Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 25
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 25
Euzübillahimineşşeytânîrracîm, Bismillahirrahmanirrahim Elhamdülillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve sahbihî ecmaîn. Bismillahizîşân azimü’l sultan şedidü’l bûrhan kaviyyû’l erkân mâşaallahükân eûzubillahi min külli şeytâni insin ve cân.
Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm, “kāna mina l-jinni fa-fasaqa ʿan ʾamri rabbihi,” this is the 50th verse of Surah al-Kahf. Its translation is, “He was one of the jinn, so he transgressed against his Lord’s command.”
Most valuable and venerable friends, we continue to give you discovery notes of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. We will now try to convey you some discovery notes about the situation between angels and humans. So, one of the beliefs that is included to the fundamental things to believe is that the angels are held superior to humans. The pure angels are superior to all of the awliya and ālims, but not prophets. The most virtuous of angels is Gabriel Alaihissalam. However, the prophets are superior to the highest of the angels. This is important, they said that the purest of angels are superior to all of the awliya and ālims but not prophets. The most virtuous of angels is Gabriel Alaihissalam.
As for the Mu’tazila, they said, “The angels are superior to prophets.” The Mu’tazila opposed to Ahl al-Sunna in this case, too. Some ālims among the Ashʿarites also followed them but the entire Ahl al-Sunna had denied their opinion. Friends, there have also been people among the community who rather hold their tongue and say nothing. Some ālims among the Ashʿarites had followed them. Friends, consequently there are people who say that Al-Imam Al-Azam is from that group who said nothing.
Valuable friends, in the above Qur’anic verse which I recited, the Iblis was one of the jinn. Friends, in the 50th verse of Surah al-Kahf the Lord says: “He [Satan] was one of the jinn, so he transgressed against his Lord’s command.” As for Harut and Marut, they are two angels from who have occured no blasphemy nor major sin. They are punished through reproach. The prophets are reproached due to their trivial lapses, just like this, their punishment is also through reproach. This is what they said.
Now, practising magic is haram (sinful – prohibited) by consensus.
There are three remarks. There are three types of remarks regarding learning magic, and teaching it. One of them is that to learn or to teach magic is haram (prohibited). The second remark also states it is abominable. The third one says it is permissible. Naturally, there are reasons for them to be probihited, abominable, or permissible. Now, one may practice magic in order to shield oneself from the dangers of magic, rather than practising it in order to believe in its unreal aspects. There have been some who say that practising magic in order to protect yourself is permissible. There have also been people saying that it is abominable. However, practising magic is haram (prohibited) by concensus. This is important. To practise magic is haram (prohibited) by concensus. For that reason, the Muslims should stay away from magic. They should not practise magic nor they should allow others practice it. This is because it is haram.
Now, the Messiah never abstain from being a servant of Allah. The mukarebbun angels also do not abstain from that. These are all servants of Allah one by one. “The pure servants among the mortals are superior to the pure servants among the angels.” With this remark it was said, “The pure servants among the mortals are superior to the pure servants among the angels.” This is the truest answer. Melekler sözü: Cemi’ siva’dır. According to this, all angels are superior to the Messiah. In other words, this remark expresses superiority of species. This does not refer to the superiority of each one of them. There are many things to say in this question. The truth behind that work is only known to Almighty Allah.
Yes friends, who is the superior of the sahaba? Let’s try to convey information in this topic, too. Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi, who is one of the elders of the Shafi’ites, says the following: “The ālims of Ahl al-Sunna wa-ljamā’at have consensus in that the superior sahaba (companion) is Abū Bakr, then Umar, then Uthman, then Alī, then the survivors of The Ten With Glad Tidings Of Paradise, then the ones who participated in the Battle of Badr, then the survivors of the Battle of Uhud, and then the ones who participated in the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, and the Pledge of Ridwan (bayʻat ar-riḍwān).” There have been some alleged oppositions in this matter but it is clear that there is a consensus. There have also been some who debated in the superiority between Alī and Umar. “Ten are in Paradise: These are, Abū Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Alī, Az-Zubair, Talhah, ‘Abdur-Rahman, Abu ‚Ubaidah and Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas, and Sa’īd bin Zeyd.” This Hadith-i Sharif was narrated by al-Tirmidhi.
