Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 17
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 17
Eûzubillahimineşşeytânîrracîm Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve sahbihî ecmaîn. Rabbi euzûbike min’hemezatişşeyâtîyn ve euzûbike Rabbi enyehdûrûn.
Bi-smi llāhi r-rahmāni r-rahīm,
Fa-ʾammā lladhīna fī qulūbihim zayghun fa-yattabiʿūna mā tashābaha minhu btighāʾa l-fitnati wa-btighāʾa taʾwīlihī wa-mā yaʿlamu taʾwīlahū ʾillā llāhu wa-r-rāsikhūna fī l-ʿilmi yaqūlūna ʾāmannā bihī kullun min ʿindi rabbinā wa-mā yadhdhakkaru ʾillā ʾulū l-ʾalbāb (7th verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran).
Sadaqa Allah al-’Azeem
Most valuable and revered friends, by giving you the meaning of this Qur’anic verse, our lesson regarding Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar continues. We continue our lecture by praying for forgiveness upon grand individuals like Al-Imam Al-Azam who put forth the science of iman (faith) that is everlasting and does not wither, along with its schooling.
Almighty Lord commanded in this Qur’anic verse, “As for those in whose hearts is doubt, they pursue the mutashabih (metaphorical) verses of the Qur’an, courting temptation and courting its interpretation. But no one knows the interpretation of those metaphors, and their meanings, except Allah. And those firmly grounded in knowledge; they say, ‘We believe in it; all of these verses are from our Lord, whether hidden or clear.’.” You see, Al-Imam Al-Azam is trying to do the best in accordance with the ruling of this Qur’anic verse. These things can only be deeply studied by those firmly grounded in knowledge. This Qur’anic verse is the 7th verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran.
Friends, only Allah knows the meaning of these mutashabih verses. We leave their discovery, interpretation, and explanation to our Lord. For that reason, Al-Imam Al-Azam puts forth this verse as proof. The attributes of Almighty Allah that are without a how/modality are relevant to mutashabih verses. Almighty Lord, again, announced the truths in the 5th Qur’anic verse of Surah Tā Hā.
Let’s see what our Beloved Prophet says in a Hadith-i Sharif, “Allah Ta’ala created Adam Alayhissalam from a handful of soil which was brought from different parts of the earth. He kneaded that soil with different waters, smoothing it, then He blew soul, and turned it from the state of a lifeless thing into a being who owns delicate life.”
We are conveying the glorious meaning of this Hadith-i Sharif which resides in the Sahih Bukhari and other authentic sources of hadith, and this the transliteration, “İnnallâhe hâlâkâ ademe min gabdatin gabdahe gabâdahe min camiıl erdı ve acıbetbil miyahil muhtelifeti ve sevvâhu ve nefâkâ fihirruha fessaen hayvanen hassâsen ba’de enkâne cemade.”
This Hadith-i Sharif says the way our Almighty Lord created Adam Alayhissalam. He says, “Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu) created Adam Alayhissalam from a handful of soil brought from different parts of the earth. He kneaded the soil with different waters, smoothing it, and then he blew soul to it. Thus, He turned it into a living being while it was a lifeless thing.”
Our Beloved Prophet also said so in a report in Sahih Muslim, “Verily, the hearts of all the sons of Adam are between the two fingers of the Compassionate Lord as one heart. He turns that to any (direction) He likes.”
The Prophet said, “The people will be thrown into the Fire, and it will say, ‘Are there any more (to come)?’ then Allah will put His Foot over it and it will curl and will say, ‘Enough, Enough!’.” Now, the metaphorical (mutashabih) words in these Hadith-i Sharifs and Qur’anic verses, along with the mutashabih (ambiguous) reports should be accepted without a how/modality. You may look at the authentic sources, there are original texts of these words, but what do we do with those original text? We leave their true meanings to our Almighty Lord.
Moreover, friends, there is this Hadith-i Sharif, “Allah Ta’ala will continue to stretch out His Hand in the night so that the sinners of the day may repent, and continue to stretch His Hand in the daytime so that the sinners of the night may repent, until the sun rises from the west.”
You see that there is also mention of a hand here, previous one mentioned a foot. These are also metaphorical; we leave their meanings to our Lord. For there is no aspect of Him that resembles the creatures. He does not resemble the creature in any way. In that case, we are leaving the attributes without how/modality to the knowledge of our Lord.
Moreover, dear friends, this is another mutashabih Hadith-i Sharif, “Hajar al-Aswad is the right hand of Allah in earth,” you see that there is mention of a hand also here, “Allah Ta’ala shakes hands with His slaves via Hajar al-Aswad.” This report resides in Al-Nihaya fi Gharib al-Hadith.
Thereafter, let’s see what our Prophet says in a report narrated by Ibn Majah, “Whoever gets close to the Black Stone (Hajar al-Aswad) is like he got near Allah’s Hand.” Let’s see what that great imam, scholar of the world Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa said when they asked him about the Hadith-i Sharif that says, “Allah Ta’ala descends down from heavens.” He says, “He descends down without a how/modality.” In other words, no one has the chance to know the quantity or how of that. That is how Al-Imam Al-Azam had answered that question.
