Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 14
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 14
Eûzubillahimineşşeytânîrracîm. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vel agıbetülil mûttâgîn vessâletü vessalâm âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve sahbihî ecmaîn. Euzû bikelimâtillahi tâ’ammati min şerri mâ hâlaka ve zerâhe ve derâhe. Rabbi euzûbike min’hemezatişşeyâtîyn ve euzûbike Rabbi enyehdûrûn. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.
Most valuable and venerable friends, we are continuing to convey some discovery notes upon the fundamentals of faith (iman). Al-Imam Al-Azam, rahmatullahi alayh, says: “The basics of monotheism (tawhid), and the obligatory basics that which the believer has to say to make his iman [faith] valid are the following.” These are the aforementioned basics that have to be said: “I have believed in Allah (jalla jalaluhu), His angels, His books, His messengers, resurrection after death, fate, whether good and bad is from Allah.” “I have utterly believed,” iman [faith] occurs by affirming that by heart and testifying by tongue. Now, our lectures subject is believing in Allah.
Hisham narrated the following on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Al Hassan Ach-Saybani. He says, “I have heard Abu Hanifa saying so: Allah’s greatest name is ‘Allah’ – ‘Lafza-i Jalal’ (jalla jalaluhu).” Al-Tahawi and majority of the enlightened are in the same opinion. Now, we know that Abu Hanifa said it like this. What did he say? He said: “Allah’s greatest name is ‘Allah’ – ‘Lafza-i Jalal’.” Besides, al-Tahawi and majority of the enlightened are in the same opinion. They said, “There is no position higher than of the utterance of “Allah” and the one who performs dhikr.” “Faith [iman] in Allah, is an independent science without considering the basics which we have received from Him. Now, let’s pay attention to this part, “Faith [iman] in Allah, is an independent science on its own.” You should pay attention to this part here. How did you believe in Allah? How do you recognize Allah Ta’ala? “This is an independent science,” they say. Dear friends, as you see, Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is teaching you this science also. You should understand and listen well. You should continue on studying these sciences from the beginning to the end until they are engraved onto your heart, learn these well. Then your iman shall shine and rumble eternally. A group amongst the kalamists wanted to be commemorated by talking in the matter of proving Allah’s Oneness. This was reported from Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa (rahimatuallah).
Al-Imam Al-Azam told them so, “A boat on Tigris goes to the harbour on its own, fills itself, and loads food, clothing, and similar goods, then turns back on its own, and drops anchor, then unloads the goods on its own and returns to the harbour again. Thus, it keeps operating without having a captain or crew.” In other words, it has no one on board, no workers, no captain, or no sailors. “What do you say about this event,” he said. They said, “That is not possible, and can never happen.” Then, at that moment Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh) said, “If a ship’s operation on its own like that is not possible then how it is possible for this realm, this earth, this sky, and this universe to operate on its own? Haven’t you ever thought of this?” he said against those kalamists. Needless to say, by saying kalamists we intent to refer to the ones who try to divinize the nature, and those who cannot acknowledge Allah’s existence in any way, in short, the ones belong to the class of deviant philosophy.
Friends, there is a sign that points to Allah’s Oneness, in everything. To whatsoever mankind may look, and see whatsoever they may, there is definitely a sign in everything that shows Allah’s Oneness. Allah (jalla jalaluhu). Allah Ta’ala is the Allah Who is the administrator and chastener of all realms. Allah’s Oneness and Him being One in administration and chastening requires that Oneness. The sentence, “Al-hamdu lillahi rabbil ‘alamin,” the afore meaning is hidden in this sentence.
Varieties of Monotheism [Tawhid]. Now, everything in the entire realm shouts out and narrates Allah Ta’ala’s Oneness. Allah is One, His Oneness can be understood from everything within the universe.
Surah Luqman 61st verse says: “If you asked them, ‘Who created the heavens and earth?’ they would surely say, ‘Allah (jalla jalaluhu) created.’”
They were also saying, “We only worship them [the idols] so that they may bring us closer to Allah.” Almighty Lord gives announces the situation of them with this verse of the Qur’an. The former verse is Surah Luqman 25th, and the latter is Surah az-Zumar 3rd ayat al-karima. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim gives news from Allah’s self, names, attributes and actions; that is called news of ‘ilm al-tawhid’.