These The Ten With Glad Tidings Of Paradise (al-`Asharaa al-Mubasharûn). There have also been narrations (hadiths) in the matter that Fatimah is the greatest of the women who are deserving Paradise, and that Hasan and Husayn are the greatest of the young people who are deserving Paradise. The number of those who participated in the Battle of Badr is three hundred ten plus chance. According to the narration of Ibn Mājah on the authority of Rafi ibn Hadic, radeyallāhu ′anhu, Jibril Alaihissalam or an angel came to the Prophet Muhammad (sallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) and said: “How do you regard those among you who were present at Badr?” Prophet said: “They are the best among us.” He said: “We think the same (of the angels who were present at Badr), they are the best of the angels.” In an Hadith-i Sharif which was reported by Abu Dawood and al-Tirmidhi has said that it is authentic, our Beloved Prophet, ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām, said, “None of those who gave the pledge under the tree shall enter the Fire.” This was narrated in Sahih Muslim. In consideration of the outcome, the first ones to have faith, who are the the muhajirs (emigrants) and the ansar (helpers) are still more virtuous. Now, in the 10th verse of Surah Hadid our Almighty Lord commanded, “lā yastawī minkum man ʾanfaqa min qabli l-fatḥi wa-qātala ʾulāʾika ʾaʿẓamu darajatan mina lladhīna ʾanfaqū min baʿdu wa-qātalū wa-kullan waʿada llāhu l-ḥusnā.” Sadaqa Allaah al-‚Azeem. This is its translation: “Those who spent [their goods] before the Conquest (of Makkah) and fought [in the way of Allah] are not at par (with others). Those are much greater in rank than those who spent later and fought [in the way of Allah]. So, these are what we understand from our Almighty Lord’s speech. Valuable friends, again, the Tabi’un is held in greater rank than others. Because, after the companions the Tabi’un is the greatest venerable individuals in rank. One of the points that is added to the fundamental of belief is holding the Tabi’un superior to the others. Because, the Periof of the Tābi’un started after the Period of Sahabah.
Muslim narrates this Hadith-i Sharif which was reported from Umar ibn al-Khaṭtāb. Umar, radeyallāhu ′anhu, said: “I heard Messenger of Allah (sallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) saying, “inne hâyrat tâbiıne racülün yügâlü lehu üveysün” – “The best one of the next generation (the Tābi’un) is a man called Owais.” In summary, the Tābi’un are the greatest individuals of this ummar, after the sahabah. “hayrul-gurûnî karnî sümmellezîne yedûnehüm” – “The best of the generations (people) are my generation,” said our Prophet.
“Then comes the ones who follow that generation, and then comes the ones who follow them,” said Prophet Muhammad. That Hadith-i Sharif is mentioned in the book al-Masabih.
