Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 16
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 16
Eûzubillahimineşşeytânîrracîm, Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Bismillahillezi ilâ yedurru mâ âsmihî şey’un fil ardu velâ fissemâ ve hüvessemiû’l alîym. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.
Most valuable and venerable listeners, we continue to give discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. The words of creatures (people) when they recite Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are created, but the kalam (word) of Allah Ta’ala is not. The words of Mūsā Alayhissalam, and the words of other creatures are created. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the words of Allah Ta’ala, not the words of the created (people). In short, the words in the Qur’an belong to noone except Allah. The words in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are the words of Qur’an itself, therefore they are kalam (speech, words) of Allah Ta’ala. The words of the created (people) are created just like they are. In other words, words are subjected to their owner. For the attributes are ascribed to their owner, they are subjected to their owner. The words in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and its verses are the proof of Allah’s kalam (speech), and signs of His intent. Yes, most valuable and revered friends, our Almighty Lord says in the 75th verse of Surah Baqarah, “O, Muslims! Do you still hope that the Jews will believe you? Although a group of them used to hear the word of Allah [the Torah], and then, having understood it, they used to distort it knowingly.” As you see friends.
“And if any one of the Mushirks [polytheists] seeks your protection, give him protection until he listens to the Word of Allah. Then escort them to a place of safety,” 6th verse of Surah At-Tawbah.
Thereafter, when we have a look, we see that the legal opinion that suggests that the one who says Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is created is blasphemer is ascribed to meaning that being in scholarly error. This situation which was mentioned by Al-Imam Al-Azam and other Islamic scholars (ulama), does not refer to the meaning “disbeliever” as in being expelled from the religion and iman (faith), that is what they said.
Valuable friends, there is no opposition in Ahl al-Sunna about the uncreatedness of the uttered speech (kalām lafzī). That remark is inherited by means of ahad (the past). It is not permissible (jaiz) for anyone to say that the uttered speech (kalām lafzī) is created. For the uttered speech (kalām lafzī) is most certainly the word of Allah Ta’ala. It is definitely word of Allah; therefore, it is not created. It is never permissible for anyone to say the words of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are created.
That is the situation, just like it is in the remark, “Do not travel with the Qur’an to the lands of the enemy.” “When you recite the Qur’ān, seek refuge in Allah from the Satan, the expelled,” 98th verse of Surah An-Nahl. It is absolutely not permissible (jaiz) to say that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is created, ever.
The conversation of Mūsā with Allah. Mūsā Alayhissalam has heard the speech of Allah Ta’ala. Almighty Lord hereof commands, “And to Mūsā Allah spoke directly,” 164th verse of Surah An-Nisa. “When Mūsā came at Our appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him, he said, ‘My Lord, show Yourself to me that I may look at You.’,” said a verse of the Qur’an, this verse if the 143th verse of Surah Al-A’raf. The previous verse was 164th verse of Surah An-Nisa. Allah Ta’ala has eternally been attributed with attribute of speech also before Mūsā Alayhissalam ever existed. Almighty Lord has eternally been The Creator also before creating the creatures. All things originate in intention, and then they are raised from intention to action.
No creature resembles Allah. There is nothing that resembles Allah Ta’ala. Allah is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing. Dear friends, ahlul bid’ah have deviated to false obsessions in these matters also. Nu’aym Ibn Hammād al-Khuzā’ī says, “Whoever likens Allah Ta’ala to anyone amongst creatures in terms of self, and attributes becomes a disbeliever,” he said. He also said, “If he denies Almighty Allah’s personal and action related attributes, then again he becomes a disbeliever.” Friends, Muslims should know the following verses, and never ever forget them:
“Nothing is like Him,” 11th verse of Surah Ash-Shuraa. There is absolutely nothing above Him. Nothing is above Him. Yes, Allah Ta’ala’s attribute of speech (kalam) is an ever-existing attribute. The attribute of creating is also ever-existing. Almighty Allah spoke to Mūsā Alayhissalam by His attribute of speech (kalam) that is His attribute in eternity. On the other hand, the words Mūsā Alayhissalam had heard from that well-known three are created.
