Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 29
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 29
A’oodhu billaahi min al-shaytaan ir-rajeem (I seek refuge with Allaah from the accursed Shaytaan), Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm (In the name of God).
Most valuable and venerable audience, our discovery notes related with the amantu (fundamentals of belief) continues. We are conveying the good old Islamic amantu (fundamentals of belief) in Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar which broughts forth the amantu through knowledge and wisdom, and true evidence. The Islamic amantu (fundamentals of belief) is far from all dangers. We continue to give you all of the discovery notes regarding the amantu in order for the real amantu and real imān (faith) to see the light of day. So, one of the things you should never do is to call a haram as halal, acknowledging evil as halal. This destroys the imān (faith) of a person who is in Islam. You can never call those harams as halal if it was clearly stated in Islam via the Qur’an and the Sunna that they are haram. The person’s imān (faith) disappears if he says such things. It is blasphemy to acknowledge a haram as halal if it being haram is well proven via conclusive evidence; whether the evil is minor or major has no importance. So, denial penetrates into the heart, and imān (faith) disappears. This was so many people are putting their imān (faith) in danger. For that reason, the Muslim, the believer has to live as a believer until he dies, and he has to protect his imān (faith) from such dangers. He can’t take any action, nor can he have an intent or a remark that will bring harm to his imān (faith). The actions that destroy the imān (faith), affirm the wrong, and deny the truth are the things that destroys the person.
Most valuable friends, it is also blasphemy if a person commits a evil action again and again and accepts that sin as permissible. The person is commiting the sin, blasphemy, and haram, and then he acknowledging that sin as if it is permissible. It is blasphemy to ridicule the sharīʿah (law) in such way. As for the sharīʿah (law), Allah Ta’ala is the Sharī [Law-Maker]. It is Allah who manifests the Islamic sharīʿah. The sharīʿah consits of the certain commands and rules in Islam. You can’t ridicule any of them, you can’t deny any of them either. It is blasphemy to ridicule the sharīʿah. Today, some people are shouting, saying, “Damn the sharīʿah”. There are also some people who are imposing what they fabricated on the nation as if it was the sharīʿah. The ones who are yelling, “Damn the sharīʿah” have already ruined themselves, and found the depths of Hell. For the sharīʿah is not the composition of the west nor the east. The sharīʿah consists of the laws of Islam that are manifested by Allah who is the sharī (law-maker). The sharīʿah is Islam itself. To ridicule the sharīʿah is an indication of not believing in the prophets. The one who does not believe in the prophets, who does not acknowledge the rank of prophethood has clearly denied Allah. For it is Allah who sends the prophets.
The prophets have no chance of saying, “I am the Prophet”, on their own. It is Allah who sends the prophethood. It is like the way the states are sending mesengers to other countries. Allah Ta’ala who is the Lord of these worlds had sent many prophets from time to time. It is not possible to deny not even one of them. You can’t deny not even one of them. For that reason, the shariahs come with the Messengers who were sent. The Messengers come to the world in order to implement the shariahs that Allah Ta’ala had sent down to them, and they convey those shariahs. They first convey those shariahs, then along with the conveying, the prophets and the caliphs implement the rulings of the sharīʿah. It is not a chance for no one to ridicule this, oyun, eğlence, istihza veya alay gibi bir durumda da alay konusu, istihza konusu yapamaz. It is blasphemy if they do. The high-ulamā have also said that it is a clear sign of not believing in prophethood.
Most valuable friends, Abu Yusuf is amid the greatest ālims of the valuable Hanafi School after Al-Imam Al-Azam who is the greatest mind and scholar in the world. Ebû Yusuf, Peygamber’in kabak yemeğini sevdiğini zikretti.
Look, it is never permissible to oppose to the Prophet on purpose, not even that is permissible. One can’t oppose to the Prophet even if the topic is the personal affairs of the Prophet. For that reason friends, we are seeing the sensitivity of Abu Yusuf regarding this matter.
There is also this, if a person believes that what is haram is halal, and if that action being haram is true via conclusive evidence so it is really haram, then that person becomes a kāfir. Now, that can’t be denied if it is evident in the tawātur tidings, and if it clearly stated in the Qur’an. It is said that he who calls that haram as halal fall into blasphemy, and becomes a kāfir. He would not become a kāfir but a fasiq (venial sinner) if that action is haram due to assumption based evidence. However, it is certain that he will become a kāfir if it is proven by conclusive evidence that it is haram. They said that he won’t come a kāfir but a fasiq (venial sinner) if that action is haram due to assumption based evidence. However, if a person gets accustomed to such things he may one day name another haram action as halal, and if that action is haram due to conclusive evidence, he will ruin himself. One should not get used to such things. The Muslims should be the world’s most sensitive people in the matters of religion, imān (faith), and good deeds. The Muslim may consent to dying for a thousand time, but he can’t consent to being a kāfir. You see, this is the difference between the believers and non-believers. You should take this as a lesson. The Muslim can’t consent to being a kāfir, even if that means being torn to pieces. This is the difference between the believers and non-believers.
