Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 10
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 10
Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammed ve âlâ âli Muhammed ve âlâ âlihi ve eshabihî ve edbâîhi ecmaîn. Nestağfirullah bi adedi zünübina hatta tufer. Allahu Ekber hatta tufer. Allahümmeslih Ümmete Muhammed verham Ümmete Muhammed. Allahümmağfirli cemiı’an Ümmete Muhammed bi hûrmeti Muhammed Mustafa sallallahu teâlâ aleyhi vesellem. Sübhanallahu ve bihamdih adedi hâlgıh. Ve mil’el mizân ve mûnte’hel ilm ve meblâğa rıda ve zinetel arş.
Most valuable and venerable readers, and dear friends! We are continuing our lecture with preliminary notes about Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. Almighty Allah, please bestow much rahmat (blessing) upon all Islamic scholars (âlims). We continuing on giving you preliminary notes from Al-Imam Al-Azam’s valuable work, Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. May Allah everlastingly bestow his rahmat (blessing) upon Al-Imam Al-Azam, that valuable individual who was in service of Islam, and who rose upon the realm of humanity as a sun of knowledge throughout his life. Rahmatullahi Alayh wa alayhim ajmain.
Dear friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam said, “We do not declare any Muslim a blasphemer (qafir) because of a sin he committed unless that Muslim considers the prohibited things (haram) permissible (halal). Nor do we revoke the status of belief (iman) from him. We genuinely continue to call him a believer. It is permissible (jaiz) to be a sinful believer (fasiq) without being a blasphemer (qafir),” because there are no people not having a sin. But if he considers prohibited things (haram) permissible (halal) then that persons befalls into blasphemy (kufr) and is no longer a believer. Al-Imam Al-Azam said that a person can be a sinful believer unless he considers the sin permissible, and believers can be sinful, too. This is the opinion of the people of the Sunnah. Kharijites consider those who commit major sins, namely mürtekib-i kebîre, a blasphemer (qafir), but we cannot call a believer a blasphemer (qafir). In other words, in the belief system of the followers of the Sunnah, and foremost among which Al-Imam Al-Azam, and by his side the Tabi’un, and before them the companions, and their leader our Beloved Prophet, and mighty Islam that Almighty Allah manifested, and its proofs, and the Islamic scholars of the followers of the Sunnah and the community never considered anyone who committed a sin, whether it was major or a minor sin, a “blasphemer”. Yet the situation would change if he or she considers a thing that is definitely prohibited (haram) permissible one (halal). That person departs from belief (iman) and falls into blasphemy (kufr). Except that the Kharijites are considering those who commit major sins “blasphemer (qafir)”. They also had ascribed to Ali this defamatory word, they slandered the greatest of the Muslims of the realm, most valuable hero, and âlim (Islamic scholar) of the realm, Ali, who was a Rashidun Caliph and a member of Muhammad’s household. The Kharijites ascribed Muslims attributes that did not suit them. Ali had slaughtered them in The Battle of Nahrawan.
So, if his sin was established via concrete evidence, in other words if he considers the sin (haram) permissible (halal) then that person becomes a blasphemer (qafir). No sin (haram) can be considered as permissible (halal), and vice versa. For considering a sin (haram) permissible (halal) means refuting Allah and His Messenger. Almighty Allah manifests whether something is permissible (halal). If Allah says, “this is prohibited (haram),” then you can’t say, “this is permissible (halal).” If you do, then you will have deviated, and refuted Allah and His Messenger. Allah and His Messenger always manifests the absolute truth.
Al-Imam Al-Azam indicated by saying, “Nor do we revoke the status of iman (belief) from him and genuinely continue to call him a mu’min (believer),” that every Muslim is named genuine mu’min (believer). This shows that iman (belief) and Islam is united. Friends, we have explained the subject. The ones who call the sins (haram) permissible (halal) becomes a blasphemer (qafir). Therefore, unless they consider the sins (haram) permissible (halal) they can be sinful believers, these may be major or minor sins. One cannot call someone blasphemer (qafir) for they committed minor or major sins but one cannot consider the sin permissible, too. The term “fisq” refers to someone who deviated from the way of worshipping Allah by means of committing major sins. So, the owner of “fisq” is named, “fasiq”. Those who deviated from obeying Allah are called “fasiq”.
Friends, this time, one of our elders said the following: “Al-Kabair, namely The Major Sins, are the ones whose punishments in the world and the Hereafter were announced by absolute evidence, examples would be the excessive things done by the Lut Tribe, another example would be marriage with a woman whom his own father had married; and such sins. In short, al-Kabair is the name for the major sins.