Now, our subject is the mutashabih verses amongst Qur’anic verses. The metaphorical words in Hadith-i Sharifs, their discovery, interpretation and explanation, or meanings are completely without how/modality, the meaning is left to Allah.
Because, Allah Ta’ala does not have equals nor comparables. “laysa ka-mithlihī shayʾun,” – “Nothing is like Him,” do not forget this. He never had equals nor comparables or will never have. The meaning of that hand does not resemble any hand in any way. For example, the hadith about Hell mentioned a foot. What did he refer to by foot? Only He can know that.
Therefore, friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam demonstrated that he is the great imam also here. Editor’s note: “Al-Imam Al-Azam” means “The Great Imam”.
“Innallahe hâlâkâ âdeme âlâsuretihî ev âlâ suretirrahmâni,” – “Indeed Almighty Allah created Adam Alayhissalam in His own image,” or He created him in the image of Ar-Rahman [The Most Gracious]. That is also one of the mutashabih verses. No one can know its meaning. It is without a how/modality, only Allah can know its meaning. The interpretation of these are submitted to their owner. In other words, whoever said it. If our Prophet said it, to him. If Allah said it in Hadith Qudsi, they are submitted to Allah. Their interpretation and explanation are submitted to Allah, or the Prophet. Allah Ta’ala is free from any resemblance to the bodies (a’rad) and the attributes of the creatures. For that, the people who hear these teachings along with the people who announce them know that Al-Imam Al-Azam is giving such a scholarly lecture of faith to the world so that the people may not fall into disbelief. It is necessary to be cautious about mutashabih (ambiguous) verses and hadiths. The people with distorted hearts are becoming subjected to the metaphorical verses. Whereas the true rooted ulama (scholars) say, “We believe in the verses of our Lord, only our Lord can know their interpretation and explanation.” There is a condition to say, “We believe this for the grand ulama said so.” That teaching must be announced to the world. Al-Imam Al-Azam has put forth all of the dangerous issues. He also solved those problems in order to protect the humankind from the dangers, so that they do not get near them. Allah Ta’ala settles on the Throne without there being any need. He does not need a throne, nor time, nor a place, ever. You see, “Settled on the Throne.” “thumma stawā ʿalā l-ʿarshi,” is commanded, which means, “Then He settled on the Throne.”
Here is also an attribute without how/modality. The meaning here is also submitted to Almighty Allah. Allah Ta’ala, without there being a need, has dominated all worlds under His ruling, and ascended the throne.
“Allah Ta’ala is the protector of the heavens and all things other than the heavens. Does the One who created the heavens, protected the heavens along with all things besides it, and holds all things need such things like throne? No. Had He been in need, where were He before creating those heavens?”
You should pay attention to this one, “Had Allah Ta’ala been in need where were He before creating the heavens? Then Allah Ta’ala is free from sitting on a throne and ruling from there.” It is a slander to Allah to say Allah sits. For to sit is for the helpless. The Al-Qadir [The All-Powerful] does not need sitting. He is free from that, too. He is free from needing any place. He does not need anything like time, space, or a place or anything else.
The world is always in need to study in the school of Al-Imam Al-Azam. For that reason, people who know correctly the valuable works which has come to this day and are written correctly, and who know Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are the ones who came from that true ecole (school). When they asked Imam al-Malik about the throne in the heavens, he gave a good answer. Let’s see what Imam al-Malik said, “The throne of Allah in heavens is certain, but how/modality of it is unknown.” What a good answer he gave. “Inquiring that is a deviant innovation (bid’ah).” You see? He said that inquiring about them is bid’ah for the meaning of mutashabih (ambiguous) verses belong to Allah. It was Imam al-Malik who said that. On the other hand, believing in those Qur’anic verse is absolutely an obligation (fard). There are mutashabih (ambiguous) parts in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and authentic hadiths, we believe those for they are certain, and their texts reside in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. On the other hand, it is a deviant innovation to ask questions in these regards for their meanings belong completely to Allah. That is what Imam al-Malik also said. That is the way of Al-Imam Al-Azam, and the salaf (righteous predecessors). The salaf (righteous predecessors) follow Al-Imam Al-Azam’s way. It is narrated that Imam al Haramayn, a Shafi’i, had once interpreted these verses but towards the end of his life he abandoned interpreting them, then he has forbidden interpreting these verses, and conveyed the consensus (ijma) that their interpretations are forbidden. That is quite normal, too. For in their younger years the ulama (scholars) may make some sudden moves. The situation is much different when they reach the maturity of education. That is also suitable to the creed of our scholars (ulama) who are subjected to the Māturīdī School. The Maturidites have understood Islam correctly, too, and they are subjected to the way of Al-Imam Al-Azam, and they are close to him. For distorting the apparent and authentic meaning of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim unnecessarily, and interpreting it is haram. Look, let’s see what they said in this regard, “Distorting the apparent and authentic meaning of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim unnecessarily, and interpreting it is haram.” Where there is authentic, and apparent meaning in place, making other comments by leaving the authentic meaning is haram, they said. You see friends, these truths must be taken into consideration, the people must comprehend the understanding of Ahl al-Sunnah well, and believe with true and real iman. We are striving for the iman of everyone to be acceptable. We do not have any other goal, except Allah’s pleasure. Allah has created everything out of nothing. Allah Ta’ala created all things without there being any substance. You see friends, He created the substance out of nothing, too. Whatever is there in the realms as creation, He has created all of them out of nothing. The first thing He created is the light of Muhammad. He created the light of Muhammad. He created that substance (jawhar). Then using that substance, He turned it into Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa. He creates Muhammad from the essence of that light, that substance; and from the rest He created the other realms. Astaizubillah.
