Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 15
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 15
Eûzubillahimineşşeytânîrracîm Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve sahbihî ecmaîn. Estağfirullah bi adedi zünübina hatta tufer. Allahu Ekber hatta tufer. Eûzubillahissemiû’l alîmi mineşşeytânîrracîm. Min hemzihi, ve nefsihi, ve nefsih. Rabbi euzûbike min’hemezatişşeyâtîyn ve euzûbike Rabbi enyehdûrûn.
“Qul huwa allāhu ʾaḥad allāhu ṣ-ṣamad lam yalid wa-lam yūlad wa-lam yakun lahū kufuwan ʾaḥad,” – “Say, ‘He is Allah, the One. Allah is the All-embracing. He neither begat, nor was begotten, nor has He any equal.” Allahu Akbar – “God is the greatest.”
Dear listeners, our subject is discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. We are talking about the science of iman (faith) which is immortal, and gives life, it ensures that faith stays everlastingly within that life. Iman is the name of true faith, which is faith of Islam that is the name of living everlastingly in the environment of trust. Iman, or faith, is trust. Iman (faith) is both to give confidence and staying everlastingly in the environment of confidence. Iman (faith) and Islam include all of the almighty elements which surrender both the inner and outer world of the humankind to Almighty Allah’s protection. Almighty Allah takes His servant under His everlasting protection of iman (faith) and Islam. What is up to us is to be a real believer (mu’min), and a real Muslim. To study in its school the science of that, and to announce it, and to be beneficial to one another. To be in the everlasting environment of trust, to be happy forever, and grasping the way of immortal life-style. You see, these happen only by iman (faith), and Islam. May Allah bestow much merch, and forgiveness upon all âlims (Islamic scholars) such as Al-Imam Al-Azam, and many others like him. May Allah admit them amongst who are the neighbours of Prophet Muhammad (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam), and those who are in the group of people with whom Allah is forever pleased with. You have, surely, heard our recitation of Surah Ikhlas in the beginning of the lecture, after the first prayer. Now, our subject is Allah’s oneness. The following is translation of a part from Al-Imam Al-Azam’s work Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar regarding monotheism. “Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) is One, but that oneness is not in a numerical sense, but in the sense that having no partners.” Almighty Allah has no partners eternally, and everlastingly. For He has no partners, He is always One. The evidence from Al-Qur’an Al-Karim that proves Allah’s existence and oneness is Surah Ikhlas, just like the other surahs. Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu) commands this in Surah Ikhlas, “Qul huwa allāhu ʾaḥad,” – The qul (slave), “say”. In other words, tell about Al-Qur’an Al-Karim which is sent down to Prophet Muhammad’s person and his heart in that day to the universe. Tell about the Qur’an to the world and say, “Qul huwa allāhu ʾaḥad,” – “Say, ‘He is Allah, the One.” All people and all realms should know that Allah is One.
“Allāhu s-samad,” – means Allah is Samad. “Allah is in need of no one, but everyone is in need of Him.” “Almighty Allah was not begotten, nor He begets, nor did he become a father.” He is Wajib Al-Wujud. His existence is a necessity of His Name. There has never been a comparable to Him. He has no equals, never has, and never will. In short, Allah is One in His Name and attributes.
“The truth is that exalted is the nobleness of your Lord; He has not taken a wife, nor a son.” There is no wife of Allah. There is no son, daughter or offspring of Allah either. Whoever attributes an offspring to Almighty Allah has practiced polytheism (shirk), and slandered Allah. Now, you all know Surah Ikhlas. The other evidence is the 3rd honourable Qur’anic verse of Surah Al-Jinn. Dear friends, Almighty Allah is introducing and telling about Himself to the humans and the jinn by Al-Qur’an Al-Karim in order for the world to recognize him correctly. Prophet Muhammad explained these truths, he did his duty, and walked to Al-Haqq. The Creator of the universe is only Allah. He is One, in other words, the Creator is One. He is peerless. That is the reason that the meaning of Wajib Al-Wujud can solely refers upon a sole and unique being who is ascribed with various perfect attributes. Let’s see, Almighty Allah commanded this about the subject, “Had there been other gods besides Allah in the heavens or the earth, the order of both realms would have surely been corrupted,” 22nd verse of Surah Al-Anbya. In other words, there would not be an order, everything would be disrupted. Friends, when we see it from this aspect, a proof named, “Burhan al-Tamanu” has revealed. The statement of that is this, in other words, “Burhan al-Tamanu” means, “Allah Ta’ala is One. Had he been two, the order in the earth and the heavens would be disrupted.”
Friends, in another verse of the Qur’an our Lord said, “Allah has not taken a son to Himself, nor is there any deity besides Him. Had there been so, each deity would have taken away what it created, and some of them would overcome the other. Allah Ta’ala is exalted above what (polytheistic things) they describe (concerning Him).” That is the 91st verse of Surah Al-Mu’minun. For that reason, Allah Ta’ala is One in every aspect of His. Almighty Allah does not resemble anything of His creation. His existence is due to Him. His existence is As-Samad, which means The One who is not in need of anyone for anything. Yet everything is in need of His Creating, and assistance.