The Qur’an calls to worshipping only to Allah Who has no partners, and abandoning the idols that are worshipped, and that is called to demand al-tawhid al-irada. You will refuse all idols, all partners, all tawagit in order to reach to true monotheism [tawhid]. You will acknowledge Allah’s Oneness and affirm this by heart. There can be no iman [faith] unless one reaches to true monotheism [tawhid]. Al-Quran Al-Karim mentions the importance of obeying to Allah just like it makes mention of the commands and prohibitions. The commands, which are all in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are from Allah. The prohibitions of all kinds are from Allah, too. The Qur’an makes mention of the importance of obeying to Allah, and these are about monotheism [tawhid], too. Friends, the Qur’an makes mention of the treats for the believers of monotheism [tawhid] or mentions the rewards of saying there is one Allah; or Allah Ta’ala makes mention of torment for those who do the opposite. He informs about the torment that is the punishment of those who go outside the provisions of monotheism [tawhid]. In other words, the ones who do not accept monotheistic science, and faith will absolutely be sentenced to Allah’s torment. The whole of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim mentions the monotheism [tawhid], the rights of the believers of monotheism [tawhid], their praise, dispraising assigning partners to Allah, the insurgence of who assigns partners to Allah, and the punishment that they deserve. Just think for a moment. You are reciting Surah al-Fatihah in every namâz. The whole of Surah al-Fatihah introduces monotheism [tawhid] to you. What is monotheism [tawhid]? It is Allah’s Oneness. Now, there are people who say “Allah is One,” in utterance but unaware that they are practicing polytheism [shirk] and assigning partners to Allah in their deeds and actions. The Muslims must have profound knowledge in monotheistic faith [iman] in every aspect of. For that reason, we are continuing to giving discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar because it puts forth that true science of faith [iman]. My brother who recites Surah al-Fatihah! “Al-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn.” Now, that is monotheism [tawhid]. “lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh” – “There is no divinity other than Allah. Prophet Muhammad is the greatest messenger of Allah, and the greatest servant of Allah, and last messenger of Allah.” What will a person do with the entirety of Islam which is sent down to Prophet Muhammad? He affirms by heart and testify by his tongue. The inside of kalimat at-tawhid is Islam. In other words, it is filled with Islam. Now, you are reciting the Surah al-Fatihah every day. You need to understand the meaning of monotheism [tawhid] in Surah al-Fatihah. See what the Surah says: “Al-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn.” Now, that is a complete monotheism [tawhid]. Glorification, praise, the right to be praised, and whole of all sublime praises are for the Lord of all realms, Allah. See, that is monotheism [tawhid]. The Surah says, “they are for Allah.” It does not say, they are for divinities, or lords. See, “…they are for the Lord of all realms, Allah.”
Editor’s Note: The following text contains phrases from Surah al-Fatihah. Their explanations are also given below.
Allah Ta’ala declares His Oneness to the realms in every word of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. He says that He is one, and never had an equal or similar, and never will. He says that he has no partner or similar. This way, Almighty Lord declares His Oneness to the realms.
“r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm,” this is also monotheism [tawhid]. “Allah is Ar-Rahman [The Most Gracious] and Ar-Rahim [The Most Merciful].
“māliki yawmi d-dīn” – Allah is the only Master of the Day of Retribution, and Day of Din [Religion]. And He is the Absolute Master, the All-Able Master.
You see, these are proofs of monotheism [tawhid] one by one. Each of them individually declares Allah Ta’ala’s Oneness to the world. He is sole in being Ar-Rahman [The Most Gracious] and Ar-Rahim [The Most Merciful]. He is sole in being the Lord. He is also sole in being the All-Able Master of all realms.
“iyyāka naʿbudu wa-ʾiyyāka nastaʿīn” – “You worship only to You, and we seek help only from You. That is monotheism [tawhid], too.” Help is not wanted from someone else. Worship is only towards Allah. Help is wanted only from Allah. You see, there is no one in between. In this way, Oneness of Allah is being declared to the realms. To know Allah’s Oneness well is one of the foremost importance of reciting Surah al-Fatihah forty times a day.
“ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭa l-mustaqīm” – You see, these are monotheism [tawhid] one by one. This means, “Guide us to the straight path.” You can only beseech to Allah who is One. There is no one else, and no one has the chance to get in between. These are examples of monotheism [tawhid] one by one. To recite these means also wanting to be guided to the path of the followers of monotheism [tawhid]. The Sunnah, just like Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, has come to this day by being explanatory. In other words, Prophet Muhammad explained Al-Qur’an Al-Karim thoroughly. For Almighty Lord has explained it to him in person. In addition, Gabriel Alayhissalam served as messenger in between. Now, it is necessary to learn Al-Qur’an Al-Karim from Prophet Muhammad, therefore, the Sunnah, the glorious Sunnah is crucial also in this respect. See how the ones who acknowledged Al-Qur’an Al-Karim but denied the Sunnah have deviated; or how they will deviate. There are people who try to understand Al-Qur’an Al-Karim without Muhammad, and try to put forth an understanding of religion without the Prophet, and try to interpret the book according to their own pleasure. Let’s see what Almighty Allah commanded by taking those people into account. “I have perfected your religion for you,” commands Almighty Lord. The Mighty Islam is thoroughly complete. Islam has no insufficiencies or imperfections. Insufficiencies and imperfections are in the humankind who do not understand or comprehend or misunderstand Islam. You see, Almighty Allah commanded in the 3rd verse of the Surah al-Ma’idah, “[a]l-yawma ʾakmaltu lakum dīnakum.” – “Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have chosen Islam as Dīn [religion] for you.” “wa-ʾatmamtu ʿalaykum niʿmatī,” – “I have completed My blessing upon you,” He says. “I have chosen Islam as Dīn [religion] for you,” He says.