“When Mūsā came at Our appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him,” 143th verse of Surah Al-A’raf. Allah Ta’ala speaks when He wills. The reason that these inscriptions are called Allah’s speech (kalam) is because they act as a guide for Allah’s speech (kalam).
The inscriptions that denote the word of Allah are the Qur’an if they are expressed in Arabic but if they are expressed in Hebrew, they are the Torah. The difference is in inscriptions. These inscriptions, or sentences are figuratively called Allah’s utterance.
Now, just like those who put forth that opinion, Al-Imam Al-Azam said, “If a person says that the words that are inscribed in the books does not consist of Allah’s kalam, or if says that they narrate Allah’s kalam but are not Allah’s kalam, then he would have insulted the book, sunnah, and the pious.”
You see friends, we should understand quite well, and know that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s utterance (kalam).
This Qur’an is a revelation from the All-Gracious, and All-Merciful Allah,” 2nd verse of Surah Fussilat. The Qur’an will one day be removed from the hearts and the books and go back to its Lord. In other words, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim will return to Allah. When? The time when Al-Qur’an Al-Karim will be removed from the world. The Qur’an will one day be exiled from the hearts and the books and go back to its Lord. These will happen towards the time of Qiyamah. Allah’s attributes are not indirect, does not involve an intermediary. Allah’s attributes are all exist in pre-eternity. That is not the case for attributes of the creatures. Allah is attributed with knowledge, but that is unlike our knowledge. Allah is attributed with Power, but that is unlike our power. Allah is attributed with Sight, but that is unlike our sight. Allah is attributed with Kalam (Speech), but that is unlike our speech. We speak by assistance of tools, organs, and alphabets but Allah Ta’ala speaks without means of tools, or alphabets. The alphabets are created, but Allah’s speech (kalam) is not created. Allah knows the truth of all things along with their parts or as a whole, with their hidden or unhidden secrets. That is by His attribute of knowledge which is eternal. And His The Self-Sufficiency that is personal. The knowledge of humans is for humans. That is the knowledge of creatures. On the other hand, knowledge of Allah Ta’ala has sieged everything pre-existing or will exist. Moreover, it is He who gave knowledge to the creatures. Just like it is He who gives inherent knowledges, it is again He who gives earned knowledge, which can be learned by studying the Qur’an or by means of education. “
He is the One who gives the inherent knowledge that is sent to hearts and souls, just like He gives the knowledge that is earned by studying the Qur’an or by means of education. “My Allah, have us benefit by our eyes and ears the time you have created us.” You see, this is a well-known prayer. You find very strange that the way Allah Ta’ala who is Almighty sees the shapes and colours of the things or how He hears their voice without creating them. You say, how can He hear words and sounds. However, Allah is the One who shows you those shapes and colours in your sleep. It is Almighty Allah who haves you hear those words and sound before they occur. The utterance of Almighty Allah is not by means of throat, tongue, lips, and teeth. Allah is not in need means like words, voices, or alphabets. The alphabets and voices are created, but Allah’s kalam (speech) is not created.
That kalam is ever-existent. It is ever-existent. Imam al-Tahawi says, “Who hears Allah’s utterance (kalam) but believes that it is utterance of man becomes a disbeliever. Allah Ta’ala has intimidated them by His words. Allah Ta’ala has frightened such people with the Fire of Hell. Almighty Allah’s commands, “I will indeed burn him in Hell,” 25th verse of Surah Al-Muddaththir. Almighty Allah intimidated the one who says that „Al-Qur’an Al-Karim can only be word of a man“ with the Fire of Hell, then we certainly knew that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the word of the creator of humans. Therefore, it bears no resemblance to the words of man.