“O, humankind, it is you who stand in need of Allah, but Allah needs nothing,” commanded He in 15th verse of Surah Fatir. Whosoever you may see except Allah are all in need, everyone is in need of Allah. Whereas Allah has never needed anyone, and never will. Therefore, valuable listeners, Allah’s existence is the same of His Entity. Whereas Allah’s attributes are neither the same of nor different than His Entity. There is opposition from the philosophers to this view. To them, Allah’s attributes are same with His Entity. Moreover, according to the Mu’tazila too, Allah’s attributes are the same with His Entity. Ahl al-Sunna and individuals like Al-Imam Al-Azam had denied such arguments. Almighty Allah’s attributes are neither the same with His Entity, nor other than that. Now, the Mu’tazila, along with the philosophers have not accepted Allah’s attributes for they feared that the immortal entities may be more than one. Never! That is also a dreadful danger we were talking about! The Ashʿarites have also stated their view by saying that Allah’s attributes are neither the same with His Entity, nor other than that. You see, in this matter also, the Ashʿarites are together with Ahl al-Sunna, they are with Ahl al-Sunna.
Dear friends, nothing amongst Allah’s creation resemble Allah. The ones who resemble Him befall into kufr (blasphemy) for their opposition to the 11th verse of Surah Ash-Shuraa, which is, – “laysa ka-mithlihī shayʾun,” which means, “Nothing is like Him.” Don’t you ever! No creature amongst the things Allah has created resemble Allah. There is nothing like Allah. “laysa ka-mithlihī shayʾun,” – this is the 11th verse of Surah Ash-Shuraa. Again, Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi says so in his explanation (book), “Also narrated by Nu’aym ibn Hammad, ‘Whoever resembles Allah to any one of the creatures that He created becomes a disbeliever. Whoever denies an attribute that Allah ascribed to Himself also becomes a disbeliever,’” he had said. That was how Nu’aym ibn Hammad said in Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi’s Sharh. Again, Ishaq bin Rahaveyhi said so, “Whoever ascribes Allah with an attribute and resemble one of Allah’s attributes to an attribute of a creature amongst who Allah created, then that person is definitely a disbeliever he said. In short, everyone should be careful about these. Almighty Allah has no attributes that resemble His slaves. The attributes of the slaves do not resemble Allah’s attributes either. If a person ascribes Allah with an attribute and resemble one of His attributes to the attributes of one of who Allah created, then that person becomes a disbeliever, he is definitely a disbeliever. The person who said that is Ishaq bin Rahaveyhi.
Scholar Jahm bin Safwan is the leader of Jahmiyya group. They have opposed Ahl al-Sunna and by ascribing a lie upon Ahl al-Sunna, they gave the name similar to, “Who resembles Allah to the creatures,” but they have lied of course.
They wanted to slander Ahl al-Sunna. For they are on the deviant’s path. Ahl al-Sunna’s opinion which is well-known, follows the way in which they mean Allah does not bear any resemblance to the creatures in His names, attributes, and actions. That is the opinion of Ahl al-Sunna. That is also clearly in pace in the verse of the Qur’an.
Allah’s personal (zati), and inherent (subuti) attributes. Almighty Allah is attributed with personal (zati), and inherent (subuti) attributes both in the past and in the future. Friends, those attributes are without beginning. These attributes such as knowledge (ilm), life (hayah), and speech (kalam), which are pre-existing. Yet there are opposition in the pre-existing state of these attributes, which form the actual attributes. The madhab of Maturidiyya says that these attributes are without a beginning. Moreover, according to the madhab of Ashʿarites the actual attributes are not pre-existing, but they are hadith, which means “created later”. Where as it is established that Allah’s existence is obligatory, and it is due to His Existence. Almighty Allah commands the following regarding this issue, “O, humankind! It is you who stand in need of Allah, but Allah needs nothing,” Allah is not in need of creating the universe which He created. Allah is not in need of creating the universe which He created. Allah is exalted with His names and attributes. Allah created the creatures with His perfect attributes are created, but that does not necessarily mean that attributes themselves are created, too. The opinions of Al-Imam Al-Azam’s and Ahl al-Sunna differ from the others in this aspect. Allah is All-Sustaining, and All-Seeing, and All-Hearing. These attributes are not created. The things which Allah sees, sustains, and hears are created but that does not necessarily mean that these attributes of Allah are created, too. We have mentioned these topics in our previous lectures, too. Now, we are continuing to convey discovery notes. The topic is our Almighty Lord’s personal (zati) attributes. Allah’s personal (zati) attributes are, life (hayah), power (kudrah), knowledge (ilm), speech (kalam), hearing (semi’), and seeing (basar), and will (irada), friends, the attributes such as these are Almighty Allah’s personal (zati) attributes.
Life, or hayah, Allah Ta’ala has an everlasting life, which has no beginning and no end. He is the only entity whose inexistence is unthinkable.