The far superior mujtahid. Friends, we believe that Al-Imam Al-Azam is superior to all mujtahid imams, and he is the perfect faqih [fiqh scholar] amid all faqihs. After him comes Imam al-Malik. This is because Imam al-Malik is from Tābiʿ al-Tābʿīn (the generation after the Tabi’un). After him comes Imam al-Shafii. For Imam al-Shafi’i is a disciple of Imam al-Malik. He may also be a disciple of Imam al-Muhammad. Then comes Ahmad ibn Hanbal. A Ahmad ibn Hanbal also is like a student of Imam al-Shafi’i. Now, the stars who have been lightnig for the last fourteen centuriy have already shown themselves. Al-Imam Al-Azam is the star of knowledge who has always enlightened us. Our other mujtahids have come to this day by always enlightening us, too. There is also the superiority of women. One of the points that is included in the fundamentals of belief is the matter of holding women superior. In an Hadith-i Sharif reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said it is authentic, our Beloved Prophet, ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām,” said the following: “Sufficient for you among the women of mankind are Mariam bint ‚Imran, Khadijah bint Khuwailid, Fatimah bint Muhammad (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) and Asiyah the wife of Fir’awn.” Also in another Hadith-i Sharif which resides in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim that was reported from Alī, our Prophet (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) said, “Mary, the daughter of `Imran, was the best among the women (of the world of her time) and Khadija is the best amongst the women. (of this nation).” So, he points to Khadija al-Kubra (Radeyallāhu ′Anhā), our mother Khadija. These reports were narrated in al-Tirmidhi and Muslim. Moreover, there is also another report in which our Prophet said, “The best woman of the world of her time is Mary, the daughter of `Imran, and Fatimah Az-Zahrā’.” “The best woman of her time is Mary, again, the best women of her time is Fatima”. However, in the narration of Al-Nasā’ī it was narrated as, “Fatimah Az-Zahrā’ (Radeyallāhu ′Anhā) is the master of the women of Paradise.” “After Mary, the daughter of `Imran, Fatimah Az-Zahrā’ (Radeyallāhu ′Anhā) is the greatest woman of all realms,” there is also a narration that goes like that. That version resides in the Musnad [Hadith Collection] of Haris ibn Usama. Some of them went too far that they even ruled to prophethood of Fatimah Az-Zahrā’. Al-Imam Al-Azam, Imām al-Baydawi, and other ālims had said there is consensus in that Fatimah is not a prophet. Moreover, Khadija was not rendered superior to Fatimah in terms of grandness but because of her motherhood.
There is also another report from Abu Dawood. When she was asked which of these is the superior, Fatimah gave her answer. Moreover, when they asked the same to al-Subki, “The way we prefer and believe in is that Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah is the superior,” he said. “After her comes Khadija, and Aisha,” he replied. What is more, Ibn Ammad had confirmed that Khadija is superior to Fatimah. You see that we are doing the gradation between them. This is because they are all superior individuals. They are the foremost and greatest women of the world of Islam. They are all invaluable.
Furthermore, in another report, “No, indeed Allah has not given me someone better than Khadija. For when people refuted me, she believed in me. When the people did not, she gave her belongings to me.” Besides, let’s see what our Prophet (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) said about our mother Aisha: “O `Aisha! This is Gabriel sending his greetings to you.” In the same way, Gabriel Alaihissalam sent his greetings to both our mother Aisha and our mother Khadija, this comes from Almighty Lord. Likewise this shows the superiority of our mother Khadija. Moreover, “Allah’s Messenger said, “Many amongst men reached (the level of) perfection but none amongst the women reached this level except Asia, Pharaoh’s wife, and Mary [mother of Isa Alaihissalam], the daughter of `Imran. And no doubt, the superiority of `Aisha to other women is like the superiority of Tharid (i.e. a meat and bread dish) to other meals.” This Hadith-i Sharif was mentioned by al-Suyuti in his book named En-Nikaye. The words of this Hadith-i Sharif, according to the narration which Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Bukhari, Muslim, and al-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Mājah reported on the authority of Abu Musa, resides in al-Jaami as-Sagheer as follows: “Amongst the women only Asiya, the wife of Pharaoh, and Mary, the daughter of `Imran has reached perfection. And the superiority of `Aisha to other women is like the superiority of Tharid (i.e. an Arabic dish) to other meals.” Now, who says that? Prophet Muhammad (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) says it. Besides, in its source resides al-Bukhari, al-Muslim, and others and it comes from an authentic source. The ones who found it hard to find sources for the afore report has no chance of saying anything about this Hadith-i Sharif.
Valuable friends, it is also possible to express that Aisha is superior to all women one by one. So, from where comes the superiority of Aisha? In terms of knowledge and good actions/deeds, our mother Aisha is one of the most knowledgeable and best people in the world. Besides, the faqihs (fiqh scholars) of Ashab-i Gûzin (the chosen sahabah) are plentiful.
So, one of them is Aisha, as a faqihah, as a fiqh scholar. In fact, regarding women and their special conditions, the women have benefited from many information that came from the vast knowledge of Aisha. The narrations of the ālims of the world comes from her. For she received too many information and Hadith-i Sharif from our Prophet. This mother of ours, Aisha, is without dispute one of the most knowledgable women of the world. She had studied in the School of Muhammad at a young age.