Let’s see, our Lord commands in the 1st verse of Surah Fatir, “al-ḥamdu li-llāhi fāṭiri s-samāwāti wa-l-ʾarḍi jāʿili l-malāʾikati rusulan ʾulī ʾajniḥatin mathnā wa-thulātha wa-rubāʿ” – “Hamd-u-thenâ (thanks and praise) to Allah, Creator of the heavens and earth, made the angels messenger having wings, two or three or four.” “All praise belongs to Allah.” “All praise belongs to Allah, the Originator of the heavens and the earth, who appoints the angels as messengers having wings, in twos, threes and fours.”
The right to be praised, and exalted in all ways is of Allah. “Allāhu khāliqu kulli shayʾin wa-huwa ʿalā kulli shayʾin wakīl,” – “Allah is the creator of all things, and He watches over all things,” this is the 62th verse of Surah Az-Zumar.
Valuable friends, Allah has eternally been The All-Knowing. Allah Ta’ala has eternally had knowledge of all things before they existed. For Allah is All-Knowing. We can clearly see this. We see in the Qur’anic verse that He has created all things, and had knowledge of all things. It is not possible for the One whose existence is constant, to perish. Almighty Allah is ever-existing. His attributes are ever-existing just like Him. It is Almighty Allah who ordains all things. Almighty Allah is who predestines all things, and gives ruling according to His predestination.
“A-lā yaʿlamu man khalaqa wa-huwa l-laṭīfu l-khabīr,” – “Would He who has created not know? And He is the All-attentive, the All-aware,” this is the 14th verse of Surah al-Mulk. He knows the tenuities of the tiniest secrets, and all of the secrets of the unseen, in other words, He knows everything.
“Hidden from your Lord is nothing even to the measure of a particle on the earth or in the heavens. And there is nothing smaller or greater that is not in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz.” That is the transliteration of what our Lord commanded in the 61st verse of Surah Yūnus, “wa-mā yaʿzubu ʿan rabbika min mithqāli dharratin fī l-ʾarḍi wa-lā fī s-samāʾi wa-lā ʾaṣghara min dhālika wa-lā ʾakbara ʾillā fī kitābin mubīn. He commanded. Let’s see what our Almighty Lord commanded in another report, “The first of what Allah created was the Pen. He said to it, ‘Write.’ It said, ‘What shall I write?’ Allah Ta’ala commanded, ‘Write what was decreed about everything till the Last Hour comes.’.” We have mentioned the sources of these reports one by one in our previous lecture, and we are continue mentioning them. Friends, “When Allah’s will decree on a thing He only says ‘be’ to it, and it becomes.” That was the 83rd verse of Surah Yā Sīn whose transliteration is, “Innamā ʾamruhū ʾidhā ʾarāda shayʾan ʾan yaqūla lahū kun fa-yakūn.” “If some good comes to them, they say, ‘This is from Allah.’ But if some evil visits them, they say, ‘This is from you,’ Say, ‘All (the good and the bad) is from Allah,” this is the 78th verse of Surah An-Nisa. The slave earns, and Allah creates. The servants earns, and Allah creates his earning. “Whoever believes that the good or the bad is ordained by other than Allah becomes a disbeliever who denied Allah, and his monotheism (tawhid) becomes invalid.”
You see, friends, we continue to give discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar of Al-Imam Al-Azam which conveys truth. “And it is among signs of His Power that the sky and the earth stand firm by His command.” Friends, this is the 25th verse of Surah Al-Rūm, and the following is the transliteration. “Wa-min ʾāyātihī ʾan taqūma s-samāʾu wa-l-ʾarḍu bi-ʾamrihī,” He commanded. Abū Mansūr al-Māturīdī and the majority of the mufassir (author of a tafsir) have this belief. They said here that “-to stand firm,” is not a metaphor for “-to create”. “And it is among signs of His Power that the sky and the earth stand firm by His command,” commanded Almighty Lord. For us, the intended meaning in this verse is the text of this word. It is not permissible (jaiz) to say it is a metaphor that means creating. Abū Mansūr al-Māturīdī and the majority of the mufassir (author of a tafsir) have this belief. We put this verse forth as evidence of the uncreatedness of Allah’s speech (kalam). For Allah’s speech (kalam) is afore all that is created. The word is “kun fa-yakūn” which means that Allah commands, “Be” when he wills something and it is. After the order “kun” which means “be” the “fa” in “fa-yakūn” is takibiyye.