Power, or kudrah, means All-Powerful. That is also a pre-existent attribute. Allah lives with His life which is pre-existent and without an end. In other words, Allah’s life is pre-existent and everlasting. And with the attribute of power that is infinite He is All-Able to do whatever He wants. Allah Ta’ala is The Living ,the Self-Subsistent(al-hayyal-qayyūm). In other words, by being extant with His Being, He also sustains other creatures existences. In short, He sustains the existence of all things. His Existence belongs to Him.
It is He who sustains the existence of others. There is difference for Allah in creating this universe, or not creating it. In other words, this universe is not created for He needed it. Allah is not in need of anything. He holds the heavens, and universes. The realms are in need of Him. He says that He created the realms for humanity. The humankind is in need of Allah. Therefore, Allah created the universe, and all the things within it for the needs of His slaves.
The attribute of knowledge (ilm). Another one of Allah’s personal (zati) attributes is knowledge, or ilm. The knowledge, or ilm, is a pre-existent attribute that predestines. The attribute of knowledge, or ilm, when applied on the creatures, is a pre-existent attribute which makes the predestination. In short, Allah Ta’ala gives the knowledge upon all creatures Himself. The humans have as much knowledge as Allah bestowed them. Dear friends, including the tiniest things, nothing is hides from His Knowledge. Allah has overcast everything with His knowledge. He knows even the things that are more hidden than the secrets, which belong to the unseen. Allah’s knowledge has embraced everything, and that has no beginning or end. He knows with His ever-existent knowledge. Allah’s glory is free from knowledge that are obtained later. The knowledge of the creatures is obtained later. Whereas knowledge of Allah is pre-existent, and everlasting. Howsoever many knowledges are there within the creatures, they are all given by Him. The one who proves knowledge, or ilm, has banished ignorance.
“Does He who created not know, while He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.” That is the 14th Qur’anic verse of Surah Al-Mulk. “The keys of the Unseen are with Him. No one knows them but He. He knows what is in the land and the sea. No leaf ever falls except those that he knows about, and there is no grain in the darkness of the earth or anything green or dry which has not been recorded in a Clear Book.” “And it is He who takes your souls by night and knows what you have committed by day. Then to Him will be your return.” These two quotations are from the 59th and 60th verses of Surah Al-An’am.
Almighty Allah’s attribute of knowledge is also the attribute of speech, that is kalam. “Indeed, the convulsion of the Hour is a terrible thing,” that is the first verse of Surah Al-Haj. You see, Almighty Lord knows everything from the beginning to the end. Had Allah’s pre-existing knowledge brought them any good, He would surely have announced it to them. In that case, what does Allah do to His slaves? Even if he had granted them iman (faith), they would surely turn away from Al-Haqq and leave, and quit being a believer. In other words, Almighty Lord knows the situation of those who are not granted iman (faith), just as He knows all things, and says that even if they were granted iman (faith), they would surely renounce their faith again. May Allah not admit us amongst them. May He admit us amongst the ones whose iman (faith) is perfect, permanent, and everlasting.
In 27th verse of Surah Al-An’am the Lord says, “If only you could see when they shall be made to stand on the fire, they will say, “Oh, would that we could be returned (to life on earth), and not deny the sings of our Lord and be among the believers.” And this is the 28th verse of Surah Al-An’am, “No! They only say this because the truth they used to hide will become all too clear to them. Whereas even if they were sent back (to earth), they would still revert to what they were forbidden. Indeed, they are sheer liars.” Now, some people in Hereafter will say, “Let us go back to the world, and from then on we will not do evil ever again. Let’s do only good things.” For Almighty Allah knows about the slaves He created. There are slaves who disrupted their character. The slave disrupts that himself. Almighty Allah created everyone with the innate nature, or fitrah, of Islam. Then He sent Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and Prophet Muhammad, to have them exalt that innate nature. He sent them for the humans to exalt themselves, advance their inner nature, and reach perfection. Yet it is a shame that many of the humans are disrupting their innate nature; they going below rather then up, and thinking they are up to date. Yes, they are up to date, but they are up to date in blasphemy, in denial, in cruelty, and ignorance. Modern blasphemy, and modern ignorance. That is the situation of those who do not accept the Truth and the values it put forth. Islam embraced them, too. Islam came to save them but they are escaping this affectionate mercy. They are escaping the mercy of The Merciful who embraces all things ever. Islam is the manifestation of mercy of The Merciful.
Dear friends, attribute of speech, or kalam, is also amongst attributes that belong to Allah’s in person. “(They) say among themselves, ‘Why does Allah not punish us for what we say?’” this is the 7th verse of Surah Al-Mujadila. Almighty Lord know when to give punishment well. For He has bound everything with taqdir, which refers to God’s granting of agency. 1st verse of Surah Al-Mulk, “ʿalā kulli shayʾin qadīr” – “He has power over all things.”