Moreover, this Hadith-i Sharif was reported from Umm Salama as al-Tabarani narrated, “Umm Salama says, ’I said, O Allah’s Messenger, are the women in earth superior or the houris in Paradise?’ Prophet said, ’The women of the world are superior just as the facing of a garment is superior to the lining.’ I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, how is that?’ He replied, ‘Because they perform namāz, they fast, and they worship to Allah Ta’ala.’,” he said. The houris are specially created for the Pardise but the women of the world go to the Paradise by believing and worshipping to Allah Ta’ala. For that reason, the houris in there will serve to the women of the Paradise who go there from the world. Regarding this, our Prophet said that the women who go to Paradise from the world are superior. The superiority of the children of the sahabah is also obvious. The children of the sahabah possess this superiorty due to their parents. However, the child of Fatimah (Radeyallāhu ′Anhā) is an exception to this ruling. For her child is superior to the children of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. For they were close to the Messenger of Allah (sallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), and they are a sinless generation from whom Allah Ta’ala glanced of sins. This is how is written in the kafiye kitabı. The children of the sahabah are superior but the offspring of our Prophet comes first in rank, of course, and they are the children of our mother Fatimah.
No wali servant can attain the rank of a prophet. This is another point that is added to the fundamentals of belief. In other words, no awliya, or no wali servant can reach to the same degree with a prophet. They can attain the greatest ranks but can’t be a prophet. No awliya nor a wali servant can reach to the level of a prophet. For the prophets are protected from committing sins, and they are safe from the fear of the imān dissappearing in the final breath. The prophets are infallible. The attribute of chastity resides in the prophets. They were entreated with revelation. Likewise, they were entreated with seeing the angels. They were ordered to announce the provisions that belong to the religion. They are on duty to convey the humanity to the true path.
Moreover, The Karramiyah, some people amid them conveyed that it is permissible for a wali servant to be superior to a prophet, such a belief is blasphemy, deviancy, mulhid (apostate), and ignorance.
Now, for that reason, the evliyacılar should be really ceraful abou this. Our awliya are invaluable individuals, however, (kaddesallahu esrarahum) none of them are prophets. “The superiority of an ālim to a devotee is similar to my superioirty to the one amid you who has the lowest rank.” The ālims are far superior people. This Hadith-i Sharif was narrated by al-Tabarani and Ibn Majah, and also others. Our Prophet had said that. “Fazlül ālimi alel ābidi kevvazli ālā ednāküm,” commanded our Beloved Prophet. The ālims are far superior people but none of them are a prophet, they can’t be prophets. “The superiority of an ālim to a devotee is similar to my superioirty to the one amid you who has the lowest rank,” commanded our Prophet. They said that being a wali servant consists of knowing Allah Ta’ala along with His attributes, being close to Allah, and reaching wonders in the presence of Allah. However, they also said that prophethood consists of being a messenger between the servant and Allah, and announcing His provisions, carrying on the services regarding the benefit of the servant. So, they said by supporting the above remarks that the rank of a wali servant is superior. But those who defend that opinion are at the same time compared what is unseen to what is witnessed, they compared the Creator to the creatures; they compared the wali servant to the one who sits in the assembly of the padishah, and they compared the prophet to the vizier of the padishah, however this opinion is wrong. Whereas they did not reckoned without that the rank of jam‘ al-jam gathers in the prophets, and all awliya and asfiya should follow the Prophet. Cem-ül cem makamı, çokluğun onları vahdetten men etmemesi, vahdetin de onları kesretten men etmemesidir. Yani peygamberler vahdette kesret, kesrette vahdetten uzak kalmazlar.
