those who know these well, for everyone speaks nowadays. Besides, the understanding of religion (din), Islam, and Quran of Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah is the understanding of Prophet Muhammad and the sahabah (companions). They had protected this understanding. And random talks are not expressions of the truth. The expression of the truth is learned from Al-Quran Al-Karim itself, and from Ahlus-Sunnah by means of narrations (rivayat). It is necessary to thoroughly comprehend the understanding of religion (din) of Prophet Muhammad and the ashab (companions), our mujtahids, and the grand ulama (Islamic scholars) that come from the root of Ahlus-Sunnah. It is also important to be careful about ahlul bid’ah (deviant innovators) and deviancy. Ahlul bid’ah and deviancy are religious understandings that do not suit Ahlus-Sunnah. Ahlul bid’ah tried to import non-religious things into religion. And they comment the religion (din) according to their own sweet will. Some of then went too far in ifrat and tafrit in aqidah. They tried to import deviant ideas into the religion (din). Some tried that in actional matters, and others tried that in matters of sunnah (customs). They also tried these in the branches of history, philosophy, modernity, tasawwuf (sufism). They were influenced by Hinduism, Rome, Greece, and the west. Thus, they tried to import ideas of ahlul bid’ah, deviancy, and foreign inflation into the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah. Islam is a sun that defies darkness. The way of Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah shall continue until Qiyamah, and no one may affect it. They may try, only to end up breaking themselves. They may also deceive people, which is indeed a pity.
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Now, let us continue on our discovery on Ayatul Kursi. Our Almighty Rabb (Lord) has these two names, “al-hayyu l-qayyūm” and “al-aliyyu”. Allah’s maqam (place) is unique and holy. Allah’s glory is endless. Allah’s sultanate is powerful, and peerless. The peerless sultanate and qudra (omnipotence) belong to Allah. Allah has an inimitable sublimity over the creatures. The word “infisam” means “to be broken”. The word ”l-wuthqā“ means “intact”. The word “sinatun” means “unwariness”. Now, in the 23rd verse of Surah al-Jathiyah, Janâb-i Haqq said: Janâb-i Haqq says, “Who may guide who takes his own desires as god, and Allah left him astray knowingly, whose heart and eyes are sealed, except Allah?” “Will you not take a lesson,” says Allah. May Allah shield us from such things. Allah draws attention to taghuts (idols) here. Allah mentions a taghut (idol), and people who make you go astray and deviate are taghuts. They make people go astray, and deviate at the same time. That is for they are taghuts who got depraved and deviated. These taghuts are the pharaohs, nimrots, magicians, oracles, all shaitans, and all false gods. And know that their handles are rotten. But the firmest handle that shall stay intact eternally is the handle of Allah Ta’ala. And that handle does not break ever. Al-Quran Al-Karim has been extended to us from arş-i ala (the ninth heaven) and al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Sacred Tablet). It is like a rope, which does not rupture, extending from Allah to us. Those who embrace Quran and Islam have cling on a firm handle that shall not break ever. The leader of Islam is Prophet Muhammad. You see, Ayatul Kursi and the following verses inform us this truth (haqiqa), which gives us life. But why? That is because Islam saves us from taghuts (idols) and polytheism, fastening us to Allah. Besides, Ayatul Kursi has been accepted as the most virtuous of all verses. As for the most virtuous surahs, they are Fatihah Sharif and Baqarah. However, the most virtuous verse is Ayatul Kursi. Each and every verse is virtuous. But it has been conveyed that Ayatul Kursi is more virtuous. Ten sentences in Ayatul Kursi express substantive exaltation of Zat al-Bari (Person of the Initiator). That is, as Ibn Kathīr stated, and there are other narrations (rivayat) as well. The word “nūr” is in singular form, for the haqq and haqiqa (truth) is One. Allah is One. But “zulumāt” is in plural form, why though? That is because ways to deviancy are numerous. As for haqq (truth), it is One. Against all the darkness and false beliefs, the truth (haqq) is One. “Nūr” is the Islamic light that Allah lighted in hearts. That is the light of Quran, which enlightens people eternally. That is the life-giving light. Now, al-Qurtubi says the following regarding this: There were two boys, who were Christians before Islam.
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Their father was among the ansar (helpers). They came to visit their father in Madīnah with a group who traded olive oil. Their father immediately offered Islam to his two Christian sons. He seized them by the collar and said, “I shall not leave you until you become Muslims,”. Janâb-i Haqq says, “there is no compulsion in religion,” in the 256th verse that says, “lā ʾikrāha fī d-dīni,”. There is no compulsion to those who refuse. That is because Islam is not a religion that you can force people to believe. Islam is a religion of utmost reality, and divine laws. Islam is completely divine. That is why everyone should accept it with pleasure, lovingly. Only then a person may become a Muslim with sincere belief (iman). Otherwise, his belief (iman) would not be acceptable (makbul). So, what does Janâb-i Haqq say in the end of Ayatul Kursi? [2:255] “wa-lā yaʾūduhū ḥifẓuhumā wa-huwa l-ʿaliyyu l-ʿaẓīm”. Allah preserves the heavens and the earth and Allah is not tired by that. Allah is not tired by that for the concept of hardship is not valid for Allah. Hardships are the powerless who cannot afford. But Allah is the owner of an almighty and peerless qudrah (omnipotence). That is why there is no hardship for Allah. Allah is free and away from hardships. Everything is bound to the “kun (be)” order of Allah. Everything happens when Allah says “be”. For Allah is the Creator with the unmatched authority. Now, let us talk about kursi (seat, throne etc.). Let us convey our notes from our discoverers who explored the meaning. Hasan al-Basri (r.a.) mentions arş. Ibn Abbas said, “Allah’s knowledge (ilm) and rahmat (mercy) has encompassed everything,” in the 7th verse of Surah al-Mu’minun. Ibn Kathir says that is different than arş. They say this about the kursi (seat, throne etc.). Janâb-i Haqq has a kursi (seat, throne etc.) that extend over seven layers of skies. And there is the ninth heaven (arş-ı âlâ) that extend over the kursi. What is more, Allah has a unique qudrah (omnipotence) that encompass all things from the inside and outside. Lāhutī world has encompassed all worlds. That is why the concepts of beginning and end are for us. Janâb-i Haqq does not have a beginning nor an end. Endless and boundless qudrah (omnipotence) belongs to Allah. Allah’s qudrah (omnipotence) is infinite, and no one may resist Allah’s will. Nothing can ever resist Allah’s will. You may only take refuge in Allah’s rahmat (mercy) and grace, and benefit from the eternal rahmat (mercy). The moment you do not know, and object to Allah, you will fall into the situation of Iblis and you will be ruined. Our Master, Prophet Muhammad (asw) is the owner of darajāt (rank) and Shafa’ah Uzma (Great Intercession). You see, there are narrations (rivayat) that say Maqam al-Mahmud (the praised station) in the centre of the heaven (arş) is the place of Prophet Muhammad. And there are verses in Al-Quran Al-Karim that inform us that Maqam al-Mahmud has been given. Now, let us continue our lesson with notes on “Kursi”.
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– The End –