Almighty Allah’s speech (kalam) is not by means of alphabet and articulation. Almighty Allah’s (jalla jalaluhu) speech (kalam) is a single attribute. For that it is without letters or sounds. For alphabets and sounds He is not in need of, they are creations. “Allah Ta’ala only says, ‘be’, when he decrees on a thing, and that work immediately becomes.” When Almighty Allah wants to create something, that thing comes to existence. He has the entire authority. The dead will be resurrected, but they will be resurrected by means of blowing the trumpet (as announcement). You see, Almighty Lord has created reasons, or signs. The whole of all reasons or signs and their author is Him. It is wajib (obligatory), to believe in those verses without being busy with their interpretation just like it is the case with mutashabih (ambiguous) verses.
According to the Ashʿarites the existence of the things is with the utterance of, ‘kun’ – or, ‘be’. The things have no other way of existing. Then according to Ahl al-Sunna, the things are manifested by Allah’s Creating. Not with any other kind of way. Allah knows all kinds of creating, and all kinds of manifesting. When Almighty Allah will speak to one amongst His creating, He speaks with His speech that is inscribed with words and letters which shows the ever-existent speech (kalam) which is inscribed in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz by Allah’s command.
He does not speak via a speech (kalam) that is created. For the speech (kalam) that is created are the alphabets and words which denote His speech (kalam), therefore that is not the true speech (kalam) that is ever-existent with Allah. For that reason, Allah’s speech (kalam) does not resemble the speech of the creatures just like it is with other attributes. “There is no human being that Allah speaks to him (directly), except by way of revelation, or from behind a curtain, or that He sends a messenger, and he reveals what He wills with His permission. Almighty Allah may give revelation to His servant in dream just like he did to the prophets, or Allah may inspire them, just like he does with awliya people. He gives inspiration to Umar by saying, Allah speaks the truth by Umar’s tongue.” He bestowed Umar inspirations. That is why Umar received the epithet Al-Farooq, which means, ‘the one who distinguishes between the right and wrong’. Allah’s speech (kalam) is ever-existent by His own Entity. Yet the Mu’tazila could not comprehend that this is the situation. The Mu’tazila has always stayed out of the truth, and continued to deviate to falsehoods, together with having true opinions also. Still, there have also been people in the Hanbali schools who misunderstood this situation like the Mu’tazila.
The attribute of seeing, and hearing. The attributes of basar, and semi’ are amongst personal (zati) attributes of Allah (jalla jalaluhu). Allah is the All-Hearing, and All-Seeing. They concern the things in this world from a distance, but just like that they virtually concern the things that are hadith. Hadith means a thing that came to existence later. Allah’s all attributes are perfect, just like His Entity is perfect. In other words, there cannot be a shortcoming, or imperfection. The entirety of all exaltedness is from Allah.
Dear friends, the attribute of will, or irada, is also amongst Allah’s personal (zati) attributes. Allah Ta’ala wills the things that happened or will happen with His attribute of will that is ever-existent. The thing that Allah wills always becomes, but the thing that He has not willed shall absolutely not become. The escape from evil, and becoming successful in submission are only by Allah’s assistance. The only refuge, and only salvation is Allah.
“You can only will what Allah wills,” 30th verse of Surah Al-Insan.
“Do whatever you want,” He says in the 40th verse of Surah Fussilat.
Friends, the following verses also denote Allah’s attributes of will (irada), and meişet. These Qur’anic verses are:
“Surely Allah does what He wills,” the 18th verse of Surah Hajj.
“Indeed, Allah ordains what He intends,” the 1st verse of Surah Al-Ma’idah.
For us, when it is thought about Allah, meişet (to invent), and the will are the same things. Yet the meanings differ if they refer to the servants. For example, if a man says to his wife, “Beraddü tâlâk tâlâkâki,” which means, I wanted to divorce you by capacity of will, his marriage would not be dissolved. Yet if he says, “Şittu tâlâkike tâlâkâki,” which means, I wanted to divorce you by capacity of meişet, his marriage would be dissolved. For the word ‘irada’ is derived from the root ‘r v d’. The meaning of this word is -to will. And the word ‘meişet’ consists of the meaning -to invent. You see, the meaning in between is different for the servants. Nevertheless, for Almighty Allah they express the same meaning, they have said. There is opposition in this opinion. They say that meişet is made up by will. Dear friends, if the attributes of will (irada), and meişet were one just as you think so, then they would have to have faith. For meişet means -to invent.
Allah’s wanting of a thing happens by two ways. The first is wanting a thing without there being an obligation which is called a command. Moreover, Almighty Lord’s attribute of hikmah, or wisdom. The attribute of hikmah (wisdom) is also an eternal attribute. It is according to the Ashʿari the attribute of takwin is an attribute that is created later. Yet that is not the opinion of Ahl al-Sunnah. That is not the situation for the members of Al-Imam Al-Azam’s ecole, and the rest of the Ahl al-Sunnah. Will, or irada, is in two ways in Allah’s book. The first is about fate, or qadar, it is associated with creatures, and creation, and the symbol of that will, or irada is will.