O, dear, listen to Allah. Islam is thoroughly complete. The blessing is completed. Allah has chosen Islam as Dīn [religion] for humankind. Adam’s religion was Islam, too. The religion of all prophets such as Idris, Seth, Noah, Hud, Saleh, Abraham, Ishmael, Shuaib and Lot Alayhimussalam were also Islam. The religion of all prophets just like Jacob and Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus) are Islam. So, what did Allah do in each century? Allah had the religion of Islam start with Adam Alayhissalam by sending him as a prophet upon humankind, and had that continue with other prophets, and lastly, Prophet Muhammad came as the greatest prophet of the universe. The sharia laws came to this day by being renewed, and the basics of all renewed sharia laws have come to this day by being renewed in Islam. Then, Islam have reached perfection with Muhammad’s Sharia, and Muhammad’s Sharia have renewed the entire past. What did Allah do with Islam that sieges all ages of history, which has no insufficiencies or imperfections, and with its order and laws that are revealed within the person of Prophet Muhammad? He established the Islamic order. Henceforth, the door to prophethood has closed until eternity. The Prophet of the end of the world is Prophet Muhammad, and he is the last prophet. And the Sharia of Muhammad is the last Sharia. Islam has started with Adam, and continues eternally with Muhammad. The religion of all prophets is Islam. There is no point in separating or tearing the realm of humanity apart. Allah is One, and the basics of Islam that He brought forth are One, too. Today, the amantu [creed] of Adam and Noah’s Sharia are the same. This goes for other prophets, too. The amantu [creed] of all prophets are the same. In short, their iman [faith] is the same. That is the same in the fundamentals that they believe. Humankind believed in Allah with all prophets. They believed that Allah is attributed with almighty attributes. Then they conveyed such truths to their nation, and their tribes. There can never be two variation of the same belief fundamental in the world. The truth, and iman [faith] is always one, and that is the iman [faith] of Islam, which is the truth. The ones who deviated from that truth have got stuck in false religions of the world. The people have fabricated the false religions themselves. Yet true iman [faith], and its fundamentals have came to this day by prophets and the books that are sent down for them. The last, and the greatest book is Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and the greatest prophet is Prophet Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam – Alayhimussalam). The other prophets were sent to villages, cities, and states for some period of time. That is not the situation for Prophet Muhammad, he came for all ages of history, and all nations. Let’s convey this to the realm of mankind correctly.
The Islamic iman [faith] that Prophet Muhammad brought forth is universal. It has collected all consciences, all prophets, and all divine books within its universal inwit, whatever true and real there is. Islam excluded falsehoods, and annihilated what is false, and brought the truth and reality forth. Dear friends, we tell the truths, but people are free. It is up to person’s free will to believer or not, it is up to his un affected belief, will and freedom. He can believer or not according to his wish. Whatever he says. We are sure that we are doing the greatest favour to humankind by telling them the truths. “This [Al-Qur’an Al-Karim] is a Message for mankind.” Who says that? Allah Ta’ala does. Where does He say that? See the 52nd Qur’anic verse of Surah Ibrahim. In other words, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is enough for humankind. The Sunnah of Prophet elucidates Al-Qur’an Al-Karim in its own limits together with ijma (juridical consensus), and qiyas (analogical reasoning) which are Qur’anic understanding of eminent Islamic scholars (âlims). The Prophet, along with the abovementioned, explains Al-Qur’an Al-Karim with his Sunnah, and Hadith-i Sharifs. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim were sent down upon Prophet Muhammad. For that reason, it came to this day by being protected by authentic hadiths, evidential documents, and sanad (an uninterrupted chain of traditionaries, back to a first authority). In Islam everything is intact. Islam has no chance of being disrupted. It is enough for people to not manipulate the events. They should not deceive people. They should understand Almighty Islam correctly, and convey it correctly. “Does it not suffice them that We have sent down to you the Book which is recited to them?” You see, Almighty Lord commanded that in 51st verse of Surah Al-Ankabut. Let’s see the meaning behind that:
Our Beloved Prophet have implemented the superior verdicts of these verses of the Qur’an with his sunnah. The Prophet have demonstrated and implemented how to fulfil each command in person. There is a religion of Islam that is established, and lived. There is one in practice, and one in theory. Now, the sources of the Islam in theory is safe and sound. Then there is the lived and implemented way of Islam, along with its own balance. That also came to this day by being protected. So, what did the School of Ahl al-Sunna do about that. The grand âlims have protected this known, lived, practiced, and established Islam. They have protected the Islam which is implemented by the Prophet (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) along with their iman [faith] and good deeds. Islam is self-evident in itiqad [creed], in deeds, in morals, and all of its documents in jurisprudence. Ilm, ilm, ilm [knowledge]. Ilm [knowledge] is knowing, living, and announcing Islam correctly. It should be read correctly, and taught correctly. Almighty Islam is the school of realms. Islam itself is the school that teaches the entire humankind. Islam is a universal school. Yet if you do not enlist to that school and not study in it then that is your own problem from then on. You will be left alone with your problem. You will answer to your Lord, our Lord. That is up to you.