They are together with Allah, but they also gather with the people to see their affairs. This position is superior to the position of unity that is the position of all awlyia. You see friends, some of the sufists said the position of wali is superior to the position of prophethood, but their words mean that when prophets also become wali that aspect of his is superior to his prophethood. When prophets also become a wali, this aspect of theirs is superior to their prophethood. Some sufists said, “The beginning of being a wali is the end of prophethood,” the meaning of this remark is that being a wali can only happen after all of the rulings that are decreed by the prophet are fulfilled. For a wali is one who does not commit sins, and enjoys spiritual enjoyments Every believer can be considered a wali as long as they continue evading the sinful things, and keep fulfilling the commands, but as far as the tradition goes, not every believer can be called a wali. Friends, in the Qur’an, Almighty Lord Himself says that He is the wali of the believers.
No one can become a prophet by attaining the rank of a prophet. Our awliya are invaluable individuals but they are not prophets, they can’t become prophets. Now, the obligations are not removed from the servant in any way. As long as the servant is able-minded the commands and prohibitions of Allah Ta’ala are still obligatory for him, until he dies. Everyone is compelled to perform their duty, as long as they are able-minded. The case chances when they lose their minds. Almighty Lord says, “wa-ʿbud rabbaka ḥattā yaʾtiyaka l-yaqīn” – “and worship your Lord until comes to you that which is certain (death),” this is the 99th verse of Surah al-Hijr. The word, “yaqīn” means “death” by consensus. That is what our ālims said. İbahiyecilerden bir kısmı, bir kul son derece Allah’a muhabbet makamına erişip kalbi gafletten temizlenirse ve imânı küfür ve küfrân üzerine tercih ederse emir ve yasak sorumluluklarının kendisi üzerinden düşeceğine ve bundan sonra büyük günahlar kazandığından dolayı Allahu Teâlâ’nın bu kimseyi cehennem ateşine sokmayacağı görüşünü kabul etmişler. Kim? İbahiciyeler. Now, that is a crippled opinion and it is wrong. Some of them also said that the liability of namāz, fasting, and apparent worships will be lifted from the person, and that persons worship will be to think and correct his morals regarding his inner world. Do you what this kind of belief is? It is blasphemy. Those who accept it like this have extricated themselves from the religion and faith. For their opinions is against the verses. These are blasphemy, being an atheist, and deviancy, and ignorance at the same time. Our elders, grand ālims (rahmatullahi alayhim ajmain) said in this regard that the punishment of such people is severe. There are even ālims of ours such as al-Ghazali who said, “To punish and vanquish such a deviant is better then killing one hundred blasphemers.” May Allah bestow His mercy upon all ours ālims. May Allah protect us from the evil of all deviants who try to promote blasphemy and try to destroy people’s imān, and the evil of the deviant innovators. “The sin does not hurt a servant when Allah Ta’ala loves him.” Now, such a report has been reported. The meaning of it includes that Allah Ta’ala shields him from committing sins. He makes him suceed in repenting. Worship does not bring benefit to whom Allah hates. It is also necessary to understand these correctly. Their sources can be found. Even if one can’t find their sources it is also necessary to understand them correctly.
The following opinion was conveyed from the sufists: “The liablity of worship is lifted from the servant when the person in a suitable position reaches the position of m’arifat.” Some reserchers amid the sufists misinterpreted it like this: “The word “teklif – offer” is taken from the word, “külfet – hardship”. Külfet means hardship. The worship made by a wise person is not hardship. This is how they understood it.
In other words, that person worships Allah Ta’ala without having hardship or fatigue. This is because he is filled with love and worships Allah with fear and hope. For that reason, the worship of the wali servants are filled with enjoyments. They find pleasure in their worship. Their heart enlarges by worship, with increased desire, and as his knowledge increases his enjoyment increases, too. For that reason some ālims said that the world is superior to the Hereafter. For the world is the house of servitude whereas Hereafter is a house of blessings. They said that the house of servitude is superior to the house of blessings. These are brave fellows who take the pleasure of worship. You see friends, it is narrated that Alī (radyallahu anhum wa ardahum ajmain) said the following: “If I was free in entering to a mosque or the Paradise, I would prefer entering a mosque. For entering a mosque is for the pleasure Allah. Entering the Paradise is the pleasure of the self.” For that reason, some wali servants preferred staying alive for a long time to dying even though there resides the pleasure of meeting with Allah in the Hereafter. In summary, to make progress is far better than coming to a complete stop. If you continue on competeing in the world in charity, worship, and jihad on Allah’s way then the world is far better for you because your rank will keep on raising. This is the desire of the ones who are on the way of Allah in this world. Otherwise the ones who earn sin over sin in the world, the ones whose imān (faith) is in danger, and the ones who revolt against Allah can earn nothing by competing. They can only raise in the punishment for their sins. Only the apparent meanings of the primary evidence can be taken.