The opinions in the subject of kalam (utterance). These are divided into nine groups. There is no doubt that one of them is the opinion that says Allah’s kalam is the utterance which gives meaningful messages to people. That is the statement of al-Tahawi. Al-Tahawi is one of us, he is a Hanafi scholar (âlim). For some people such words are either from the mind that is working or from someone else. That opinion is the word of the philosophers and Sabians. In other words, that is not the opinion of Ahl al-Sunna. The second opinion is of the Mu’tazila, they say that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is created. That is also a deviant innovation, or ahlul bid’ah. That is also repudiated. They say that Allah Ta’ala created it but created as another thing that is different than him. That word is also the word of the Mu’tazila and it is repudiated. The third group, there are people who say that the word of Allah has only one meaning. They say that if He commands in Arabic it is the Qur’an. Now, that is actually true in the aspect that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim was revealed in Arabic. That is the opinion of people like Ashʿari and Kullāb. The fourth one, which is the opinion of kalamist hadith scholars is that they consist of eternal utterances and letters. That opinion is also not acknowledged. That contradicts Al-Imam Al-Azam’s opinion regarding the subject. That opinion is again, the opinion of a group that consists of philosophers and hadith scholars. The fifth one is that there are people who say that Allah’s kalam consists of utterances and letters of alphabet. That is the opinion of the group of Qarramiyyah. They say that Allah Ta’ala has spoken to them later. Their opinion is also the opinion of false deviant innovators (ahlul bid’ah); therefore, it is repudiated. The sixth one, they say that Allah’s kalam turns to the creatures which He created by His knowledge that is ever-existent due to Him, and His will. That opinion is acknowledged by the author of the book al-Mutabar. It is also said that Fakhr al-Din al-Razi is inclined towards that opinion in his book al-Matālib al-’Aliya (The Higher Issues). The Lord knows the best. Insha’Allah, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi is not amongst the ones who are mistaken. We do not want for anyone to be mistaken. May Allah grant upon everyone to understand almighty Islam. And have us believe correctly. Knowing is not enough; affirmation, and confession is also needed. Allah’s speech (kalam) is ever-existent with Him. They say that Allah has not created that meaning in anyone else. That opinion is the view of Abu Mansur al-Maturidi. The eight opinions says that Allah’s speech (kalam), with the ever-existent meaning that says that it is ever-existent due to Him, and the voices He created in others are conjoint.
That remark is of Abū al-Maʻānī and his followers. Friends, the first meaning is the truth, the second meaning is figurative. Now, the ninth opinion. It says that Almighty Allah supports the preferred remarks of the followers of sunnah whenever He wishes, both in the past and in the future.
The reason that we are repeating this matter on Al-Imam Al-Azam’s authority is to demonstrate the importance of the matter in terms of purpose. Now, when we say that Allah Ta’ala speaks in a way that suits Himself, their doubts disappear. “and his Lord [Allah] spoke to him [Mūsā],” this and the following is the 143rd verse of Surah Al-A’raf. “wa-lammā jāʾa mūsā li-mīqātinā wa-kallamahū rabbuhū,” – “When Mūsā came at Our appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him.” The most superior of the blessings of Paradise is to see the face of Allah Ta’ala, and to hear His kalam (utterance). And the fiercest of the torments of Hell is that Allah’s face is concealed from them, that is not visible to them, and them not hearing Allah’s kalam (utterance). You see friends, Allah Ta’ala’s kalam, which is the speech, or utterance of Allah is the word which pours down meanings upon people. These words, for some, are either from a mind that is active or from someone else. Now, these remarks of course, are the opinions that belong to the Sabians who worship stars, and the words of philosophers. Therefore, the Muslims of the world have to be firmly bound to the view of Ahl al-Sunnah. Dear friends, for Almighty Allah’s attribute of kalam (speech) is ever-existent with Him, it is pre-existing, and everlasting. And Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is not created, it is the word of Allah.
Most valuable friends, “wa-lā yukallimuhumu llāhu yawma l-qiyāmati,” – “And Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection,” this is the 108th verse of Surah Al-Baqarah, and the afore quote is its text.
“qāla khsaʾū fīhā wa-lā tukallimūn,” – “He will say, ‘Do not make noise in there, and do not speak to Me!” this is the 108th verse of Surah Al-Mu’minun. This is Him scolding the people of Hell.