“Whatever the Prophet brings you, take it.” You see, Allah gave full authority to Prophet Muhammad. “Whatever Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) brings you, take it. And whatever he forbids you, then give over.” This is Surah Al-Hashr, 7th Qur’anic verse. Almighty Lord commands that. Who commands it? Allah Ta’ala. Prophet Muhammad has full authority. “Whatever he brings you, take it” says Allah. You should take Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, sunnah, ijma (juridical consensus), qiyas (analogical reasoning) together with the Islam which Prophet Muhammad showed forth, taught, implemented, and established. Islam came to this day by being protected with all of its documents. If you say, “I am taking the Qur’an, leaving the sunnah,” then you will have left the Prophet. Then when you leave the one who understand Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and narrates it; and when everyone makes interpretation to Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, then lack of order, and irregularity will arise in the world. What will happen to the scholarly competition of mujtahids of the four schools then? It will deteriorate beyond recovery and turn into a competition of ignorant people. Scholarly competitions are blessings. The competition of blessing will turn into competition of ignorance. You see, we must pay attention to where these people who exclude the true ecoles, mujtahids, and the sunnah whether knowingly or not. They either do not know, or if they know, then they are betraying the humanity.
Valuable audience, Allah’s existence is as obvious as what we see with our own eyes. For the moment we see what is created, we know that created cannot be without the Creator. The Creator created the creatures. Whoever sets his eyes on the created first sees the Creator. For the creature cannot be without the Creator. There cannot be a work without an author either. The Creator of all things, and of course, the author of all works is Allah Ta’ala. Allah’s existence is clear than what you see with your own eyes. For Allah’s existence is recognized by iman [faith], heart, soul, and lights of m’arifat before what is seen by the exterior eye. There is a mind within mind, the hearts and souls’ recognition of Allah happens before the human’s exterior eye’s recognition. Allah is recognized via heart and soul before that. For that reason, the iman [faith] in Islam, is indeed faith in unseen. The iman [faith] in unseen in Islam is the absolute truth. For that reason, the heart of who believes in the unseen is filled with lights of m’arifat together with the ones in splendorous lights of tawhid [monotheism], and who have mature minds, and honest minds who are strictly bound to Allah’s commands, they are these people.
Therefore, dear friends, “Those follow their Lord’s guidance, and it is they who are the felicitous,” said He in Surah Luqman, 5th verse. If you asked them, “Who created the heavens and earth,” they will surely say, “Allah created them.” For no one else can create this earth and the heavens. Allah is a being who is All-Existent and All-Able, a wajib al-wujud being. His existence is necessary, and His of existence is necessary through himself. “So, direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth [being a real Muslim]. Adhere to the fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people.” You see, Almighty Lord announces in the 30th verse of Surah Ar-Rum that He created the humankind upon the fitrah [innate nature] of Islam. That is announced to the realm of humankind. So, what does Prophet Muhammad say by basing it on this Qur’anic verse and similar verses? “Every child is born upon the fitrah [innate nature] of Islam,” he says. You see, the creation of all people, their innate nature upon creation, is fitrah [innate nature] of Islam. People can either advance this fitrah [innate nature] later with Islam, or disrupt it. Then when they disrupt it other beliefs, false religions arise. The prophets, all of them, were sent to explain the monotheistic [tawhid] belief to people. For that reason, their words combine in the word, “lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh,” – “there is no god but Allah.” All prophets have said “lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh,” and they are prophets of their own times and places. Allah had introduced Prophet Muhammad to all prophets in the eternal past. The prophets know and recognize each other. The following verses point to Allah’s existence in a rational way. See the 164th verse of Surah al-Baqarah. Let’s see what Almighty Lord commanded in this verse of the Qur’an. “Indeed, in the creation of heavens and earth, and the alteration of day and night, and in the ship that sail in the sea in a way that benefits people, and in the water which Allah sent down from the sky to revive the earth which was dead, and in the clouds employed to serve between heaven and earth, there are signs for those who have sense.