Friends, the speech (kalam) of Allah Ta’ala is neither the same nor different of Him. There is also refutation here to the group of Sufestaiyye and their disciples who follow them. For Allah is the Creator of all things. They deny the truth about all things, and believe that the truth of all things consists of a dream or a fantasy. Who? The followers of the group of Sufestaiyye has got stuck in that false belief. They deny the truth about all things. They believe that it consists of a fantasy or delusion like a dream. The following groups are close to them, Hululiyyah, Ilhadiyyah, and Vujudiyyah (associated with wahdat al-wujūd). These are the ones who are close to danger, and some of them are already in danger. These are, amongst the ignorant ones of sufists, Hululiyyah, you see, amongst the ignorant ones of sufists, Hululiyyah. Ilhadiyyah, and Vujudiyyah (associated with wahdat al-wujūd) are close to this false group of Sûfestâiyye.
In any case, in today’s belief systems which do not suit the aqidah (creed) of Islam and its basics, or the true belief of Islam there is involvement of false mentalities. That Hululiyyah true is one of them. Ilhadiyyah is also one of them, they are deviant groups just like the Vujudiyyah. They have opinions like ittihadiyyah (unitism) and imtizaciyyah and reincarnation which do not suit the Islamic creed. Today, these have also affected the tariqats who lack knowledge and wisdom. The Sufism schools which rely on Islamic proofs and real science by being an ecole (school) of Islamic sciences are still realistic. They have come to this day by protecting the Islamic creed, they have conveyed the Islamic creed. However, some people who seem like sufists who lack knowledge have delved into these dangers that we call false beliefs. You see, one of them is Hululiyyah, the other is Ilhadiyyah, the other is Vujudiyyah. They suffer from false beliefs such as ittihadiyyah (unitism) or imtizaciyyah or reincarnation. In fact, it is possible to encounter these false beliefs in the works of individuals whom you thought are venerable. May Allah preserve the Islamic world and the Ummah-i Muhammad from these falsehoods. That is another reason that we announce Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar to the entire world. The nation of Muhammad must be saved and shielded from falsehoods. The truths must be put forth. No one can escape the false until you put the truth forth. It is not enough to say it is false, you have to put forth the truth. You see, every document of true creed, Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar and our discovery notes, the entire Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and discovery notes from our other lectures, including Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar are presented to the whole world as the lessons of hayat veren nur (life giving light) in order to put forth the truths. You should go to the website, “hayatveren.de”. You will find there, with the generosity and kindness of Allah, the Islamic understanding of Ahl al-Sunnah, the creed of Ahl al-Sunnah, and Islam itself, and the Qur’an itself along with Islam’s own primary proofs. Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu), creates the things by means of inscription in the first place. There is not any existent thing in the world and the heavens without there being inscriptions of it in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (The Sacred Tablet), and Allah’s wish, decree, ruling, knowledge. However, Allah’s inscription is as in describing that thing, not decreeing it. The brave fellows should understand this correctly. The servants whom Almighty Allah granted intellectual capacity can understand these well. Look, I am repeating in regard to the importance of it. In the world and Hereafter, nothing can ever exist without there being Allah’s wish, decree, ruling, knowledge, and without there being His inscription in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (The Sacred Tablet). However, Allah’s inscription is by means of describing that thing rather than decreeing it. Now, let me give an example about it. Almighty Lord has placed the humankind in a field of test. He knows both if they will win, or if they will lose. You see that the inscription is actually a description. Had He written it as a decree, then there would not be a test. Had He placed a ruling in His inscription like, for example, this or that person will become a believer, then that person would become a believer obligatorily, or the one whom was decreed a disbeliever would become a disbeliever. Then that would not be a test. The life is completely a test. For that Almighty Lord writes His way of describing.
That is in terms of describing rather than decreeing. In other words, there are no constraints such as, “this or that person will be a believer,” or so. He did not place a compulsory decree such as, “this or that person will become a believer.” But He knew and wrote who will become what. That is description. Now, people are the one who choose faith or blasphemy. To understand this is important but it is also quite important to believe that Almighty Allah has done everything beautifully. That is what is fundamentally important. Allah does not do wrong, or write wrong. He does not describe or decree wrong. Does Allah inflict cruelty on His slaves? Allah is free from cruelty. He placed you in the field of test. He granted everyone intelligence and will. The Prophet put forth the book. He showed what is right and what is wrong. Allah has written the way you will prefer, and the way you will not prefer as descriptions. He has written these as descriptions. So, that is not by means of decreeing compulsorily. He has written such as, “this will happen like that”. He has written the thing that will exist by description, in a way that suits its ruling (qada). He did not write that in the style of a command. In other words, He wrote it without holding any constraints such as “this or that should be like that”. In short, He did not write it in the style of a decree. He said this action will take place; not it should be, or it will definitely be. He placed the humans in an environment of test. He manifested the truth. He is testing the people. In other words, Allah Ta’ala has written all things that will be created as descriptions, in accordance with their ruling. He did not write it in the style of a command. In other words, He has not written it such as this should be that or this will be like that. He has written it without there being any constraints. And He did not write it in the style of a command.