That embraces all creatures. For Almighty Allah commands in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, “Whoever Allah wants to guide (to truth) He opens their heart to Islam, and widens their heart, and whomsoever He wants to let go astray, He makes his heart tight and constricted as if they were climbing up into the sky (in the face of the offer to believe),” 125th verse of Surah Al-An’am.
The second type of irada (will) is the will that is about religion, sharia, and commands. That kind of irada (will) requires willing and affection. As a matter of fact, Almighty Lord commands about this subject, “Allah intends ease for you, and does not intend hardships for you,” in the 185th verse of Surah Al-Baqarah. You see, friends, the command requires the second type of irada (will), rather than the first type of irada.
Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullahi alayh) mentioned seven attributes of Allah that are personal (zati). The first is being One in His name. The other is being One in His attributes. The third one is not being in need of earthly creatures. The fourth is being attributed with the attributes of a’zamat (infinite grandness), and infinite glory are also amongst these seven attributes. “El-kibriya-u rida-i vel
Âzametü izahi,” let’s see what our Lord says in this Hadith-i Qudsi which was reported by our Prophet on the authority of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. This is a Hadith-i Qudsi:
“Kibriyā (infinite greatness) is my ridā, and a’zamat (infinite grandness) is my izār,” He commanded.
Editor’s Note: “Ridā is the seamless white garment worn by pilgrims in Mecca for pilgrimage or umrah, and amongst the two parts of the clothing, ridā is the upper part which covers the part of the body that is upper from the waist, except head. The second part which covers below the waist is called izār.” The word ‘Allah Akbar’ is made the key to namâz. In short, Allah is the greatest. He says greatness, or kibriyā, is His ridā, and a’zamat is His izār.
Personal attributes of Almighty Allah Ta’ala are life (hayah), knowledge (ilm), hearing (semi’), seeing (basar), will (irada), power (kudrah), speech (kalam) and takwin. All attributes of Him are ever-existent attributes. Almighty Allah’s attributes that relate to His actions are tahlîk, tarzik, insha, ibda’, sun’, ihya, if-nâ, inbat, inmâ. These are attributes related to work. Tahlik means -to create. Tarzik is sustaining the creatures. He sustains those He created. Insha is to create by fashioning the elements. Ibda’ is to create something from the state of non-existence. Sun’, means Allah’s divine art. Ihya means – to resurrect, ifnā means – to destroy, inmā means – to make or enlarge. You see, all of these attributes are in the meaning of the attribute of takwin, or creating. Yes, dear friends, “Allah intends ease for you, and does not intend hardships for you,” says He in the 185th verse of Surah Al-Baqarah.”
“Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection,” 77th verse of Surah Ali-‘Imran. You see, He does not speak to whom He dislikes, He speaks to whom He likes. Moreover, the attributes whose absence does not refer to their opposites are personal attributes. The attributes whose absence does not mean their opposites are personal attributes. The attributes whose absence does not mean their opposites are personal attributes. If you use the attribute of will (irada) negatively, meaning if you say, ‘Allah does not speak’ then due to that the meaning not having a tongue occurs, and that is impossible. These things are unthinkable and non-ascribable to Allah. To us, all of the attributes which Allah attributed Himself with, along with the attributes whose opposites are not permissible to ascribe to Him are amongst personal (zati) attributes. That is the opinion of Ahl al-Sunnah. This part is important, so pay attention.
The attributes which Allah attributed Himself with, along with the attributes whose opposites are not permissible to ascribe to Him are amongst personal (zati) attributes. The attributes such as power (kudrah), knowledge (ilm), a’zamat (infinite grandness), and similar attributes whose opposites are also ascribable to Allah are amongst attributes relating to His actions. For example, the attributes of affection, mercy, wrath, and art and such.
The doubts of the Ashʿarites and Mu’tazila is this, they say, “If the attribute of takwin were eternal it should have concerned the created creatures in pre-existence,” which is denied by Hanafi School.
They said that the attribute of taqwin, or creating, should be hadith, it should not be eternal. The Mu’tazila also had the false opinion. In summary, we say the following against them, look, takwin, or the attribute of creating is an eternal attribute. You see, this is the opinion of Ahl al-Sunnah, and Hanafi ecoles. The attribute of takwin is an ever-existent and timeless attribute which has no beginning. This attribute of creating that belong to Allah is everlastingly permanent. Likewise, the attribute of ibda’ means creating something from the state of non-existence without there being any previous matter. That is not the case with attribute of tahlik. Tahlik also means – to create, but this attribute is more general than ibda’, or it is its meaning. Insha, or re-creation, is an attribute of creating that is special to the elements that are created. Action is a parable to all works that has resemblance with the good and the bad. The attribute of sun’, which means -to do has the meaning of creating firmly and beautifully, and giving ordinance perfectly. As a matter of fact, Almighty Lord points to this meaning in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim as follows, “That is the design of Allah, who has perfected everything,” this is from the 88th verse of Surah Al-Naml.