Now, the sins that are ascribed by attribute of immorality. Sadru’ş-Şeriya Ubediyullah bin Mesud el-Mahbubi, whose year of date is the year hijri 747, addressed the issue as we have explained above. The followers of the Mu’tazila School address the ones who commit major sins “fasiq”, but their opinion of the term is unlike the view of the people of the Sunnah, Mu’tazila thinks a fasiq is neither blasphemer (qafir) nor believer (mu’min). In other words, they say: “If a person had committed a major sin, then he is neither a mu’min (believer) nor a blasphemer (qafir).” This is Mu’tazila’s own opinion. They say, “You can neither call a fasiq blasphemer (qafir) nor mu’min (believer).” According to them the place for a fasiq is a range amid belief (iman) and blasphemy (kufr). “Al-Manzilah baina al-Manzilatain,” is the name of the place the Mu’tazila had assigned for fasiq. Yes friends, this also is an opinion of the Mu’tazila themselves. The people of the Sunnah reject these opinions.
Moreover, Al-Imam Al-Azam says, “Wiping the Shoes [that fulfil the conditions] is a Sunnah. The Tarawih in nights of the month of Ramadan is also a Sunnah.” Wiping over the shoes [that fulfil the conditions] in ablution is permissible (jaiz) and this is a well-known Sunnah. In this case, it is feared that those who reject this action being a Sunnah may befall into blasphemy (kufr), besides, their iman (belief) is hereby in danger, because the report of this Sunnah is almost Mutawatir, they have said. Friends, let me inform you about the matter of Mutawatir. Mutawatir Report is type of report given by a community who are impossible to unify in lying. On the other hand, well-known report is the one which could not attain the rank of tawatur and has two narrators in every generation, this type of Hadith-i Sharif’s is called well-known or famous.
“I fear that those who believe it is not permissible (jaiz) to wipe over the shoes [that fulfil the conditions] in ablution, might become blasphemers (qafir). The reports and works on this issue are at the rank of tawatur,” this word belongs to Imam-i Karkhi. Yes, friends, Imam-i Karkhi said the above quote. Because Imam-i Karkhi is also a valuable and eminent Islamic âlim (scholar). This issue was addressed by Sheikh Ekmeleddin al-Babirti in Sharh al-Wasiyya, and the owner of the summary also addressed this issue. İftiharu din Tahir bin Ahmet el Buhârî, it is possible to find these in his work, too.
Dear friends, what the owner of the summary of al-Fatawa said was narrated as follows in al-Muntaqa: “They asked Abu Hanifa of the opinion of the people of the Sunnah in this subject. He replied as follows: “We hold Abu Bakr and Uthman superior. And we love Uthman and Ali. We see wiping over the shoes [that fulfil the conditions] permissible (jaiz), and we also pray (perform Salah) behind sinful or pious believers.” The guider is Allah (jalla jalaluhu). Now, Abu Hanifa had replied with the above quote to Qatada’s (Radeyallahu ′Anhu) question. Hasan al-Basri (Rahmatullahi Alaih) says: “I have met with 70 people of the Ashab Al-Qir’am. They all used to wipe over their shoes [that fulfilled the conditions] in ablution. Abu Hanifa had said, “I had not decided that wiping over shoes [that fulfil the conditions] except for obtaining evidence clear and bright as the day.” In other words, he said that he had said so only after obtaining all the evidence.
Most valuable and venerable friends! “It is permissible (jaiz) to perform namâz (prayer) behind any mu’min (believer) whether they are sinful or pious.” He stated, of course, that which is the least. There is also the aspect of praying behind virtuous and qualified people, but this will be separately explained in its own lecture. For there is not one person without a sin, it is enough that there is no danger in his belief (iman), or that he is not of ahlul bid’ah (deviants). Even though performing namâz (prayer) behind a fâcir is permissible (jaiz) for still has belief (iman), it is makruh. Editor’s note: Makruh means something which is da disliked or offensive act. A fâcir is a person who publicly deviated from Allah’s way.” Now, look, what we meant here is this: It is makruh to perform namâz (prayer) behind a fâcir when a pious individual is present; and we said that after stating that which is the minimum. This act being makruh is due to that person did not paid necessary attention and importance to the religious commands. Our Beloved Prophet, commanded: “The one who pray behind a pious âlim (Islamic scholar), is as if he had prayed behind one amongst prophets. The previous minor sins of the one who pray behind one amongst prophets are forgiven.” You can clearly see the merits of this.
Al-Imam Al-Azam also mentioned the above hadith that come from our Beloved Prophet in his Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. Dear and beloved friends, the source of the above narration is that according to al-Ajluni and al-Munavi all of the hadiths whose meanings are the one above are reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (Radeyallahu ′Anhu). This report is present in Keşfü’l Hafâ, Fayz al-Qadr, and al-Jaami as-Sagheer. So, let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatuallahi alayh) said, listen: “We do not say that the believer is not harmed by sins, for the sins do harm. We do not say that the believer does not enter Hell, nor do we say that a believer remains in Hell eternally, that is even if he was indeed a sinner (fasiq), as long as he departed this life as a mu’min (believer).” Because, Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatuallahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) said, we cannot say that a believer stays in Hell everlastingly as long as he departed this life in state of belief. Now, the Murjie School says, “Sin does not harm mu’min (believer),” in this regard. This Murjie School was also rejected by the people of the Sunnah for according to them this is a superstitious school of thought. Friends, Imam-i Fahreddin er-Razi says in his work, al-Erbaîn: “There are three views regarding the person who is not blasphemer (qafir) but committed major sins, namely murtaqib al-kabir. Firstly, the ones who say that the one who committed major sin definitely is not going not be punished. The owner of this view is Muqatil ibn Sulayman and the Murjie and that view had not been accepted by the people of the Sunnah. The people of the Sunnah reject that, too. Lastly, the view of those who do not speak precisely regarding whether they will see punishment or be forgiven. This view is the view of most âlims (Islamic scholars). This is also the most acknowledged and acceptable opinion amongst the three. The opinion of the people of the Sunnah is this.