Furthermore, this is another addition to the fundamentals of belief: The primary evidence of the Book and the Suna, in other words, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and the Hadith-i Sharifs of our Prophet, these primary evidence are taken by their apparent meanings unless they are amongst the mutashabihaat (metaphorical verses). In this topic, the predecessor ālims and successor ālims have a well-known dispute about whether their interpretation is permissible or not. Nasların zâhirî mânâlarından mülhitlerin (imânsız), Bâtınîlerle zındıkların iddia ettikleri mânâlara dönmek ise zındıklıktır. However, the following opinion which some of the sufists have acknowledged is not like that. This is that opinion: “Naslar ibarelerinin zâhirî üzerindedir. However, there some signs in those absolute provisions which are the perfection of imān and the beauty of the rank of wisdom. Imam al-Ghazali is also one of them. “The angels do not enter the house in which resides a dog.” Now, this Hadith-i Sharif was reported by al-Bukhari and al-Tirmidhi. What he understood from this hadith is that it points to that Allah’s mercy will not enter into a hearth in which settled Sifat al-Salbiyah.
Look, he understood a sign to the meaning that in a heart in which settled Sifat al-Salbiyah, Allah’s mercy will not enter. Who? Imam al-Ghazali (rahatullahi alaihim ajmain).
The disputes about seeing Allah Ta’ala. The majority veryfied that it is real and possible. It is possible to see Almighty Allah, and the majority of ālims said that it is possible, and verified that it is a fact. Our Master Muhammad (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) had also found this appropriate. However, the predecessor ālims and the successor ālims and the wali servants of Allah are in dispute. The truth is, Prophet Muhammad (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) had seen Allah Ta’ala in the Mi’raj not by his physical eyes but his heart’s eye. This is how its written in the Sharḥ al-‚Aqīdah and other books. There are also well-known disputes about authoritzation of that between the scholars regarding when a believer says that he has seen Allah in this world by his physical eyes and he refers to seeing in his dream. Uyanıklık hâlini kastediyorsa ve bu sözünden muzaf kelimesinin hazf edildiğini murat ederek Allah Teâlâ’nın sıfatlarının nurlarını, yaratıklarının eserlerinin gördüğünü kastediyorsa bu şüphesiz caizdir. However, it is narrated that some sufists said, “There is nothing in that, together with that, before that, or after that have I not seen Allah.” However, if the person refers to himself without interpreting this meaning, this is a disrupted type of faith. This is a heretic thought which may lead people go astray from the righteous path.
Valuable friends, again, in some books the ālims unanimously agreed that one should not believe in the person who claims that. Friends, the book called “al-Taarruf al-Tasawwuf” is a unique book about in the matter of sufism. The sufists have also written some pamphlets and books regarding this topic. Abū Sa’īd al-Kharrāz and Al-Junayd al-Baghdadi are amongst them. These ālims explained in their books and phamplets that the person who said that could not recognize Allah who is Sovereign and Exalted. Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi had also said that it would be possible to interpret it in that case. “If he visualizes it all the time, that thing will be as if its in front of him.” This benefactory hadith also corroborates that opnion. In this Hadith-i Sharif, what is benefactory is your worship to Allah as if you are seeing Him. The remark of Abdullah ibn Umar also corroborates that opnion.