You see friends, the attribute of sun’ is the name for the good art of Allah, and His creation of everything beautifully, and perfectly. Tarzik means sustaining the needs of a thing, and creating provision for him. For that reason, our Lord is who sustains the universe. Allah Ta’ala is the sole creator of provisions for those who need sustenance. Therefore, Allah created the provisions for everyone who needs it.
“Allah is the one who created you, then provided for you,” you see, this is the 40th Qur’anic verse of Surah Al-Rum.
“I created the jinn and humans except to worship Me.” He created for them to know Him, and be of service. He says that He created both for them to know Him. The whole of the meanings that are similar to this resides within that. The afore quote was the 56th verse of Surah Adh-Dhariyat. In another report this is commanded, “I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known. Hence I created a creation (mankind) so that I would be known.” There is that Hadith Qudsi which was ascribed to our Almighty Lord. The attribute of takwin, or creating, is amongst Allah’s eternal attributes. The attribute of takwin, which means – to create, is a constant attribute for Allah, both in the infinite past and the infinite future. And the creatures are all hadith, which means created. Fakhr-al-Islam Ali al-Pazdawi says the following in his book Usul al-Fiqh which means roots of law. “The meaning of iman and Islam is to affirm and to acknowledge Allah Ta’ala with His names and attributes, the way they are; and surrendering to His verdicts, and accepting His sharia. This affirmation and acknowledgement have two types. The first of which is to be born and raised amongst Muslims, and embracing Muslimism by following the mother or father, whichever one is Muslim. The second one is to declare the affirmation of Muslimism by oneself, ascribing Allah the way He is. However, that is a degree of perfection.
You see friends, in summary, the meaning of them is the making the affirmation and the acknowledgement constant, says al-Pazdawi. The obligation in affirmation is asking the believer the attributes of Allah. For example, this can be asked: Is Allah attributed with this or that attribute? Does Allah have inherent (subuti), exiled (selbi), personal (zati), and action related attributes? If he says yes, then it is revealed that that believer’s Muslimism is at a perfect degree. The person who does not know to ascribe Allah with the attributes which suits His glory when he was asked is not a believer. For that reason, Imam al-Muhammad wrote the following in his book named Al Jami` al Kabir, “If a girl born to Muslim parents were to be married with a man, and could not narrate Islam to her child when he or she enters puberty, then her marriage would be dissolved with Talaq-e-Bain, which terminates marriage. In short, the point of story is everyone must recognize Allah whether they are male or female. They have to know Allah by His names, attributes which are personal (zati), inherent (subuti), and action related. Otherwise, that person is not a believer (mu’min), he said. Look, who is this grand âlim who is an allame-i cihan, which means most scholarly person of the world. He is Imam al-Muhammad, the second disciple of Al-Imam Al-Azam. He is world-famous âlim, who is the third ranked âlim after Abu Yusuf. You see, friends, the first rank belongs to Al-Imam Al-Azam, the second rank belongs to Abu Yusuf, and third rank belongs to Imam al-Muhammad. The great Islamic scholars, or âlims, have said the ranking goes like that.
Now, our subject is Allah’s names and attributes. Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) has almighty names and attributes. His names or attributes, not any of them are hadith, which means they are not created later. What does hadith mean? You should remember this. We are continuously explaining but people are forgetful. The things that are created later are called hadith. Allah’s names and attributes are not hadith, they are not created. They are pre-existent and eternal attributes that reside within Allah Himself. All names and attributes of Allah are eternal. They have no beginning. They are everlasting, with no end. Amongst Allah’s names and attributes not any of them has been renewed, or recreated. They all exist in before the beginning of time, and they are eternal. For Almighty Allah’s existence is due to Him. He is perfect and faultless in attributes, and Himself. The tidings mentioned in Al-Quran Al-Karim mostly came with past tense suffixes. For example, “And We certainly sent Noah to his people,” the 14th verse of Surah Al-Ankabut. You see, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim narrates the period of Noah which was centuries ago compared to the time Al-Qur’an Al-Karim was sent down. “But Pharaoh disobeyed the messenger,” 16th verse of Surah Al-Muzzammil. You see, it narrates the period of Pharaoh, these events have occurred much earlier than the revelation of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim.
Al-Qur’an Al-Karim narrates us the past. It gives both tidings about both the past and the future. The tidings that are given by Allah are cannot be ascribed with past or future tenses. For time does not apply to Allah. The time and place are for people. The meaning behind sovereignty is to be without time. Allah Ta’ala is free from time and space.