So, Almighty Lord may forgive if He wishes, and He may also give punishment if He wishes, too. The servant has to repent and pray to Allah for forgiveness. Otherwise, speaking like the Murjie, the Mu’tazila and the Khawarij does not suit the understanding of the people of the Sunnah. We cannot say things like schools such as Murjie who said: “Good deeds are accepted; bad deeds are forgiven.” This is what Al-Imam Al-Azam said. So, we can say that Al-Imam Al-Azam rejects the Murjie here again. Al-Imam Al-Azam says, “We do not say, that our good deeds are definitely accepted, and our sins are forgiven, like the Murjie. Rather we say that whoever does a good deed fulfilling all its conditions, free of invalidating flaws and nullifying contents, without having his deed voided through blasphemy and becoming a murtadd [literally one who turns his back from Islam] until departing this life on the state of belief, Allah Ta’ala will not repeal his good deeds.”
For he did not become a murtadd, protected his belief (iman) and carried on doing good deeds, he says that Allah will not repeal this servant’s good deeds, rather He accepts it from him, and rewards him for it. These are present in Allah’s promises. The thawab (reward) of those who commit major sins will not become voided because his worships will not be nullified. The creed of the people of the Sunnah is like this. But this does not apply to those who left the religion. If he enters into a state in which he harms his belief (iman) and becomes murtadd, and if he dies on that state, this person cannot go into the Paradise. Because, being a sinful believer is one thing, lacking belief (iman) is another. People can be sinful believers, as long as they don’t have blasphemy (kufr), polytheism (shirk), hypocrisy (nifaq), disbelief, becoming murtadd, and similar dangers which destroy one’s iman (belief). Iman (belief) must be within one everlastingly. The belief that lasts one hundred or one thousand years is not belief. Iman (belief) must be everlastingly present within a person, with no end. This belief (iman) must be acknowledged by heart and declared by tongue. One must never fall into doubt. Al-Imam Al-Azam and Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. He pointed out in his Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar all the dangers that harm one’s belief (iman), and how a belief (iman) can be true belief (iman).
Dear friends, “And whoever denies the faith (iman) and become blasphemers (qafir) – surely his work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the ones who lost the most,” says the verse (ayah) of the Qur’an, namely Surah Al-Ma’idah 5th verse. Allah Ta’ala commanded, “This day all good foods have been made lawful (halal), and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful (halal) for you and your food is lawful (halal) for them. And [lawful in marriage age] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking [secret] lovers. And whoever unrecognize the laws of the sharia, their work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.” To do actions by obeying their conditions, or rather their obligations (fard), are actions done by good intentions and sincerity. Whereas the faults that remove the rewards (thawab) of such deeds are the actions done via narcissism, hypocrisy, and showing off. Valuable friends, now, the faults are actions done via hypocrisy and via showing off. If a person does a deed via being a hypocrite, via being a narcissist, and via showing off, in other words if he dances, and spins around while playing an instrument, and if he believes that he is worshipping, what does these actions do to their rewards? They destroy the person’s actions. Now, Allah (c.c.) gives the rewards of righteous deeds. This reward, in other words giving the rewards due to the good deeds of His servant is not an obligation on Allah, this is due to His kindness and favour. Almighty Lord, once again, commands: “Allah has promised the believing men and women gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally, and pleasant dwellings in gardens of perpetual residence; but approval from Allah is greater. IT is that which is the great attainment.” This is the 72nd verse (ayah) of the Surah At-Tawbah.
You shall become a mu’min (believer), you shall hold your faith (iman) within your heart everlastingly. You shall not have deeds that would harm your faith (iman). You should not possess traits of false belief or words, in other words, polytheism (shirk), blasphemy (kufr), disbelief, hypocrisy (nifaq), discord or hypocrisy, egoism and showing off. These things harm both belief (iman) and deeds of a person. Almighty Lord said in another verse (ayah) of the Qur’an: “That is the bounty of Allah, which He gives to whom He wills…” “…Indeed, Allah does not fail in His promise.”
Friends, let’s see again what Al-Imam Al-Azam said: “As for the sins less than blasphemy (kufr) and polytheism (shirk), for which the one who committed them did not repent from them, but died on that state, then he is subject to Allah’ Ta’ala’s will, which may punish him in Hellfire or forgive him without punishing him at all. This is something Allah would know,” says Al-Imam Al-Azam. Al-Imam Al-Azam puts forth the fundamentals of faith (iman) by pointing to the verses of the Qur’an.