So, Ibn Umar said, “We would see Allah as we circumambulate the kaaba.” The author of the book Avārif al-Ma’ārif says the following his books named A’lâm’ul Hüda and Akîdetü Erbab’it-Tükâ: “It is not possible to clearly see Allah in this world. For this world is mortal. While the Hereafter is everlasting. My heart has seen my Lord,” he said. Now, look, “My heart has seen my Lord.” In summary, the ālims of Ahl al-Sunna unanimously agreed that no one can actually see Allah Ta’ala with their own eyes in this world. Furthermore, there is no dispute between them regarding this issue either. However, they only disputed in the matter that whether Prophet Muhammad (ʿalayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) saw Allah Ta’ala, when he ascended to the Mir’aj, with his physical eyes or not. Thereafter, how happy is the one who says, “I am seeing Allah,” if he accepts the aforementioned interpretation. However, if he won’t accept that and insist on his word, if he do not renounce his mental opinion even though there is evidence, then would be necessary to reprehend and expose him. Slandering Allah Ta’ala by ascribing the things that do not suit His infinite grandness is the greatest sin. Maybe some ālims had also regarded crediting lies to the Prophet a blasphemy, too. Is there someone more cruel than who slanders Allah and tells lies? Who is more cruel than who slanders Allah and tells lies? Or who is more cruel than the person who asserts a claim that which comprises direction, distance, or space to Allah? Is there someone more cruel? Those who claim these will definitely become a disbeliever; may Allah protect us all. For that reason, we describe Almighty Allah TA’ala with the attributes that suit His glory, and we hold Him exonerate from imperfect attributes. “And on the Day of Judgment, you will see those who had forged lies against Allah (in a state) that their faces are turned black.” This is the 60th verse of Surah Az-Zumar.
Valuable friends, Küvvaşî says the following in the explanation of Surah An-Najm: “The person who believes it permissible for someone other than our Beloved Prophet (alayhi ṣ-ṣalātu wa-s-salām) to see Allah through physical eyes is not a Muslim.” In other words, the people can’t see Allah in the world through physical eyes. He says that if the person says, “I have seen Him,” then he is not a Muslim. This is what Nüvvaşî said in the explanation of Surah An-Najm. However, the people whom Allah Ta’ala wished may see Almighty Lord through their spiritual eyes to the extent that He wishes in a form He wished. However, this is bound with the divine grace of the Lord. Furthermore, that happens only through the spiritual eye. On the other hand, Ardabili says the following in his book al-Anwar: “If a person in the world says that he sees Allah with his physical eyes, or that Allah talks to him verbally, he will definitely become a disbeliever.” Friends, ruling that someone is a blasphemer is a dangerous thing. Because you easily say “blasphemer” to anyone. However, no one should get involved with such danger.
Yes friends, our lecture continues with the discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. Furthermore, there is also the issue of seeing Almighty Allah in a dream; another one of the fundamental beliefs is to see Allah Ta’ala in a dream.
The majority of ālims ruled that it is permissible to see Allah in a dream, without a how/modality, and without direction and form. It is also narrated that Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alayh wa alayhim ajmain) said, “I have sen Allah ninety-nine times in dream.” Then he saw Him once more. Therefore he completed one-hundred. The story about this is too long. It can’t fit into this lecture. Imam al-Ahmad ibn Hanbal said, “I have seen my Lord in a dream and asked Him, ‘O Lord! How can one be close to You?’ He said, ‘Through my speech (which is Al-Qur’an Al-Karim) O Ahmad!’ I asked again, ‘By understanding or not?’ He said, ‘With or without understanding.’.” As long as they are sincere servants who has imān. Now, the foremost virtuous action is to recite it sincerely by understanding it; also listening to it and reading it sincerely. This is how that hadith was narrated. It is also narrated from our Prophet that he said, “I have seen my Lord in a dream.” Now, many of the predecessor ālims narrated this type of remarks regarding this topic. Yes, friends, the dream is the vision of imagination.
Furthermore, the ones who is killed dies because his dying hour has come. Now, another thing that is included in the fundamentals of belief is that everyone dies for their dying hour has come. No one dies contary to their dying hour. Now, inshaAllah our lecture will continue with this topic. May Almighty Allah admit us among the servants whose imāns are perfect and everlasting, and whose deeds are all good.