Dear friend, if you know Almighty Allah, then you know the absolute ruler of the realms. Then you will not assign partners to Allah, or be stuck in tawagit. You will escape and be safe from polytheism (shirk), and reach the belief of tawhid [monotheism]. Be careful. See what our Lord commanded, again, in the 12th to 14th verses of Surah al-Mu’minun:
“We have created man from an extract of clay. Then We made him a drop of water in a firm resting place [a womb]. Then We turned the drop of water into a clot, then We turned that clot into a fetus-lump, then We turned that lump into bone, and clothed bone with meat; thereafter We developed it into being as a new creation and gave him soul. So, glorious is Allah, the Best of Creators.” Look at the infinite grandness of Allah’s glory who is the greatest of Creators, says Almighty Lord. Look and see; do not be among the ones who looks and sees not. Look, and see. Almighty Lord, admit us among the servants who see and hear Al-Haqq with their heart’s eye, and heart’s ear, and their exterior eye. There are many who has vision, but does not see the truth. They are stuck in seeing the creatures, can reach to the monotheistic faith in no way. Dear friends, again, in the 53rd verse of Surah Fussilat:
“We will show to the people of Mecca (and the entire realm of humankind),” says, look. That day it was about the people of Mecca, but today it is about the entire humankind until the Qiyamah. Look, “We,” says Almighty Lord, “will show them Our signs in the horizons and in their own souls until it becomes clear to them that He [Prophet Muhammad] is the Real [true prophet].” So that in the end they will see clearly that what he said is the truth, and he is the true prophet.
Now, if the humankind advances in the world a little more, they will see numerous signs, both in the outer and inner [spiritual] realm. Allah gives tidings of the miraculous signs among these separately. What things will the humankind obtain more? “Is it not sufficient about your Lord that He is witness to everything?” The discoveries, true sciences, true discoveries will advance, then in the end the humankind will understand that the Qur’an is the true book, Allah’s book, and Muhammad is the true Prophet. As the science advances, true sciences, the humankind will return to Islam. There will be many signs that will be shown to the humankind both in outer realm, and spiritual. That is so long as humankind strives, and works well. There are numerous proofs that point to Allah’s oneness in everything. Yet some people ascribe some of the events to someone other than Allah, like majusi [Zoroastrians]. The Zoroastrians [majusi] ascribe the darkness [evil] to someone else, that is Satan for them, and they ascribe the good things to the spirit of Ar-Rahman [The Most Gracious]. Moreover, some of those who worship to idols ascribe those things to the idols.
Let’s see what Almighty Allah commanded by denying such false beliefs, we have narrated you the Surah Fussilat, now the 53rd and 54th verses of Surah Hūd says, “They said, ‘O Hūd, you have not brought us any clear evidence [miracle]. We are not going to abandon our gods [idols] for what you say, and we are not going to believe you,” “All we say is that come of our gods [idols] have visited you with some evil,” for you have cursed on our divinities [idols], they said to Prophet Hūd. Then Hūd Alayhissalam replied, “I call Allah to witness, and you too be witness that I do not believe in any of the partners [idols] you have assigned to [Allah], I am free from them,” said Hūd Alayhissalam. The prophets had all denied idols, but announced Allah’s oneness.
So, dear friends, some astrologer fortune-tellers had ascribed some events for they shed light upon them. These are shirk [polytheism] one by one. The whole of the realms are hadith, meaning, they are things that are created by Allah later. In other words, they are created from the state of non-existence, and who creates from nothing is solely Allah. That is the Creator, Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu), “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is over all things, and watches over all things.” This verse of the Qur’an is 62nd verse of Surah Al-Zumar, in which He commanded.
Again, our Almighty Lord commanded in another verse, “In deed your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days.” That is present in other surahs just like in the 3rd verse of Surah Jonah. Whoever judges that this universe has been qadim [without a beginning], then he is a ‘blasphemer’, He says. In short, they would be denying Allah. This universe is not qadim, it was created later. The thing that is created later cannot be ever-existent. There is no eternal entity other than Allah. There cannot be another immortal being, there can only be ones which continue to exist as Allah keeps existing. That is only due to Allah bestowment of life. For example, Almighty Allah renders the Paradise eternal. He says that He has rendered the Fire, eternal. They will continue to exist as long as Almighty Lord renders them eternal. Nothing is ever-existent, except Allah. Then Almighty Lord is ever-existent, in other words, there is no ‘before’ to His existence. He is immortal, and His existence has no end either. This is oriented to exiling non-existence, for that reason, Tûrbiştî said this in his belief, “Present, and ever-existing attributes of Allah is amongst Allah’s personal attributes.”
Dear friends, Allah Ta’ala is ever-existent, and immortal, don’t you ever forget that. Allah Ta’ala is the sole entity whose absence is unthinkable, and existence is eternal, and everlasting. To testify, is a must to fulfil the rulings of iman [faith].