Except for shirk (polytheism) and kufr (blasphemy)… So, what is shirk and kufr? Muslims should know what these are. We gave you the essence of the entire Al-Qur’an Al-Karim under the name of discovery notes, and preliminary notes from all parts of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim in all our previous lectures; and we will continue to give you many more preliminary notes. Those who listened to our lectures and the preliminary notes and discovery notes of ‚the light that gives life‘ which are based on authentic and true documents of the Qur’an, the Sunnah, Ijma, Ummah, al-Qiyas al-Fuqaha, they are considered to have graduated from the biggest school of the world. You should listen well, comprehend well, and place these notes into your heart. You should not just listen in vain. Listen over and over again to have the information may fully settle into your heart. Dear friends, if a person who committed major or minor sins except for shirk and blasphemy (kufr) dies before repenting, in that would be a work of Allah’s justice if that person sees torment in there Hereafter. If he were to be freed from torments of Hell that would be a work of Allah’s kindness. You need to comprehend these well. The owner of sin may be freed from hellish torture via an amnesty, or shafaa’ah of an intercessor and this is the proof that a person who owns iman (belief) may not stay in hell forever, and that the presence of his iman prevented this. There are sinful believers who died while still having iman in their hearts. Almighty Lord hereby wishes, He might not have them enter Hell ever, or He might free from Hell those who are already in it. If there is hypocrisy in an action, beware, we are saying, “hypocrisy”. The people need to know hypocrisy, that two facedness cancels the reward (thawab) of the deed. Same goes for arrogance, too; it nullifies the reward of the deed, destroys it. Hypocrisy is the worships that are done to show off to others. Those deeds are infected by hypocrisy and arrogance is extreme conceit. Now, these are dangers one by one; they destroy the rewards of the deeds.
Again, Almighty Lord said: “O you who have believed, do not invalidate your charities with reminders or injury as does one who spends his wealth only to be seen by the people and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. His example is like that of a large smooth stone upon which is dust and is hit by a downpour that leaves it bare. They are unable to keep anything of what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.” This way the 264th verse (ayah) of the Surah Al-Baqarah.
The following narration is reported from our Prophet: ““La yekbenullahu Teâlâ amelen fihî miktâbe zerrâti minel riyâ (May Allah protect us). – Allah Ta’ala does not accept the action that has the slightest fragment of hypocrisy within,” said our Prophet. Yes, dear friends, one can find the sources of this Hadith-i Sharif upon research. Because this hadith is based on a verse of the Qur’an. The hadith gains authenticity when there is a verse in the hadiths source. Even though Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullah alayh) said hypocrisy cancels the reward of the action, he did not say that it destroys the action itself. This way, he attached importance to the glory of the reward and the action of a deed. The true purpose and reason of a deed is the action and the reward. If the action and the reward become void, then the deed is no longer valuable. You, Muslim, beg to Allah day and night so that your deeds not be infected by hypocrisy, conceit, or hidden two facedness. Worship only to Allah and only for Allah with sincerity. You ask Allah to see you, it is not important whether others see you. It is not important also if they knew or not. You should endeavour to do deeds that will please Allah Ta’ala. The superiority of your deeds will be increased by many times. It is said that ujub, in other words vanity is similar to hypocrisy in rendering the rewards and actions of the deeds void. Ujub means being certain that Allah will not punish you, being unafraid that belief (iman) may disappear, and thinking that no deeds goes in vain. One can never be sure of these things. He can never lose hope, but can’t be sure either. Now, listen well because I am repeating, besides self-conceit, look, “being certain that Allah will not punish you,” can one be sure about Allah’s punishment? We always fear Allah. We have weakness, ignorance and unwariness. Even the things we do the best, we do them by our inability. Can the one who knows his ignorance, and unwariness possess ujub? Can he be certain of Allah’s punishment? It is possible to not fear that your belief (iman) may vanish? Our faith (iman) shall be everlasting by Allah’s assistance and bounty. These are bound to Allah’s divine assistance and guidance, His bounty and virtue, and His help to us. Thinking that your deeds will not go in vain… You may befall into such a mistake that all your deeds may go in vain. For that, the Muslim shall not possess ujub (self-conceit), he shall fear Allah every moment, and acknowledge that all success comes from Allah. He must fear Allah everlastingly, and he must not lose hope forever. Beloved friends, arrogantly being certain that Allah will not punish you because of your good deeds and worship is blasphemy (kufr). Look, ujub leads to blasphemy in the end. Pay attention to this part. Being certain about Allah’s punishment by being arrogant because of your ibadat (worship) is blasphemy (kufr). No one can be sure that Allah will not punish them; nor they can lose hope.