“kallā ʾinnahum ʿan rabbihim yawmaʾidhin la-maḥjūbūn,” – “No, indeed they will be veiled from the mercy of their Lord on the Day of Qiyamah,” this is the 15th verse of Surah Al-Mutaffifin. The Mu’tazila, again, misunderstood this Qur’anic verse which says that Allah is the creator of all things. The Mu’tazila said that the slave is the creator of his own actions, the people cannot see the truth when they are so deep in falsehoods. They say that the slave is the creator of his own actions. Now, look, the Mu’tazila says about the slave, “The slave is the creator of his own actions.” They say that, but Allah’s kalam, or speech, is one of the attributes of Allah Ta’ala. The created thing originates by means of that attribute. For all creatures come into existence by Allah’s command. In this matter, Almighty Lord commands, “and He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, all of them subjugated to His command. Lo! His is the creation and His is the command,” in the 54th verse of Surah Al-A’raf, and this is the text of the verse, “a-lā lahu l-khalqu wa-l-ʾamru tabāraka llāhu rabbu l-ʿālamīn.” He commanded.
We should be cautious about those obsessions of the ahlul bid’ah (deviant innovators) who remain out of Ahl al-Sunnah. The Muslims of Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah should firmly embrace the creed of Ahl al-Sunnah. Ahl al-Sunnah has denied the false beliefs which assert that all of the attributes of Allah such as knowledge (ilm), power (kudrah), and others are created. In short, the correct belief which Al-Imam Al-Azam put forth denies the Mu’tazila. That opinion of the Mu’tazila is also crippled. Almighty Allah is free from what that group says. The Mu’tazila has severely been wrong in these matters. What does the Mu’tazila say? They put their false beliefs forth that the attributes of Allah such as knowledge (ilm), power (kudrah), and all similar attributes are created. Their view is denied. That is clearly blasphemy. “And the deniers will say to their skins, ‘Why did you testify against us? They (the skins) will say, ‘We were made to speak by Allah, the One who has made every thing to speak.’.” That is the 21st verse of Surah Fussilat.
Yes, friends, it is not enough to say “I have believed in the basics”. It is not enough just to say, “The axioms of faith are six,” either. It is necessary to know the six axioms, and the basics of Islam, and understand them in the truest way. You see, Al-Imam Al-Azam lights the way of the world also in this matter, he enlightens the world. Allah does not take form of the creatures. The proof which the Mu’tazila put forth is the following Qur’anic verse which they did not understand correctly either.
“So when he came to it, he was called by a voice coming from a side of the right valley in the blessed ground, from the three, saying, “O Mūsā, indeed I am Allah, Lord of the worlds,” this is the 30th verse of Surah Al-Qasas. Allah says, “Indeed, I am Allah.” “O Mūsā, indeed I am Allah,” he says.
“And said, “I am your most exalted lord,” 24th verse of Surah An-Nazi’at. You see, this word was said by the Pharaoh. Had the Mu’tazila been narrating the truths, they would not befallen into these fallacies.
“Is there any creator other than Allah?” this is the 3rd verse of Surah Fatir. The Qur’anic verse says, “Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is surely the speech of a noble Messenger,” this is the 40th verse of Surah Al-Haqqah. Now, in another verse Allah Ta’ala states that the ones who say that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the words of people are disbelievers. The one who says it is the word of Prophet Muhammad, or that he invented it himself is a disbeliever. For that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim which is sent to Prophet Muhammad, this al-kalam al-qadim (timeless-eternal speech) which Muhammad announced the world is the kalam of Allah, the speech of Allah, and the book of Allah. In this regard, the ones who say that the verse suggest that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is invented by a messenger, or Gabriel Alayhissalam, or Muhammad Alayhissalam, could not understand the truth.
In short, Ahl al-Sunnah who is bound up with the four schools together with the ulama of salaf and khalaf are in alliance about the uncreatedness of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim.
Editor’s note: ‘ulama’ is the plural of ‘âlim’ which means ‘Islamic scholar’. Salaf means righteous predecessors and khalaf means later ulama.