In other words, to affirm is the element of iman [faith], but to testify, is also a must to apply the rulings of iman [faith]. This opinion was narrated by Al-Imam Al-Azam. Imam al-Maturidi was also inclined to this opinion.
Dear friends, let’s see what our Lord commands in 22nd verse of Surah Al-Mujadila, “You will not find a people believing in Allah, and the Last Day, endearing those who oppose Allah and His Messenger.” In other words, iman (faith) and kufr (blasphemy) do not agree, endear, or come together. That is what Almighty Lord commanded. You cannot find them endearing who oppose Allah and His Messenger? Find who? The people who believe in Allah and the Last Day. How can they agree with those who oppose Allah anyway? Kufr (blasphemy) and iman (faith) are opposites of each other. They are the opposite of each other the way Paradise and Fire are opposite to each other. The continuation of the afore quote of the verse says, “Even though they were their own parents, or children, or brothers, or kinsfolk. For Allah has written faith into their hearts who dislike such cruel people, and strengthened them with a spirit from Him.” The son had believed, but the father does not, or the close relatives. The others, too. For them, says Almighty Lord, “even though they were their parents, children, or brothers, and if one of them has iman [faith], and the other has kufr [blasphemy], it is not possible for them to endear each other.” For iman and kufr are the opposite of each other. The Battle of Badr was a war made for peace, it was the shirk [polytheism] that attacked iman [faith] in Badr. In Badr, a handful of Muslims got swoop by kufr [blasphemy], and shirk [polytheism]. The polytheists came with a strong army in Battle of Badr and attacked to the believers (mu’min) to annihilate the iman (faith). Allah’s armies descended from the heavens, and in that battlefield the iman (faith) destroyed the false belief. What happened to that strong army there? It lost its strength. The truth, and the iman (faith) walked over the false belief. Shaykh al-Islam al-Pazdawi said this regarding the subject, “If a person abandons announcing his iman (faith) without an apology by believing from the heart, he cannot be a mu’min (believer). You see, friends, “I have, with the people, until they all testified that there is no god except Allah,” look what does he do with iman (faith) to the entire humankind? He offers them iman (faith). He says for the salvation of humankind from kufr (blasphemy), for the safety of peaceful iman (iman), and to implement peace, he says, “I was appointed to battle with this kufr (blasphemy), cruelty, and who do not recognize rights.” That is also mentioned in Sahih Bukhari.
Again, in another narration the following is added ‘until he says lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh’. The meaning of that word is saying that one you have affirmed Allah Ta’ala’s existence, and oneness in His person and attributes. You see dearest friends, it is the duty of everyone to learn Almighty Allah along with His names and attributes through His book the Qur’an, and believe in Allah Ta’ala the way He introduced Himself to us. The ones who believed have truly believed. Moreover, all of us have become acquainted with Almighty Allah by Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, in which Allah Ta’ala introduced Himself to us with His personal (zati), and inherent (subuti) attributes, namely actual attributes, and almighty names, through His book we have believed in Him. Allah is the unequalled master of realms. He has no equals or comparables, never has, and never will. Allah is One in everything, both in person, and attributes.
Dear friends, Insha’Allah Ta’ala our lecture will continue with other basics of iman (faith). May Almighty Allah admit us amongst the servants who believe properly. May He admit us amongst the servants whose iman (faith) is perfect, and everlasting.
Now, our subject is believing in angels. To believe in angels is another basic of iman (faith). Almighty Allah manifested these basics of iman (faith). For that reason, another one of the basics we are going to believe in angels. We believe in Allah’s angels in this way: They do not oppose to Allah’s orders. They fulfil His orders. The angels are protected from committing sins. There are no males or females amongst angels. Almighty Lord denies in His Al-Qur’an Al-Karim those who say, “They are daughters of Allah,” and who ascribe femininity to angels. For that reason, friends, they said, “ Or had Allah preferred daughters to sons? What is happening with you, how can you give such a ruling. There are no sons or daughters of Allah.” The Arabic polytheists said the angels are, “daughters of Allah”. They assigned partner to Allah, and slandered Allah, thus they destroyed themselves. Therefore, the angels are servants of Allah whom He created from light. Almighty Allah assigned them different duties, and they keep fulfilling their duties in a beautiful way. Their numbers are unknown to any other than Allah. The earth, the heavens, al-arsh al-ala, and its surroundings is swarmed with angels. We, recognize and believe in Almighty Allah how He introduced Himself in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and how our Beloved Prophet introduced Him in his Hadith-i Sharifs.
To believe in the books. Now, our subject is believing in the books. What do we do? We believe in all books of Allah.