Friends, all attributes that belong to Almighty Allah are eternal. Allah has eternally been The All-Knowing, this is a fact. The attribute of knowledge (ilm) is an eternal attribute of Allah. Allah’s knowledge is pre-existing, and eternal. It is free from shortcomings or excessiveness. There cannot be any shortcomings or excessiveness in Allah. He is a completely perfect entity. The entirety of all exaltedness resides with Him. Allah is All-Powerful, by His attribute of Power. The attribute of power, or kudrah, is an eternal attribute of Allah. Allah speaks with His attribute of kalam (speech) which is personal, and sacred. The attribute of kalam is an eternal attribute of Allah. Allah is attributed with the attribute of tahlik, which means creating. The attribute of creating has eternally been an attribute of Allah. Allah does what He does with His attributes that are related to His actions. Allah’s works are done with action related attributes. His action has eternally been Allah’s attribute. Allah Ta’ala is the One who does work. In His work, His art, and ruling, no one can be partner to Him. The attribute of action has eternally been Allah’s attribute. As for the work that is done, it is the creatures. Yet Allah’s work is not a creature. The things He created are the creatures. You see, what did the ones who could not understand that correctly do? They have deviated to other opinions. Al-Imam Al-Azam lights the way for the world also in this matter. Allah is One, and He is also One both in His attributes and works. Yet strangely, Ibn al-Hümam said the following by being unwary of the afore remark, “There is no explanation in Abu Hanifa’s remark about the attribute of takwin that it is ever-existent and being an addition upon the aforementioned attributes.” There is this remark of Al-Imam Al-Azam which the later âlims have acknowledged, “Allah Ta’ala was the Creator in eternity, even without having created anything. He was The Sustaining, even before having to sustain anyone.” It is possible that there are people who did not understand Al-Imam Al-Azam correctly. Allah’s attributes are not created. Allah Ta’ala’s (jalla jalaluhu) attributes are not created in pre-existence either. The people who say Allah’s attributes are created or who pauses in this issue or the ones who have doubt about this issue are blasphemers, they said that they become blasphemers. For in Allah Ta’ala there is nothing that resemble the created things. The created does not resemble Him, and He does not resemble the created. These attributes are life (hayah), knowledge (ilm), power (kudrah), kalam (speech), hearing (semi’), seeing (basar), will (irada), tahlik and tarzik. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s utterance; therefore, it is not created. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is not a creature. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is inscribed in books.
It resides in the hearts, and it is the kalam (speech) that is recited by means of languages. The meaning of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah Ta’ala’s speech (kalam) of His own. In other words, it is the kalam (speech) of Almighty Lord. It is the divine word which narrate that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim belongs to Almighty Lord’s infinite power. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim denotes the speech (kalam) of Allah, which is inscribed on the books, protected within the hearts, and recited by means of languages. It would not be authentic to banish the divine word from Allah. In other words, it is not true not to count the words of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim as Allah Ta’ala’s words. The afore remark says that not saying they belong to Allah Himself is false. They belong to Allah; they are Allah’s speech (kalam) both in wording, and meaning. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s own words mean kalam, or rather kalam al-qadim, which means ever-existent speech. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s laconic is bared by kalām al-lafzī. The laconic here is that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim renders everyone helpless who oppose it being a miracle. It is forbidden for the people without ābdast and the women in menstruation to touch Al-Qur’an Al-Karim that is the uttered speech (kalām al-lafzī). Al-Qur’an Al-Karim were sent down upon Prophet Muhammad, sallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam.
Dear friends, “Whatever new reminder comes to them from their Lord, they only listen to it jokingly,” 2nd verse of Surah Al-Anbya. You see, it is said that, “comes from their Lord.” This is also important. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim came from Allah. The word ‘muhdes’ (not old but new) is used here for the revelation of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s words. Allah is devoid of speech by means of organs. The articulation of ours in reciting Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is a creature, and what belongs to us is created. Our ability to write the Qur’an down, and read it too are created things. Yet Al-Qur’an Al-Karim itself is not created. The Qur’an that is Allah’s self-speech is the kalam of Allah, therefore it is not created. The things that are our own work such as pen, ink, alphabets, paper, and our voice, these are created things. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim itself is the word (kalam) of Allah. “If any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, give him protection until he listens to the Word of Allah,” 6th verse of Surah At-Tawbah. You see, this Qur’anic verse clearly declares that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s word. Friends, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the word of Allah. “So when he came to it, he was called by a voice coming from a side of the right valley in the blessed ground, from the tree, saying, “O Musa, indeed I am Allah, Lord of the worlds.” This Qur’anic verse also declares that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the word of Allah. Not, we will be giving extensive knowledge regarding this topic from Al-Imam Al-Azam’s book. Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatuallahi alayh) says the following in his book named Al-Wasiyyah, “We profess that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the Word of Allah, His attribute, His revelation, and He sent it down, we profess that it is neither the same of Him, nor different than Him. Know that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is indeed an attribute that is written in books, recited by languages, and protected in hearts, but it does not incarnate into these things. The alphabets, actions, paper, inscription, these are all created things. For these are the work of the servants. Whereas Allah’s word is not created. For inscription, alphabet, words, and all of the verses are just tools created for the servants to be able to read the Qur’an. Allah’s word is ever-existent due to His own Entity. The one who says, “Allah’s word is created,” is definitely a blasphemer. Allah Ta’ala is the God.