Mu’jiza and Karamat. Dear friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam addressed the fundamentals about belief (iman) in his Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. Miracles (mu’jizat) are ordained to the Prophets, and the supernatural wonders (karamat) privilege to the awliya, they are all true. Now, some people deny the miracles, and some deny the supernatural wonders. These are all undeniable facts. Let’s see, Al-Imam Al-Azam said: “Miracles are ordained to the Prophets. The supernatural wonders are ordained to the awliya.” The ones ordained to the Prophets are miraculous circumstances such as resurrecting the dead, spouting water through fingers, not being affected by fire, these are called miracles and ayahs. Allah Ta’ala wished these supernatural occurrences, and them taking place, to be the evidence of their prophethood and righteousness. The miracles ordained to the Prophets occur by Allah’s wish, and His permission.
Moreover, the supernatural wonders that emerge from awliya are called “karamat”. The occurrences of these wonders are Allah’s gifts and bestowments to His servants. Allah offers treats to his awliya servants, and what do they do with these offerings? They honour those treats. They render those offerings and exalt their honour. Dear friends, the word “wali” which is singular of “awliya” means “friend” in the dictionary. If a servant becomes a friend to Allah by the abundance of his worship and obedience, and his sincerity, then Allah Ta’ala approach him with his blessings, bounty and generous gifts. So, how do Allah approach him? Allah approach His servant with his blessings, bounty, and generous gifts. In other words, Almighty Allah, is free from time and space without a “how” [modality], draws his blessings closer to whoever he wishes, approaches with his blessings; His punishment embraces whoever He wishes. Allah approaches His awliya servants with His blessings and bounty and sincerity. Supernatural wonders performed by the enemies of Allah, such as Satan, Pharaoh and the Anti-Christ (Dajjal), which are recorded in narrations as having happened in the past or will happen in the future; we can’t name these neither miraculous nor wondrous. We can only name these facilitating their needs, in other words, these are istidraaj. For Almighty Lord increases facilitating the needs of His enemies to punish them,” Now, listen good. “Facilitates the needs of His enemies to beguile and punish them.”
He gave agency to the Pharaoh, and look what happened? It prepared his own demise. He gave agency to the Satan, and what happened? The Satan is the chief of evil. He has a special place in the deepest point of the Hell. Look into there, for istidraaj leads to the lowest and deepest points. Now, the rise of infamous people such as the Satan and Pharaoh is for throwing them into the deepest holes. You must not confuse these. Those people are given blessings to beguile them, and they get spoiled constantly, they get furious every step of the way, thus preparing their own destruction themselves. In the end they all had perished one by one, and they will continue to be perished. They increase their tranny. All of tat is permissible (jaiz) and possible. Life, is a world of test. People can wish whatever, and Almighty Lord does not cut down on independence, freedom or desires of people in the path they follow. He tests every individual in a different way and creates reasons of destruction in return of their insurgency. He also bestows people rank, blessing, treat, and kindness in return of their good deeds, and he grants them positions. The people are always given the provision in return of their earnings, whether in return of sin or in return of good deeds. Those tawagit [tyrannical powers] such as Pharaoh and Satan are preparing their own demise themselves. Their ranks and positions and the great opportunities they held are only illusions that will result in their destruction; and indeed, it had resulted in their destruction. Take a look, Nimrod had founded the greatest empire of the world, yet he was destroyed. Take another look, Shaddads, Pharaohs, and numerous tribes had advanced materially, yet they all got destroyed. For that reason, one must not confuse miracles, supernatural wonders, and istidraj with one another. Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmtuallahi alayh) had also profoundly understood these matters and explained them to the world. The miracles are given to Prophets as evidence to prove their cause and supernatural wonders (karamat) are Allah Ta’ala’s offerings and gifts to awliya. Therefore, they are unlike the supernatural occurrences which appear in the hands of Allah’s enemies. The fulfilment of their need is not far from mind. Al-Imam Al-Azam after stating the above info, expressed that the punishment was present and as their tyranny and blasphemy increases, they will become more deserving of punishment.
Almighty Lord commanded in this respect: “And do not let those who withhold what Allah has given them time and bounty ever think that it is better for them. We gave them opportunity only for them to increase their sins. There is a punishment for them that will render them despicable and contemptible. So, what does Almighty Lord do if humankind desires to earn something? He gives them the equivalent of their earnings. He gives istidraaj to those who choose the path to blasphemy. Hence, they increased their tranny, blasphemy and shirk. Allah gave them istidraaj, and in the end they are all destroyed.
“But those who deny Our ayahs – We will progressively lead them to destruction from where they do not know.” Look, this verse was Surah Al-A’raf 182nd verse (ayah), let’s see what Almighty Lord said.
So, istidraaj. What is it? Almighty Lord says He will slowly and progressively lead them to destruction. To numerous ones rank and position are given in order to prepare their destruction; goods and possessions are only given to them to destroy him. He thinks those istidraaj are his rights, and says “I am a righteous person, that’s why these were given to me.” He is delusional. The resources that are earned by evil ways, wrong ways bring about nothing but their own destruction, they will be damned and perished unless they are on Allah’s path. The realm of humankind must understand these profoundly. Friends, when you witness Allah Ta’ala giving the blessings he wished who is persistent on insurgency, know that this is istidraaj. In other words, something that will gradually and slowly lead him to punishment and destruction. You see, our Beloved Prophet also clarified this Hadith-i Sharif via verses of the Qur’an. This report is present in precious works like Fayz al-Qadr and books of al-Suyuti.