In short, He did not say this thing will happen, it should happen, or definitely will happen like this. In other words, He did not enforce; and He did not give ruling, therefore the work of a person will not occur in a pre-defined way. He created the humankind upon the innate nature (fitrah) of Islam, and placed them in an environment of test. Then offered the commands of Islam to the will and mind of the person. Thereafter the servant is the one who is alone with the test. Allah does not do wrong. You should fully understand these parts. You should not blame others but yourself.
“Everything they have done is in the books, and everything big and small, is committed to writing (in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz),” 52nd 53rd verses of Surah Al-Qamar. So, the afore hadith was quoted from Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Fate is the occurrence of good, bad, sweet, bitter and whatever there is predestined in past-eternity. This is important, they occur in the servant by the will and creation of Allah Ta’ala. What Allah wills comes to existence, and what He does not will does not. The thing Allah wills becomes. The thing Allah has not willed does not become. However, do not forget that the servant is free. He tests the servant by his free will. Do not forget that He granted freedom to the servant. You should understand the fate well. Fate, or qadar is the occurrence of good, bad, sweet, bitter and whatever there is predestined in past-eternity. This is important. They occur in the They occur by the will and creating of Allah Ta’ala. The thing Allah wills becomes. The thing Allah has not willed does not become. The servant earns, and Allah creates. The servant earns good, then He creates good; if he earns evil, then He creates evil. Because this is a test, and there is freedom. These are written as descriptions in past-eternity.
The Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar), and Sustenance are eternal attributes of Allah Ta’ala without a how/modality. This is important. The Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar), and Sustenance are eternal attributes of Allah Ta’ala without a how/modality. The Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar), and Sustenance. These are attributes without a how/modality. In other words, only Allah Ta’ala knows their how and quantity. This is important. We just had a lecture regarding mutashabih (metaphorical) verses. Now, we are saying that The Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar), and Sustenance are eternal attributes of Allah Ta’ala without how/modality. No one can know the inside story, how, and quantity of The Ruling (Qada). No one can know the how and quantity of Decree (Qadar) either. These attributes without how/modality. The attribute of Sustaining is also without a how/modality. Its how and quantity is known to our Lord Himself. We have certainly believed that our Lord does not inflict cruelty upon His servants. Our Lord does not have imperfections. He is attributed with perfect attributes. He is the One who does everything well, and He is the One who creates. And He is the All-Knowing.
Kufr, or disbelief, is makzī, which means it is predestined, but not ruled. Almighty Allah created kufr, or disbelief, as a necessity of His guidance. Kufr has an aspect to it by being ascribed to the liable so that disbelief is his own earning. It occurs in a servant as an attribute earned voluntarily by free will. You see, the servant earns kufr himself. For that reason, whoever has disbelief, disbelief occurs in him as an attribute. There is consensus in the disbelief of a person who is pleased with his disbelief. If a person is pleased with his disbelief, then he has earned disbelief, therefore he is a disbeliever. As for the disbelief of the one who is pleased with the disbelief of others, there is dispute, they said. However, there is a consensus in that the one who is pleased with his own disbelief is a disbeliever. The believer cannot be pleased with disbelief of another either. For Allah is not pleased with disbelief of His slaves. He set the slave free but Allah is not pleased with His servants becoming disbelievers, and their disbelief. “Pleasure in disbelief is disbelief.” Despite they said there is controversy in this matter, people also said, “Pleasure in disbelief is disbelief.” However, who is pleased with his own disbelief is a complete disbeliever. Yes, friends, the attribute of Sustenance is amongst the mutashabih (ambiguous) attributes whose how/modality is unknown. Almighty Allah knows their meaning well. It is not the work of the mind to know these attributes by their uses. In other words, the power of mind is not enough for knowing these. That is why they are called attributes without how/modality. Their meanings are submitted to Allah, along with all mutashabih (metaphorical) verses. That is the case in mutashabih (metaphorical) verses and attributes. They are without how/modality, and their meanings are submitted to Allah. It is necessary to believe in the original text when mind has no means. It is necessary to believe in the truth. The power of mind is not sufficient for all things. For example, we have minds and we have souls. Look, we cannot know the quality and quantity of mind and soul. Whereas mind resides within soul. Why the humankind cannot discover their soul? That is because their power is not sufficient. Those who cannot afford that surely cannot afford understanding Allah’s attributes, mutashabih (ambiguous) attributes, and verses.
“And they ask you about the soul. Say, ‘The soul is something from the command of my Lord, and you are not given from the knowledge but a little,” 85th verse of Surah Al-Isra. The knowledge of mankind is also an edge. It knows but what Allah notified it. Discovers things, but not everything. This science is knowing that human mind is unable. First of all, everyone has to know their inability. To Ali, “You have ascended to this bright position and you say you do not know,” said someone. Because when he asked, Ali said, “I do not know.” Let’s see what Ali said back to him, “I have ascended to this position in the eyes of what I know. If I had ascended to this position in the eyes of what I do not know, then I would ascent to the heavens.”