The Four Schools, Ahl al-Sunnah, and Salaf, and Khalaf. They all said that Allah’s speech (kalam) is ever-existent. That is the belief of Ahl al-Sunnah. What is it? It is that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the speech (kalam) of Allah. It is not created, and Allah’s speech is timeless, and eternal.
In short, Ahl al-Sunnah who is bound up with the four schools, and the ulama (scholars) of Salaf (righteous predecessors), and Khalaf (later scholars) are in alliance regarding the uncreatedness of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Allah Ta’ala is an “entity/thing,” but Almighty Allah is unlike other entities/things. There is nothing similar to Him. Allah is existent with His Entity, and attributes.
“There is nothing like Allah,” says the 11th verse of Surah Ash-Shuraa. For that reason, you have to understand and comprehend well that Almighty Allah Ta’ala is attributed with almighty attributes, and that He is free from imperfect attributes. Then everyone should know well that whatever is said about Him, Allah Ta’ala is different than it. Allah resembles nothing that comes to minds or dreams either. There is nothing similar to Allah. “The people do not encompass Allah Ta’ala in their knowledge,” in other words they can’t surround Him, this is the 110th verse of Surah Taha. “Allah has encompassed everything. “I do not know a praise like the way You praise Yourself,” this report is from Sahih Muslim. Our Prophet praises Almighty Allah so much, and all in all he says, “You are like the way you praise yourself.” Yes friends, that hadith is reported by Sahih Muslim and others, and this is the text of the hadith, “Lâ ûhsi senaen ente kemâ esneyte âlâ nefsike.” That is what our Beloved Prophet said.
“wa-llāhu ʿalā kulli shayʾin qadīr,” you all know and hear this Qur’anic verse a lot, this verse means, “Allah is powerful to do everything.” There is no one else who is powerful enough to do everything anyway.
“qul ʾayyu shayʾin ʾakbaru shahādatan quli llāhu shahīdun baynī wa-baynakum,” – “Say, ‘The testimony of what thing is the greatest?’ Say, ‘Allah is the witness between me and you,” this is the 19th Qur’anic verse of Surah Al- So, it is permissible (jaiz) for us to say, “thing,” when referring to Allah when used as a pronoun. He is an almighty entity who has no similar. Allah Ta’ala is a thing that exists without substance (jawhar), and body (a’rad). The point in expressing that Allah Ta’ala is a thing that resembles no other creature is out of affirming His existence without a form, substance (jawhar), or body (a’rad). He has created the forms, substances (jawhar), and bodies (a’rad.). For substance is a composite (muraqqab) that originates from the combination of some matters, and Allah Ta’ala is without substance. There can be no substance, jawhar, or body (a’rad) in Him. For Allah is the creator of them either. Allah does not resemble the creatures that He created in any way. Jawhar is an entity which has a place, yet Allah does not need space.
Jawhar, or substance is the smallest possible piece of matter that is indivisible. A’rad, or body, is the accidental entities that originate later in matters or substances (jawhar). Their existence is sustained by the existence of other entities. For examples things like colours, to come together, to leave, to move, to stop, taste, and smell are called “accidents” (a’rad). This universe consists of a’yan (jawhar), and accidents (a’rad). It consists of jawhars and a’rads. A’yan is what can exist on its own, in other words, it is the thing that does not need the existence of other things for its existence. It means that thing becomes muraqqab, and muraqqab is composite. You see that the universe consists of a’yan, and a’rad. And Allah Ta’ala is the creator of all these things. Dear friends, jawhar, or substance is the smallest indivisible piece of matter. Almighty Allah is devoid of all these things. He is free from them. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi said well, “The one who is a member of anthropomorphists (mujassima) can never worship Allah.” Who are that mujassima? They are the ones who resemble Allah to matter. For they worship to the shape that they imagine in their fantasy. As for Allah Ta’ala, He is free from shapes. Al-Imam Al-Azam said the following in the matter of a’rad and jawhar. “May Allah Ta’ala damn Amr ibn Ubayd for he is the first person to open that subject to humankind,” he said. You see, the ones start a false age, and give false information to people will be damned like that. Allah Ta’ala does not have limits. Allah Ta’ala has no ends. He does not have equals nor comparables. There is nothing similar to Him. We continue by giving the discovery notes which we took from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar by which Al-Imam Al-Azam has put forth the basics of Islam. “fa-lā tajʿalū li-llāhi ʾandādan wa-ʾantum taʿlamūn,” – “So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Allah],” says the 22nd verse of Surah Al-Baqarah. Yes, “There is nothing similar to Allah.” He does not have equals nor comparables. He does not have partners, comparables, equals, nor helpers. That attribute is an attribute that is solely for Allah. “Indeed, He is the All-hearing, the All-knowing,” 220th verse of Surah Al-Shu’ara. The One whose existence is due to Him does not resemble the one who is created by someone else. Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu) is not affected by time. Allah is free from both time and space. He is the creator of time and space. For that reason, time does not apply to Allah Ta’ala, and does not affect Him. The terms like pre-existing or everlasting are for our understanding. Allah is more eternal than the eternity, and more infinite than the infinite future.