“Allah Ta’ala was eternally The Creator before He created the creatures. Almighty Lord was The Provider even before He provided.” There, this quote beautifully explains us that Al-Imam Al-Azam profoundly understood Almighty Allah’s names and attributes. He beautifully explained us: “He was The Creator before He created, and He was The Provider before He provided.” Al-Imam Al-Azam is the lecturing the other âlims (Islamic scholars) also in this matter. Many had fallen into error in this regard, yet Al-Imam Al-Azam’s knowledge continues to shine, and he keeps conveying true knowledge to the world for the last thirteen centuries. Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain), continuously repeated the following word to make strengthen it. He says: “Allah (jalla jalaluhu) was eternally The Creator even before the creatures were created. He was The Provider before He provided. He was al-Qadir before what he predestined came into existence. He was The Destroyer even before the ones He destroyed came into existence. He was The Most Merciful even before those who attained His mercy ever existed. Friends, He was Maʿbud (worshipped) even before those who worship him were created. He was the acceptor of prayers even before he fulfilled the wishes of who prayed to him. He was ganî (omnipotent) even before the creation of the earth and the skies. He was the Malik Al Mulk (The Owner of All Sovereignty) even before creation of all states and estates. Then all creatures became mortal beings, yet Almighty Allah is immortal, He is immortal.”
Yes, dear friends He was The One Who Blesses even before the creation of those who attained his blessing. He was The Most Merciful even before the creation of those who attained his blessing. Therefore, attaining true belief (iman) is not possible via false knowledge, one must at first recognize Almighty Allah well, understand His names and attributes well, and also profoundly comprehend the true information Al-Qur’an Al-Karim had given us. True knowledge and true information lead to true belief (iman). The importance of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is hidden here. Al-Imam Al-Azam sets light to the world, and lectures them about fundamental values of iman (belief). In order for the world’s belief to be an acceptable belief they have to understand the primary proofs in the correct way. Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is the creed (amantu) of Islam. O, valuable friend! Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is the creed of Islam. You need to acknowledge this well.
About Almighty Allah becoming visible, Allah Ta’ala will be seen in the Hereafter. The mu’mins (believers) in the Paradise will see Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) without being a physical distance between them, but He will not resemble anything for He is unlike all things; they will see Him via their eyes that are on their heads, and the “how” modality of this, is unknown, nobody may know the “how” and “modality” of this except for Allah. Almighty Lord shall give such an eye to His slaves when He showed Himself, the eye on the head He said, such different kind of an eye it must be. Allah makes the slave reach such a position that they are able to see Him, and Allah said the people will see their Lord in the Hereafter And in the world through the eyes of the heart, Allah has blessed the servants He wished with the blessings He wished. That is only known to our Lord; Only He can know how He will be seen in there to the slave’s eye. The “how” modality of this is only known to our Lord. For one cannot go between the lover and the loved; these are secrets.
Seeing Him through the heart’s eye in the world, and seeing Him in the Hereafter through the eyes that are on the heads; friends, these are what is understood from Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s apparent meaning (zâhir). “They will see him via their own eyes that are on their heads,” says Al-Imam Al-Azam. Dear friends, let’s see what our Beloved Prophet says when the companions of Paradise enter the Paradise (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam): “Almighty Lord said to them when the companions of the Paradise enter the Paradise: “Do you wish from me anything else that I may give or increase?” Then they say, “Have you not brightened our faces, admitted us to Paradise and saved us from Hell? Our Prophet (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam): “Then the veil will be lifted and they will not have seen anything dearer to them than looking upon their Lord. They will reach the honour of seeing Allah’s face.” Then he read the 26th verse of Surah Jonah: “Those who are virtuous shall receive the best reward and an enhancement. Neither dust nor abasement shall overcast their faces. They shall be the inhabitants and friends of Paradise, and they sham remain in it forever.” Our beloved Prophet read the verse of the Qur’an that we gave its meaning. He both read the verse and made the tasfir [explanation] of it with this Hadith-i Sharif. Allah Ta’ala will be seen without Tashbih (attributing Him with attributes of the creation), or a “how” modality. His “how” and “modality “ is known to no one. He will be seen unlike all things and cannot be compared to anything either. The groups of Mujassima (anthropomorphists) and Musabbiha (anthropopathists) had expressed the opposite in their opinions. Mujassima and Musabbiha had been rejected due to their opinion; they are other schools of thought apart from the people of the Sunnah. “Distance” means physical distance. The word “distance” here was not used to express direction or place. Allah Ta’ala being actually seen through eye is the certain truth. This was not established by mind but by the verse of the Qur’an. In terms of tasfir, these verses (ayat) are Ayat Mutashabihat. Their true meaning is only known to Almighty Lord Himself.