Imam al-Abu Yusuf had also said the same thing. There has also an event of question occurred for Imam al-Abu Yusuf. To which he said that he does not know. You see, Ali is the scholar of the world. “The door to knowledge is Ali,” said Prophet Muhammad. Even though that, Ali answered to a question by saying that he does not know. Then he added, “I am in this position for what I know. Had I raised to a position for what I did not know then I would be in a position amid heavens.” In short, he is saying that he knows a lot, but there are more things he does not know of. Because, the knowledge of the slave is as such. Imam al-Abu Yusuf had also said the same. You see, he says ,”Yes, I am getting salary in accordance with what I know. If I received my salary in accordance with what I do not know, then the government budget would not be enough for me,” said Imam al-Abu Yusuf. He is also one of the scholars of the world. There are some people who speak ill of Imam Abu Yusuf for these words of his. They could neither understand Imam Abu Yusuf, nor the period in which he lived. Not everyone can be Al-Imam Al-Azam. For that reason, you will know Al-Imam Al-Azam as he is. And you will know Imam Abu Yusuf as he is. You will go through the conditions of that period. Then what did Imam Abu Yusuf do upon accepting the position of chief-judge? Did he pass a wrong verdict? Did he give false judgments? Do you possess the right to slander an individual like Imam Abu Yusuf (rahmatullahi alaihum ajmain) without there being a false verdict? You see friends, people who don’t know their place keep talking randomly. They throw rocks, hitting their own heads. They throw rocks and they hit their fathers and mothers. To throw rocks at people like Abu Yusuf is like burning the house you live in. If he is wrong, then attain his knowledge. There is the Qur’an, there is the verdict. You should put forth the verdict he gave along with the evidence, and then talk. Talk by proofs, but that is if you have knowledge. If not, then your enemy is the winner when you slander grand people. You will only be a butler to your enemy. Speak by relying on scholarly evidence. What gain will you gain by slandering the past? That way you can only butter the bread of your enemies. You will slander the past. The right to slander the predecessor or successor âlims, and the âlims of Ahl al-Sunnah belongs to no one. The tongues of those who wish to slander them will be scorched. We pray mercy and forgiveness for them. For they are the âlims of the world. You can see a great difference between whose hand is shaking, and who moves his hand. The first is arbitrary, the other is non-arbitrary. The servant’s use of his power and will for a work is earning, or kesb. This is important. The servant’s use of his power and will for a work is earning, or kesb. And when Allah Ta’ala invents that work, that is creating. You see, the servant earns, and Allah creates. The servant is not the creator. The servant is the earner, Allah is the creator.
The servant earns, and Allah creates. Allah Ta’ala’s inventing that work is His creating. Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) wa Taqaddas is the creator, the servant is the earner. This is a word of advice. The servant is the earner, and Allah is the creator. The servant earns, Allah creates.
Some people out there say they have created this or that. Create a fly so that the folk may see. Never! You have no chance of creating a single fly even if whole word united, and you still say that you have created. Say, “We have earned these with Allah’s favour, we have earned, and Allah created,” so that the world hears the truth, and the truth can settle in your hearth. Save yourself from these falsehoods. Do not think like Mu’tazila. Mu’tazila is apart from Ahl al-Sunnah. Yes, Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) is the creator, and the servant is the earner. Allah Ta’ala willed the belief for disbeliever, and obedience for fasiq but the disbeliever wanted kufr, the disbeliever wanted disbelief, and fasiq wanted fasq. This is because approval of Allah is in belief. He wished belief from the disbeliever too but what did the disbeliever do? He asked for disbelief, and the fasiq wanted fasq. The first one earned disbeliever, and the second one earned fasq for he was a fasiq. Then Allah created their earnings. There would not be a test had He not created, there would not be freedom.
The other one chose belief, then Allah granted him that belief. He has done good deeds so Almighty Lord created good deeds for him. When the earning of the one who earns the good is good then good things are created for him. And evil is created for the one who earns the evil for his earning is the evil. There would not be a test if it was not like that. For that reason, friends, Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar shouts out the truth to the world. Everyone should understand and listen well. “Rabbi zidnî ilmen ve fehmen ve elhıkni bissalihîn,” recite this prayer often. “Ya muallim İbrahim Aleyhisselâm âlimni ve ya müferri ve Süleyman Aleyhisselâm fehimni.” Recite this prayer often, too. If you know nothing, then keep reciting this prayer, “Rabbi zidni ilmen ve fehmen.” “ve el-hıkni bissalihîn.”