We have believed in all books that are sent down by Allah like the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms, the Furqan, or the glorious Qur’an without defining a number. We have believed as such. The Islamic creed is more universal than the universe itself. The Islamic creed is more universal than the universe itself. There are Scriptures sent down as books by Allah, and there are the Four Great Books, and whatever is there that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim heralded, we do not define a number for them. Although Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and for example, the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms, and the Scriptures are the most known ones, there are also many known and unknown books which are sent down by Allah; we have believed in all of them. Howsoever many divine orders there are that which has the verification of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and Prophet Muhammad, these orders are also valid. They are valid both in today, and in tomorrow. The things that are not confirmed by Al-Qur’an Al-Karim or Prophet Muhammad are not valid in any way. For Almighty Allah had renewed the past with Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and Prophet Muhammad.
Now, our subject is to believe in the prophets. We have believed in all prophets who were sent by Allah. We are not saying, “We will believe, or we are now believing,” we are saying, “we have always believed in the prophethood of all prophets.” Moreover, just like Al-Imam Al-Azam had expressed, he has used the words “rasul [messenger],” and “prophet” as synonyms. Ibn Hümam who is the author of Al-Fath Al-Qadr adopted the same opinion, too. Yet for the public, the word “rasul [messenger],” carries a much more special meaning than the word, “prophet”. The books and the prophets, they are even more virtuous than angels. The books and the prophets are more virtuous than angels. Now, those who do not follow this opinion of Ahl al-Sunna tried to bring the angels forward. Though the divine books and prophets are more virtuous than angels in belief of Ahl al-Sunna.
To believe in resurrection after death. The absolute proofs are apparent. This universe is created from the state of non-existence. The people will surely be resurrected upon their demise. We have definitely believed in the resurrection upon death. The name of existing after death is resurrection. “Then you will indeed be raised up on the Day of Resurrection.” That is what our Lord commanded in the 16th verse of Surah Al-Mu’minun. Again, “Does not man see that We created him from a drop of water, and, behold, he is an open contender,” our Lord commanded. In next verse of the Qur’an, “He draws companions for Us, and forgets his own creation. He says, ‘Who shall revive the bones when they have decayed?’.” “O, my Messenger (Glorious Muhammad)!” “Say, ‘He will revive them who produced them the first time, and He has knowledge of all creation.”
You see dear friends; the truths are self-evident. In the 77th, 78th and 79th verses of Surah Yaseen, which we have quoted above, Allah Ta’ala has knowledge of all types of creation, and He is who Creates. “The people of Paradise are hairless and beardless. Their young ones never get old. Their clothes do not become worn out either.” – “’Ehlül cenneti cûrdün mûrdün lâ yefnâ şebâuhum ve lâ teblâ siyabuhûm.” That was reported by our Beloved Prophet. In the basis of these hadiths is Al-Tirmidhi, he is amongst our valuable muhaddiths. “The back of the person deserving Hell is like Uhud Mountain.” He will see intensive torture in Hell, they are getting prepared for that torture. If the second body were to be created from the primary elements of the first body, then maybe reincarnation would be possible. Yes, dear friends, Almighty Islam, and Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah creeds reject reincarnation. Reincarnation is shirk (polytheism). The true description of reincarnation is the souls being returned to the people in earth, rather than to the Hereafter. For the ones with the belief of reincarnation are denying the Paradise, and Hell, and other things related with Hereafter. For that reason, the ones who are in this belief are declared unbelievers. In other words, they said that these people are without a religion, and belief. Even though they may have religion, and say, “We are religious,” the belief of reincarnation puts their beliefs in danger. They are leaving their iman (faith) face to face with the danger of annihilation. “Indeed, We will throw them into Fire those who defy Our signs. We shall replace their skin with other skins so that they may taste more of the punishment as their skins become scorched. Indeed, Allah is all-mighty, all-wise,” commanded He in this verse of the Qur’an. Then the ones who fear Allah, they will be resurrected with each component of their bodies, from the time their lives began to the time they have died. In short, the people will be resurrected with their entire beings. It is even so that to truly fulfil the meaning Almighty Lord will return all elements of people like the foreskin, nails, and hair which is cut, and missing teeth, and other parts of body that people had in their first creation. The people will be fully resurrected.
Allah will resurrect the children, the jinn and shaitans, animals, bugs and birds just like he will resurrect minds. There is a Hadith-i Sharif about that. Will the aborted children whose organs were not fully developed be resurrected? As it is reported by Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa, he said that if the aborted child had received a soul, then he will be resurrected. That is the true opinion anyway. The Al-Hashr [the gathering in Hereafter after all people resurrected] will consist of the souls and bodies. The people’s souls will enter their bodies, and they will resurrect together. Then both their souls and bodies will gather together.