Editor’s Note: Ayat Mutashabihat are those verses who may accept more than one meaning. Their entire meaning is only known to Allah.
“It is He who has sent this magnificent book to you. A part of it are definitive verses whose meanings are one, these are the foundations of this book. The others are unspecific [which may accept more than one meaning]. But those in whose hearts is deviance, they purse what is unspecific (mutashabih) from it, courting temptation and courting its interpretation. But no one knows its [true] interpretation except Allah. And those profound in knowledge, they say, “We have believed in it; all of it is from our Lord.” No one can think these except those whose essence is clean.” Surah Ali ‘Imran 7th verse (ayah).
Valuable friends! Let’s see what our revered âlim (Islamic scholar) said in the work called Usul al-Fiqh: “Allah Ta’ala being seen in Hereafter by eye is a clear example of mutashabihat. Authenticity of this is definite by evidence Al-Qur’an Al-Karim revealed. Almighty Lord commands in Surah al-Qiyamah 22nd-23rd verses (ayat): “Some faces, that day, they will be radiant with beauty. Looking at their Lord.” There are faces shining brightly. There are faces looking at their Lord. He has perfect attributes. Those who will see the Almighty Lord will see Him due to Allah’s bestowment of this attribute. It is not possible to establish a direction. Allah is free from directions, angles, places, and times. The meanings of these are unspecific (mutashabih) because it is not possible to establish a place or direction. It is a duty of the ones profound in true creed to accept the unspecific (mutashabih) as they are. The original text of mutashabih (unspecific) verses are present. They are in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Their meanings are unknown, only Almighty Lord knows them. Mutashabih is the verses whose intended meaning is not precisely known by the community. They are the opposite of muhkamat (whose meanings are one). Mutashabih has two parts. First of which is the utterances from which nothing can be understood linguistically; such as the letters (alphabet) that are present in the beginnings of some surah, for example “a-lif, l-aam, m-eem, t-aa, s-een, hamim, kâf, hâ, yâ, ayîn, sîn, kaf.” These letters (alphabet) are Ayat Mutashabihat. Their true meanings are only known to Almighty Lord. The second part is the phrases whose linguistic meanings are incomprehensible; such as the word “yedüAllah” (which means if literally translated: the hand of Allah). Al-Imam Al-Azam and the pious predecessors avoided explaining these mutashabih (unspecific) phrases. The ones we are referring here and the mutashabih (unspecific) ones constitute the second part. There is extensive information regarding these in the work called Hukukı İslamiyye ve Istılahatı Fıkhiyye Kamusu.
Thus, dear and estimable friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam keeps uttering the truths. Al-Iman [essence of belief] is testification and affirmation. Iman is testification of tongue and affirmation of heart. In sharia law, al-Iman means testification by language and affirmation by heart. This is what is required for testification and affirmation: Allah Ta’ala is One, has no partners. He has zati (personal) and subuti (inherent) attributes. Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) is Allah’s Apostle and Prophet. He sent down to him books and the sharia. Iman is believing for certain by saying “I have believed in the entirety of the book and the sharia that were sent down upon him. I have testified, and affirmed.” Uttering you have believed only through tongue is not enough for having iman (belief). If had that been enough, the hypocrites would have also been believers. Testifying solely by tongue is not enough either. Had knowing of Allah’s existence been enough to have iman (belief), in that case the Christians, the Jews and People of the Book would be counted as believers. Let’s see what Allah Ta’ala said about hypocrites in Surah Al-Munafiqun: “When the hypocrites come to you, they say, “We testify that you are the Messenger of Allah.” And Allah (jalla jalaluhu) knows that you are indeed His Messenger. Allah (jalla jalaluhu) knows that those hypocrites are liars, too.”
The hypocrites are saying to the Prophet “You are the true Prophet,” but their inner world lacks affirmation, they are secretly denying what they said. Allah Ta’ala unveils that. Almighty Lord said there is no iman (belief) unless the heart affirmed, and those hypocrites are lying. Look, about the People of the Book… Let’s see what Allah (c.c.) said about the Christians and the Jews and the People of the Book in the 146th verse (ayah) of the Surah Al-Baqarah: “Those whom We have given the Book recognize that Prophet [Muhammad] just as they recognize their sons,” We wish, but they only recognize the Bible and the Torah. “But indeed, a party of them conceal the truth even while they knew and heard it.” They do not affirm. Look, they know, but they do not affirm, they rather conceal the truth. They do not testify either. Look at the People of the Book who stays away from testifying and affirming through tongue and heart. A person who wants to become a Muslim and a follower of Prophet Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) should utter: “Ash hadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan rasool-ullaah (I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah), and if he affirms the meaning behind it by his heart, then he is truly a believer (mu’min). In fact, he would still be a believer (mu’min) even if he did not know prohibited (haram) and obligatory (fard) things. Because, he can attest his faith first, become a Muslim, then start learning them. Thereafter, if he acknowledges and affirms the obligatory duty when someone said to him, “Performing namâz five times a day is your obligatory religious duty (fard),” then his belief (iman) would remain as iman. If he rejects namâz being an obligation, if he does not acknowledge it, then he becomes a blasphemer (qafir). The same situation about namâz goes for the things which are definitely prohibited by primary evidence such as the Book, the Sunnah, and Ijma; and the other religious obligations.