Allah is more eternal than the past eternity, and more infinite than the infinite future. is an entity whose absence is unthinkable, and wajib al-wujud without a beginning nor end. The attributes of Almighty Allah such as hand, or face are without a “how” (modality). Allah Ta’ala has hand and face in a way that suits His Self and attributes, but that does not resemble the hand or face of anyone or anything. The hand and face are attributes without a “how” (modality) so that no one except Allah has the chance of knowing their shapes or quantities except Allah. He has hand, but He has a hand that suits His glory, which resembles no other hands. He has face, but has a face that suits His glory, which does not resemble any other face. He has no comparables.
Yes, valuable friends, “kullu shayʾin hālikun ʾillā wajhahū.” Allah says here, “Everything is to perish except His Face,” 88th verse of Surah Al-Qasas. It is mentioned here a face without a “how” (modality). In other words, there is no one who knows its “how” and quantity except Allah. This is also a verse of the Qur’an, “yet lasting is the Face of your Lord, majestic and magnificent.” That is commanded. This is the transliteration of the verse, “wa-yabqā wajhu rabbika dhū l-jalāli wa-l-ʾikrām,” which is said. The afore verse is the 27th verse of Surah Al-Rahman. “ʾillā btighāʾa wajhi rabbihi l-ʾaʿlā,” – “but seeks only the pleasure of his Lord, the Most Exalted,” this is the 20th verse of Surah Al-Layl. “ yadu llāhi fawqa ʾaydīhim,” – “the hand of Allah is above their hands,” 10th verse of Surah Al-Fath. These are verses of the Qur’an. They are the verses that reside in the surahs such as al-Qasas, al-Rahman, al-Layl, Sād, and Yā Sīn. “What keeps you from prostrating before that which I have created with My two hands?” this is the 83rd verse of Surah Sād. “So immaculate is He in whose hand is the dominion of all thing,” this is the 75th verse of Surah Yā Sīn.
Moreover, let’s see what Isā Alayhissalam said, “taʿlamu mā fī nafsī wa-lā ʾaʿlamu mā fī nafsika,” – “You know whatever is in my self, and I do not know what is in Your Self,” this is the 116th verse of Surah Al-Māʾidah. That is what Isā Alayhissalam said. “O, Lord! You know whatever is in my self, and I do not know what is in Your Self,” he says. For no one has enough power to know Allah Ta’ala’s Self, and His essence. Nevertheless, we are able to know Allah Ta’ala in the way Allah introduced Himself to us, with His speech (kalam) that suits His glory; and His attributes, and His face, and books. Yet our knowledge has no chance of encompassing Him.