“The polytheists will say, ‘Had Allah wished we would not have ascribed any partner to Him, nor our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything.’ Those who were before them had denied,” 148th verse of Surah Al An’am. Allah is not pleased by anyone becoming a polytheist. He had also wished monotheistic belief for the polytheist but the polytheist earned polytheism. Then what did Allah do? Allah created polytheism in him for he earned it. There would not a test if He did not. There would not be freedom. The other wished and earned the monotheistic belief. Then Allah granted him monotheistic belief. “The polytheists say, ‘If Allah had so willed, we or our forefathers, would not have worshipped any other entity than Him, nor would we have forbidden anything through other than Him.’ Thus, did those do before them. Therefore, the messengers’ obligation is no more than to convey the message clearly,” 35th verse of Surah Al-Nahl.
What did Almighty Lord do for that people not to become hypocrites? He sent prophets for them for them not to become disbelievers, polytheists, cruel, fasiq (venial sinner),fājir (sinner by action). He sent down books so that the prophets showed the questions and the answers of the test to people by these divine books. The man did not ask for any of this, he refused; earned polytheism, earned kufr (disbelief). A group of people are becoming believers, and Muslims while the others deviate to ways of polytheism, and ways of disbelief. You see what these polytheists are saying, “We would not be like this if Allah had wished otherwise.” Had Allah enforced people by force there would not be a disbeliever in the world. He would either make everyone believer, or something other He willed. Allah has no approval for disbelief. He placed the humankind in an environment of test. Death, and life is for the test. Intellect is given to people for that and they are offered Islam. Everyone should get their mind together.
They also said, “We would not worship to angels if Ar-Rahman [The Most Gracious] willed.” In short, there would not be a test if He made you a believer compulsorily. “They have no knowledge of that. They do nothing but make conjectures,” 20th verse of Surah Az-Zukhruf. You see, Almighty Allah says these people are lying.
The Iblīs said, “My Lord!” “As You have consigned me to perversity, I will surely glamorize evil for them on the earth, and I will surely pervert them all.” Let’s see what Iblīs does. He speaks by saying, “qāla rabbi,” which means “My Lord.” This is the transliteration of what he said, “qāla rabbi bi-mā ʾaghwaytanī la-ʾuzayyinanna lahum fī l-ʾarḍi wa-la-ʾughwiyannahum ʾajmaʿīn.” Let’s see, again, the meaning of it, “My Lord! As You have consigned me to perversity, I will surely glamorize evil for them on the earth, and I will surely pervert them all.” You see, the Iblīs says, “My Lord,” yet he insists on evil. He says that he will work to glamorize evil, lead people to evil, and lead them astray but he keeps doing his duty. The existence of Iblīs in the world is a test. Everyone should get their mind together.
Now, “Had your Lord willed, all those on earth would have believed altogether. Then would you compel people so that they become believers?” 99th verse of Surah Jonah. This verse is also a test related verse. There are no strains, for there cannot be a test where there is constraint.
“If Allah so willed, the believer succeeding the prophet would have not killed each other after clear signs which would guide them had come to them. But Allah does what He intends,” 253rd verse of Surah Al-Baqarah. You see, valuable and revered friends, the truths continue being announced to the world.
Now, our current topic is the oppositions regarding predestination. We believe in qadar (fate) as it is, because it is an attribute of Allah without a how/modality.
We indeed believe that Allah does the best regarding all things, and He knows all things, and He is free from cruelty, and we submit the contents of fate to Allah because it is without a how/modality. However, ve indeed believe in fate.
Yes, friends, a thief proclaimed an excuse by putting forth the fate. Let’s see what the thief said. “You see, I have done theft due to my fate,” he wanted to say. Allah did not command you to do thievery. He said “Do not do thievery.” Let’s see what Umar said. Umar said, “Then I am cutting your hand due to Allah’s predestination.” He gave this answer. In other words, “I” he said, “I am giving you your punishment for it is Allah’s decree, I am implementing justice.” Yes, friends, people should not debate over predestination but you should contest in good things. People should do what Allah has commanded, and do not do what He has forbidden. You should believe in fate but do not debate over it. You will not be able to figure it out and you will sink. You will go down as you debate it. Because, Al-Imam Al-Azam, in this matter, said that Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar), and sustenance are eternal attributes of Allah without a how/modality.
“The one whom Allah gives guidance is the one on the right path. As for those whom Allah lets go astray, those are the losers.” That is the 178th verse of Surah Al-A’raf. These are Qur’anic verses. It is reported that Wahb ibn Munabbih said, “I have look in fate, I was astonished.” This is important. “Then I looked again, I was, again, astonished and figured that the ones who know fate best are the ones who avoid it most.” This is important. What does the ones who know the fate best do? They strongly avoid debating over fate. This is important, the ones who know it best, such as Al-Imam Al-Azam, the Tabi’un, the companions, and our Beloved Prophet. Look, this is important. Our Prophet has prohibited debating in the matter of predestination. Other than that, there are no debates in religion, too. When there is a thing within the religion, you believe in its text, if it has a clear meaning, then you can try to understand it. If it is mutashabih (metaphorical) you will leave its interpretation and discovery to Allah. In other words, its interpretation and explanation are in the eyes of Allah. The Prophet (sallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said about fate, “Hold your tongues when fate comes up.” You see what our Prophet says,” Hold your tongues.” You should fully believe in fate but hold your tongues. Do not speak regarding fate. You cannot figure it out. Now, the Hadith-i Sharif which we gave the meaning of clearly supports our words. In other words, hold your tongue from declaring the essence of fate for you cannot know its content. Only Allah knows it. It is amongst attributes without how/modality. Kadere ve kaderin hakikatine imândan değil.