Dear audience, it is feared that one may fall into blasphemy due to ignorance if he says that something is halal [which actually is haram] for he didn’t know it. For example, it is also dangerous if a person wished that fasting in the month of Ramadan-i Sharif was not a religious duty for it is hard. It would also be dangerous if that person also wished that drinking wine was not haram.
Such a wish should not be made. However, a person directly becomes a kāfir by wishing that adultery and fornication was not haram, or that murder was not haram. It was obvious that such things were haram in the previous sharīʿah laws that were sent to all of the prophet. As for wanting from Allah (jalla jalaluhu) to command the thing that has no use; this is not recognizing Allah. Bir şeye Allah haram dediyse ona bu dünyalar gibi dünyalar bir araya gelse helâl yapamaz. The number of the harams are not even that high. However, in the world there are incalculable amounts of halal things. There are incalculable amounts of halal things. For that reason, the Muslim is a smart person; the faithful person is a conscious person. Şarabın yasaklanması bu ümmete nisbetledir, denmiş, bu hikmet kayıtlıdır. Ezelî hikmet ise mutlaktır. There are major dangers and difficulties in that it is blasphemous to wish something haram was halal. For if something is haram you should never call it halal. It may have been halal, permissible, and lawful in the previous sharīʿah laws, however, if Almighty Allah said that thing is haram in the Islamic sharīʿah, you should never call that halal. Temenni etmek müspet veya menfi yönden hikmete dokunmaz.
There is also this, Sarakhsi mentioned that it is acknowledged that intercourse with wife who is in menstrutaion period is halal, and said that was established by assumption based evidence, however, there is danger in that. The people should not get accustomed to saying, ‘halal’ in such situations. Aybaşı durumunda iken hanımıyla cinsi münasebette bulunmanın haram oluşu konusundaki nassın delâleti zannidir denmiş ama zanni olsa da sakın yine helâl dememeye dikkat et. You should never call that halal for there is danger in that. “Haram ligayrihi şey’in” hükmü hakkındaki ihtilâfa dayanmaktadır.
This is from the 222nd verse of Surah al-Baqarah: “wa-lā taqrabūhunna ḥattā yaṭhurna,” – “So, keep away from women during menstruation; and do not have intimacy with them until they are cleansed.”
Valuable friends, if someone mentioned Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu wa jalla shanuhu ‚azza wa jalla) with an attribute that does not suit his glory, or if he ridiculed one of the names or commands of Allah, or if he denied the promises and punishments of Allah, would be become a kāfir? They said that he would become a kāfir. For you can’t ridicule the commands of Allah. Moreover, they also said that one would become a kāfir if he wished that one, or all of the prophets had not come in order to ridicule the commands of Almighty Allah, or with an intention of enmity. Yine Allah’ın emirlerini küçümsemek maksadıyla yahut düşmanlık kastı ile bir kimse peygamberlerden herhangi birinin yahut hepsinin gelmemesini temenni etse kâfir olur, demişlerdir. Is Almighty Lord sending Messengers at your sweet will?
Almighty Allah has sent many prophets to this world starting with Prophet Adam, until the last prophet Muhammad. To wish that he haven’t had sent them is blasphemy. They said that he would still be a kāfir even if he wished such a thing. The same goes for wishing that adultery and similar harams were halal, too. Think for a moment, these are actions related with the affairs of the servants. You can never call these halal. Haramların helâl olmasını istemekten yeryüzünde fesat doğar, and Allah Ta’ala does not like depravement. Then the thing that we call nāmūs (chastity) will dissappear. The world is then taken by enormity, prostitution, unchastity, and cuckolding.
Furthermore, if a community made a person reside in an elevated position and asked him about religious matters and ridiculed him; this is important, you should pay attention to this part. It is blasphemy to ridicule with the commands of Allah. Islam consists completely of the sharīʿah (law) and justice, and the authorities of qadaa´ and justice in the sharīʿah. That chair of justice was called qadiship back then. Friends, it is said that those who ridicule that position will become kāfirs, because what they had ascribed meant ridiculing that position. You can’t make fun of any value of the religion. The religion is the laws manifested by Allah. It is the divine order. Friends, we seek refuge in Allah from such actions of theirs.