Dear friends, al-Iman, or rather belief may be weak or strong but does not accept decrease or increase. Islam manifested the rules. These rules are the values we have to believe. You cannot add to or subtract anything from Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. The mighty religion sent down to Prophet Muhammad is as it is. The iman’s (belief) of the communities of the heaven or earth are not subject to excessiveness or inadequacies in terms of the obligatory thing to believe but they may be subject to imperfections or excessiveness in terms of knowledge and affirmation. Iman (belief) may differ in being strong or weak, but it does not accept excessiveness or imperfections in terms of the divine values and divine rulings they must be believed, iman (belief) is same for everyone in that respect. I am repeating because this is important: The iman’s (belief) of the communities of the heaven or earth are not subject to excessiveness or inadequacies in terms of the obligatory thing to believe but they may be subject to imperfections or excessiveness in terms of knowledge and affirmation. In other words, what does iman (belief) show regarding being strong or weak? It may show excessiveness or imperfections. The things the angels, people and the jinn have to believe are the same in the world and Hereafter. The one who has said, “I have believed in Allah, His Messenger, and all that comes from them,” has believed all the fundamentals that has to be believed. The one who believes in some but rejects others is not a believer (mu’min). For example, if a person says that he does not believe in Hereafter, even though he believes in Allah, His angels, books, and prophets, that person would definitely be a blasphemer (qafir). He would still be a blasphemer (qafir) if he believed only in Prophets but refused the others. There is no difference in denying some of the things that must be believed, or denying all of them. The things that must be believed in are as a whole.
Dear friends, what does the Glorious Qur’an say about the people who accept some articles of faith but not all, even if they are prophets? The Qur’an says about those who believe in some but not all, the ones who try to create a rift between Allah and His Prophets, and the ones who follow a different path completely on their own are all indeed blasphemers (qafir). The believers (mu’min) are equal in iman (belief) and tawhid (monotheism). They are different in deeds. For not everyone’s piety (taqwa) and knowledge are the same. Their ikhlas (sincerity) is not same with one another either. Because of this, the believers (mu’min) are equals in terms of believing in the fundamentals of faith, believing in Allah Ta’ala’s oneness [monotheism], recognizing Almighty Lord by His perfect attributes and saying that He is devoid of all imperfect attributes. This equality is, of course, only about possessing iman (belief). They are not equal in following their beliefs (taqleed), proving that they believe, and seeking the evidence or signs (istidlal). Not everyone’s knowledge is the same. It is possible that some people may not obtain the evidence as good as the others. They are not equal in knowing the things they believed with their explanations, understanding or researching, having a grasp of the religious knowledge, and similar aspects. You can’t hold no one’s knowledge equal to the other. For that reason, all the things that must be believed in, howsoever many articles of faith there may be, all of them are equal. Yet they are not equal in obtaining those evidence, and acquiring knowledge. People may be in front or behind of each other in terms of good deeds, and fulfilling commands in the world. Let me repeat this, because it is important. People may be in front or behind of each other in terms of good deeds, and fulfilling commands in the world. Therefore, this shows us that “deed” is not a part or chapter of iman (belief). For deeds may be less or more, some people pray five times a day, whereas the other people do not pray due to their laziness even though they have iman (belief). Some people complete the obligatory fast of the month of Ramadan-i Sharif. There may also be some who do not fast even though they are believers. The worship of those who do not pray or fast every day is valid to the degree they completed them. Their worship does not go in vain because they have only completed half of it but not all, but that is valid if they have iman (belief). You should compare the obligatory (fard) and supererogatory (nafl) prayers with the above case to know their situation. The condition does not differ. The issue of namâz is unlike iman (belief). For believing in some of the things that must be believed, and not believing the others cannot be defined as a strong iman (belief), it would be an invalid iman (belief). In fasting, eating through the part of the day and fasting in the other part nullifies the worship. This is just like that. The iman (belief) of the one who believes in some of the divine commands that must be believed but not all, is not iman, it is falsehood.
Yes, most valuable and venerable friends! “Islam is surrendering to Allah Ta’ala’s commands and submitting to them.” If you ask, “What does Islam mean?” Al-Imam Al-Azam says, “Islam is submission and surrender to the commands of Allah Ta’ala.”
Al-Imam Al-Azam, “There is a linguistical difference between iman (belief)) and Islam, but there cannot be iman (belief) without Islam, and there is no Islam without iman (belief). The relationship between iman (belief) and Islam is like the outer and inner part [for example flesh and bone].”
So dear friends… May Almighty Lord annex all of us into the community of true believers, true Muslims, the people whose deeds are done with sincerity, and the people who have pious deeds.