Almighty Lord says, “Whoever you may be, death will overtake you, even if you were in fortified castles,” the death, again, will reach you, “If some good comes to them, they say, ‘This is from Allah.’ But if some evil visits them, they say ‘This is from you,’.” in other words, they blame the Prophet, “Say, ‘All is from Allah.’.” This is the 78th verse of Surah An-Nisa. The slave earns, and Allah creates. You see friends, “something good” refers to blessing, and “evil” refers to trouble. According to another remark “something good” means obedience to Allah whereas “evil” means revolting against Allah. Nevertheless, the followers of the Qadariyah madhab cannot put this verse forward as proof. “Whatever good comes to you, it is from Allah, and whatever evil visits you, it comes from your own selves,” this is the 79th verse of Surah An-Nisa. Because, all deeds that is of the servants, whether they are good or bad for the Qadariyah, are from Allah. The Qur’an differentiated the good and evil but still they ascribe all works of the servants to Allah Ta’ala without differentiating. Moreover, Almighty Lord commands, “qul kullun min ʿindi llāh,” – “Say, ‘All is from Allah.’.” This is the 78th verse of Surah An-Nisa. Now, the good things are ascribed to Allah. For Allah Ta’ala is worth of that in every aspect. On the other hand, Allah Ta’ala creates the evil as a matter of guidance, otherwise Allah is not pleased with evil. He creates the slave in the field of test without constraining him, in order for that to be a test. Otherwise, Allah is not pleased with any kind of evil. All works of Allah are beautiful and beneficial. “The entirety of good things is in your hands.” That is what the Prophet said in this Hadith-i Sharif. My Allah! The entirety of good things is in your hands.
Yes, friends, evil is attributed to the cause. Therefore, the Qadariyah did not understand these correctly also, for if they did, they would not deviate away from Ahl al-Sunnah. “Whatever affliction that may visit you is because of what your hands have earned, and Allah excuses many of the sins,” 30th verse of Surah Ash-Shuraa. This here is the transliteration of the verse, “wa-mā ʾaṣābakum min muṣībatin fa-bi-mā kasabat ʾaydīkum wa-yaʿfū ʿan kathīr”. You see, our Lord commanded in the 30th verse of Surah Ash-Shuraa, “Whatever affliction may that may visit you is because of what your hands have earned, and Allah excuses many of the sins.” Because, if He had not forgiven and had imposed penalty for all sins then everyone would be wretched and the world would perish. Creating submission is out of virtue, and creating affliction is out of justice. You must beware of that. Now, there are people who do not understand this part also. The Hell is created as divine justice, in return of crimes. The Paradise, is created due to the generosity of Allah Ta’ala. Almighty Lord bestows; and implements justice but does not torment. “Whatever ill befalls you is from yourself,” 79th verse of Surah An-Nisa. In other words, the slave earns affliction, and Allah creates. The bad only comes from self. As for evil, one only deserved evil due to his sins. That is the necessity of justice. The slave seeks refuge in Allah from the evil of his self and the malice of his action. He seeks assistance from Allah in terms of obedience. “O Lord! I take refuge in You from doing evil. I seek your assistance to obey,” the slave begs to Allah. The most beneficial prayer is asking guidance from Allah. What is guidance? It is seeking assistance from Allah in terms of obeying Allah by abandoning evil. Hidayat, or guidance, is that Allah guides a person to the truth by His assistance, rendering him successful, and making him attain success. For that reason, valuable friends, it is necessary to understand these matters correctly. Allah Ta’ala knows everything as they are. In other words, the humanity of this day has advanced in science, but the science hasn’t yet discovered the code of a single leaf from a to z. They did some discoveries, though. As for Allah, He knows everything in full measure. He is the Creator of all things. And He sets up codes for His creatures. He sets all kinds of codes. This universe operates by all sorts of laws. Allah Ta’ala knows all things as they are. Almighty Allah (jalla jalaluhu), knows the non-existent, while in its state of non-existence, as non-existent. And He knows how it will be when He brings it into existence. And He knows the existent, while in its state of existence, as existent. Allah Ta’ala also knows how what is existent will perish. Allah Ta’ala knows the one who is standing, while in the state of standing as standing, and when in the state of sitting, as sitting. There can never be change in Allah’s knowledge nor new knowledge is added to Him. He knows everything from past-eternity to infinity. On the other hand, alterations may occur in the states of the salves. That alteration occurs in the slave, not in Allah’s knowledge. He knows the alterations, along with who will chance, and who will not. Yes, valuable and revered friends, our valuable lectures about Al-Fiqh Al-Abkar, continue to shout out the sciences of true iman and Al-Haqq to the world. Our discovery notes will continue.