“fa-ʾaynamā tuwallū fa-thamma wajhu llāhi,” – “so whichever way you turn, there is the face of Allah,” this is the 115th verse of Surah Al-Baqarah. Hadith-i Sharif says, “I am not able to praise You the way You praise Your Self.” The slave praises Allah Ta’ala with all his strength, and exalts Him. He says that He is free from imperfections, recites shahada, takes measures, and exalts Allah. But the slave can only do that as much as he can. Yet no one can praise Almighty Allah in the way Allah Ta’ala praises Himself. Their power would not be sufficient. We are praising and exalting Allah to the extent of our power, but Allah is like the way He praises Himself. He is almighty, unique, and grand. “So submit patiently to the judgment of your Lord, for indeed you fare before Our eyes.” You see, Almighty Allah gave some meanings on the müteahhirîn-i ulamâ (the scholars of the present).
But Al-Imam Al-Azam says, “These are attributes without ‘how’ (modality),” and submits their true meanings to Allah. The righteous predecessors of Islamic scholars (ulama) are on the way of Al-Imam Al-Azam in this matter also. “Those deniers have not appraised Allah in His true esteem. The heavens will be rolled up on his right hand on the Day of Resurrection,” this is the 67th verse of Surah Az-Zumar. We are, again, submitting the meaning of this verse to our Lord without a “how” (modality). These are mutashabih verses which have multiple meanings. These attributes are without a “how” (modality).
“Ve mâ gadarullahe hakkâ gâdrihî vel’emrû cemi’ân gabdâtûhu yevmel gıyameti vessâmâtü metviyyâtün bi yeminih,”
“The All-beneficent Allah, settled on the Throne,” this is the 5th verse of Surah Tā Hā.
Valuable friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam said that mutashabih (ambiguous) verses are not assigned a specific meaning. The verses we have mentioned are in the group of mutashabih (ambiguous) verses. He says that it cannot be said that the meaning of ‘hand’ in the verse refers to Allah’s power, or bounty. Who? Al-Imam Al-Azam. For there is a danger of voiding one of the attributes of Allah in these explanations. In short, he says there is danger of voiding. Voiding the attributes of Allah is the words of the groups of Mu’tazila, and Qadariyah. Yet Allah’s hand is an attribute without a “how” (modality). In short, you will submit the “how” and quantity of it to Allah. Allah’s wrath, and pleasure are also attributes of Allah without a “how” (modality). The meanings of these attributes are also submitted to Allah without asking how. Mutashabih (ambiguous) verses are amongst the group Ayat Mutashabihaat. In other words, we cannot know how these attributes are, only Allah Himself can know that. Now, let’s understand the meaning of mutashabih (ambiguous). You have to understand this well. We cannot know the “how” of the attributes of Allah, only Allah Himself can know that. They did not mention the words, power (kudrah), blessing, seeing, and invasion. “Kudret, nimet, görme ve istila kelimelerini bakın zikretmemiştir.”
Al-Imam Al-Azam is also subjected to the al-jumhur al-salaf (the majority of early Muslims); they are also on his way. Again, Fakhr-al-Islam said, “The face, is amongst the attributes whose text are known, but quality is mutashabih (ambiguous). Ascribing Allah with hand or face is a righteous act for us. The hand or face here is what is known via text. The text is present for these reside in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. But these are amongst the attributes which are mutashabih (ambiguous) by their quality. The true meanings of the mutashabih (ambiguous) are submitted to Allah for Allah knows them. Mu’tazila has also deviated in this matter. The group of Mu’tazila denied the original texts of these attributes. They have become the ones who denied and altered the attributes of Allah, this is a grand deviancy.
They did not say anything on the how/modality of mutashabih (ambiguous) verses, and retreated into silence. Who? The Islamic scholars (ulama) of Ahl al-Sunnah. They have summitted their meanings to Allah.
Yes, valuable friends, if people can understand Almighty Allah’s book, and Prophet’s sunnah well, and if they can receive the guidance of Almighty Lord and innate science from Allah then they will not deviate by Allah’s assistance. They will not fall into ahlul bid’ah (deviant innovations), and heresy. May Almighty Lord admit us amongst the servants who know the truth truly, who is subjected to the Truth, and stay far from falsehoods, who carry in their hearts the true iman of Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah. Yes, friends, our lectures will continue with the blessing of our Lord.