So, most valuable friends, we are continuing to conveying discovery notes to you. This subject is believing in fate. As you know, believing in fate is amongst the basics of iman (faith). The fate means benefit, loss, beauty, ugliness, and together with the time and space that covers these, it means placing all creatures who are incumbent on these, in terms of reward or punishment, to the place they are in. Almighty Lord knew these qualities of humankind from the eternity, and predestined it. The resurrection after death in Hereafter. Take a careful look, it also includes the life in the grave. The expression, “Day of Hereafter,” and “resurrection after death”. Again, it is seen that with these two expressions of Al-Imam Al-Azam he meant resurrection in grave, too. The term fate includes all of these, and whatsoever there is about the world and Hereafter. That fate is written by Allah for His knowledge sieges all things eternally, and everlastingly. Yes, dear friends, the people who know Allah’s knowledge well are certain that Allah Ta’ala will not do anything wrong, and He does everything properly. The believers know that, and believe in the fate that rely on Allah Ta’ala’s knowledge without a doubt. You have to only embrace your duties as a slave without trying to blame the guilt on Allah, believe well in fate, and surrender to Allah. You should never put your own guilt on your fate, and slander Allah. If you do, do not think the name of that is “believing in fate”. You should believe in fate well. Allah knew the fate in eternity, and wrote it down. These are the fates which He knew in eternity, and wrote down. That is predestination, everything happens with predestination. There is also this, when the time of the things that are written came, and take place as it was written, that is called qaza (destiny). For that reason, believe in qaza (density), and qadar (fate) well. You should believe in their content too but when you do not do your duty as a slave, and do not obey to Allah, with your free will the guilt is yours. Do not you ever blame anyone. The strength that is given to you is given to everyone. The skills and strength were given to humankind. Everyone was given a chance of using that strength and skills to do good things, spending it all on goodness, to iman (faith), and good deeds.
The man went and used that luck on kufr (blasphemy) and wrong things with his own free will. You should never try to blame Allah by saying, “I believe in fate.” Your feet may have you slide down to Hell with a rumbling noise. Then do not say that you have not heard about that.
To believe in the day of reckoning upon death. It is certain that the people will answer to Allah. Everyone will answer to Allah in the grand court, no matter who you may be. You may be poor, rich, female, male, officer, supervisor, soldier, private, field marshal, judge, persecutor, compliant, witness, defendant, or eyewitness, that does not matter, you can be a ruler either. Everyone will answer to Allah. The ones under Allah’s command, and follow Allah’s laws will completely be saved. Yet the ones who force their own laws, and impose their own dominance, enforcement, sharia, and do not recognize Allah’s will surely answer. Let them try to save themselves. Let them find another Qur’an, another God so that He may save them. There is no other God, and no other book, and except the tiding Al-Qur’an Al-Karim brought forth, there is no other prophet either, meaning, there is no other last prophet. Everyone should get their minds together. Everyone will answer to Allah. That is another one of the basics of iman (faith). The one who says, “I will not answer,” is a disbeliever right this second. There cannot be a person who does not answer to Allah. Everyone will answer Him. To be able to say the following is one of the purposes of our lectures, “My Lord! We have endeavoured to serve in your way with our humbleness. We have worked with your favour, and your generosity.” We are doing these to prepare for that day of judgment in Hereafter. That is preparation for the day of judgment. We are not doing these for someone to clap us and say that we did well. We are waiting for appreciation and reward solely from Allah. We have no chance of waiting for anything from anyone else. We only want Allah’s appreciation. Is He pleased? If He is, then we are saved. If we cannot please Him, then o woe to us! We are pleased with Him. We are pleased with Allah Ta’ala. I am pleased with His laws and orders; with my entire being, may the entire world be witness to that! I am pleased with Allah and all of His commands. If there is guilt, the guilt is mine. If we have done wrong things in the world that is my fault, and if I had suffered hardships due to my wrongdoings, that is also my fault. My dear friend, there can be a guilt neither in Allah, nor in the Prophet. There cannot be fault in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and Islam either. We shall look for guilt in ourselves. We shall strive. We shall read and learn about Allah and His commands the best we can, and we shall do the necessity of those commands. Look, everyone has a rule and a system or order that they put forth. Everyone is compulsorily trying to adapt things to their own system or rule. They are holding what someone had written and imposing those things on people knowingly that they are doing to disrupt what they written today. Then when the days comes, those who introduce their own rules without recognizing Allah Ta’ala’s rules will answer to Allah, that day Almighty Lord will ask them, “You have imposed your own rules upon the people but you have not obeyed my rules. Who is your God. Who is your Lord? They should save you now. Whoever is your leader, pioneer, clergy is call them so that they may save you in the grand court,” when all the judges and rulers will be questioned. O, humankind, tread lightly! O, fake theologists! We have not a word against true theologists, we have only appreciation for them. O, fake theologists, convey this religion to these people correctly. Try to be a means for the salvation of both humankind and yourselves. No one can guide another but the means of guidance is Islam itself. Islam is the absolute means with its everything. May Almighty Allah admit us amongst the servants whom He had included in His rahmat, light, and infinite generosity, whom He sieged with His peace, and whom He is pleased with forever.