In other words, He is the one who is worshipped. Allah’s word (kalam) is read and inscribed, and memorized without separating it from Allah’s Entity. You see friends, Fakhr-al-Islam says that it is established by authentic reports that Imam al-Abu Yusuf said the following: I have discussed with Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa about Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s uncreatedness. In the end, both our opinions got together in this point, ‘The one who rules that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is created is a disbeliever.’ We both agreed on this opinion.” The following word is also established as an authentic report by Imam al-Muhammad, “Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the word (kalam) of Allah, therefore it is not created.” You see, the creed of Ahl al-Sunna about Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is that. Dear friends, Muslims have to know the basics (amantu) of Islam correctly. Some ignorant people amongst the Hanbalites had also inclined towards that opinion. Prophet Muhammad said as it is mentioned in the book Sharh Al-Aqidah, “Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the word (kalam) of Allah, it is not created. Whoever says that it is created is definitely a disbeliever.” Some people had objections about the text of the afore report, which we have given the meaning of. They object to the source of the afore Hadith-i Sharif. Yet the opinions of Al-Imam Al-Azam & Imam al-Muhammad who are revered individuals who have seen the Tabi’un and the companions and who know Al-Qur’an Al-Karim from a to z, are united. May Allah be pleased with all of the sahabah, and the Tabi’un, and other mujtahids. They have agreed that Allah’s attributes are not the same of Him, and are not different than Him. Allah’s attributes are not the same of Him by the meaning that comes to mind. You should listen and profoundly understand this part. Allah’s attributes are not the same of Allah by the meaning that comes to mind. For the minds are incapable of understanding those attributes fully. They are not the same in the aspect that minds can understand. Allah’s attributes are not the same of Allah by the meaning that comes to mind. For Allah’s exaltedness is incomprehensible for the minds. They are not something other than Allah by being an external entity. For the meaning of sifāt (attribute) is not anything other than the meaning of self. The attributes are not opposites of Allah’s Entity by their occurrences in the universe. For that reason, the attributes are not the same of Allah in the aspect that the servant reflects, because the servant is incapable. Otherwise, in the presence of Almighty Allah, or in the knowledge of Allah Ta’ala, Allah is just like however He attributes Himself. For Allah is known as He explained Himself when we ascribe Allah’s Entity, glorious, and exalted Entity the way He described Himself. The meaning within the minds of the servant are not the same for the minds are incapable of comprehending the exaltedness of Allah Ta’ala. In summary, Allah’s kalam, or speech, is amongst Allah’s attributes, and Allah is ever-existent along with His names, and attributes.
Valuable friends, Almighty Allah say this in the 3rd verse of Surah Al-Hadid, “He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate, and He is, of all things, Knowing.” In other words, Allah is the First by having no beginning, and the Last by having no end.
You see, valuable and venerable friends, “We have appointed measured phases for the moon, until it ends up like an old, curved palm stalk,” said He in 39th verse of Surah Yaseen.
“The disbelievers say about the believers, ‘Had that prophet been something good, these (weak and poor) people would not have preceded us (in proceeding) towards him.’ And when they are not guided by him, they will say, ‘This Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is an ancient falsehood,” this is the 11th verse of Surah Al-Ahqaf. That is the assertion of the disbelievers. And Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s word, that is the belief (iman) and confession of the believers forever and ever.
Yes, dear friends, al-Qayyūm attribute means The Subsisting, The Independent. Yet the attribute al-Qadim does not come to that meaning. The al-Qayyum attribute, again, means that Allah Ta’ala exists on His own. That is the meaning that Allah Ta’ala is wajib al-wujud. It is said that the name “Al-Hayyul Qayyum” is the Al-Ism al-A’zam, which means the greatest name of Allah. This Hadith-i Sharif which is reported authentically from our Prophet supports that idea, “Our Beloved Prophet (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) said, ‘Almighty Lord’s word, Allah la ilaha illa Huwal-Hayyul-Qayyum, is the greatest in the verses in Qur’an.’” That Hadith-i Sharif was reported by al-Tirmidhi. “Inna qavluhu Ta’ala Allahu la ilaha illa Huwal-Hayyul-Qayyum, âğzeme âyâtihi fil qur’an.” – Almighty Lord is ever-existent due to Him. He does not resemble any other one in any way. He is who sustains others. Allah Ta’ala is who sustains the worlds. Nothing can remain standing without Allah’s Power.
You see friends, we continue to give discovery notes about the Glorious Qur’an from Al-Imam Al-Azam’s book Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. The whole of the matters in which Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu) have mentioned Mūsā Alayhissalam, other prophets, the Pharaoh, and Shaitan are the words (kalam) of Allah Ta’ala, He gives tidings from them. Allah is who gives tidings, and they are words (kalam) of Allah. Yes, dear friends, may Almighty Lord admit us amongst the servants who know the Truth as the Truth, and who follow it; who know the false as false, who keeps clear of falsehoods, and becomes a mujahid in Allah’s way, and follow Prophet Muhammad and the divine teachings he has brought.