Moreover, if someone ordered someone to become a kāfir, and said, “So what if you become a kāfir,” or let’s say that he endeavored to give such an order, they said that he would become a kāfir, because having consent to blasphemy is blasphemy. That may also be due to his own blasphemy or the fact that he caused someone else to become a kāfir. You see, the one who ordered someone to become a kāfir became a kāfir before the other person. So, why is that? This is because consenting to blasphemy is actually blasphemy.
Islam were sent down in order to save the entire humankind from blasphemy. We had mentioned this in the previous lecture about Al-Imam Al-Azam. He said that while talking to the person sitting accross him he would give effort so that he wouldn’t go astray; it was as if there was a bird resting on his head and he was trying not to scare it. “We were so careful in order for him not to go astray, it was as if we had a bird resting on our heads and we were trying not to scare it,” Al-Imam Al-Azam said.
Friends, if a person knowingly utters the basmala while having alcohol or committing fornication or adultery, or having believed these are halal actions, then he would become a kāfir. You should beware. if a person knowingly utters the basmala while having alcohol or committing fornication or adultery, or having believed these are halal actions, then he would become a kāfir for one can’t utter the basmala to start committing haram actions. However, it is necessary to recite the basmala before starting a work that is legitimate, lawful, thus halal. If a mufti or a judge releases a legal opinion (fatwa) saying that a women is a kāfir solely for forcing her to be divorced from her husband, that mufti or judge becomes a kāfir themselves. That is if they are calling that woman a kāfir in order to separate her from her husband.
The one says such a thing, whether he may be a man of religion, theologian, judge or a mufti, whoever he may be; if he gives a legal opinion (fatwa) saying that a women is a kāfir in order to separate her from her husband while there is no such thing becomes a kāfir himself, they are saying. For example, mufti may ask to the women, “What is the decree of Islam?” in order to allow her to marry with her husband from whom she had divorced upon three talaqs (announcement of repudiation). Mesela üç talâkla boşanan bir kadının kocasıyla evlenmesine cevaz verebilmek için boşanan kadına hâkim yahut müftü “İslam’ın hükmü nedir?” diye sorar. He asks that to the woman who had divorced, look. The women says, “I don’t know”, for she may really not know that. Then they ask to her, “Would it be halal (lawful) to take the goods of a person or murder him if he becomes a Muslim,” and when the woman replies, “No,” then in that case the deviant mufti or the heretic qadi (judge) may say, “I declare that woman is a blasphemer,” or “I hereby declare that this woman is not actualy a Muslim,”. That is a false and peccable provision. The mufti and qadi (judges) who make it like that are destroying themselves.
There is also this, if a person performs namāz not facing the qiblah, or if he knowingly faces towards the qiblah without having ablution nor being clean, he would become a kāfir if he disregars these things while knowing them; for there are evident commands in the Qur’an regarding these matters. It is one thing to be unfamiliar with, it is another to do it on purpose. Moreover, if a person utters a remark that necessitates blasphemy without believing in it, but ridiculing it, he also becomes a kāfir. In other words, they said that the person becomes a kāfir if he utters the remark that necessitates blasphemy through ridiculing the religious commands.
Friends, we continue to give you discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar of Al-Imam Al-Azam. You should also know that Al-Imam Al-Azam says you can’t call the people of qiblah a kāfir. There has to be a conclusive reason in order to declare them a kāfir. “Kıble ehlinden hiç kimseye kâfir denemez.” sözleriyle Kur’an-ı Kerim’in yaratılmış olduğunu yahut Allah’ı görmenin muhâl olduğunu söyleyen yahut Hz. Ebû Bekir ile Hz. Ömer’e söven yahut onları lanetleyen kimse kâfir olur, sözlerini birleştirmek müşkül bir meseledir, denmiştir.
Friends, also in the books of fatwa the following is written, “It is blasphemy to swear at Abu Bakr and Umar, and denying their caliphates.” The commentator of the book The Mawaqif also says the same thing. The beliefs should rely on certain evidence. Now, you can never declare anyone a kāfir unless there is conclusive evidence saying that person is a kāfir. There has to be a certain proof regarding that the person is a kāfir. As it was conveyed from Abu Hanifa and al-Shafi’i (rahmatullahi alayhim ajmain), the interpretation of the remarks saying that you can’t declare anyone amongst the people of qiblah a kāfir: “That remark is originally blasphemy.
Furthermore, being able to declare a person from the people of qiblah to be a kāfir is the opinion of the mujtahids. Now, both opinions have a juncture, it is the fact that you can’t declare a person from the people of qiblah to be a kāfir unless there is a conclusive evidence that had clearly lead that person to blasphemy. Besides, the people of qiblah are with us in every matter. The people of qiblah are the people who has believed in Islam. However, they are not counted amid the people of qiblah if it is proven via conclusive evidence that they have not actually believed, and that they are actually deniers. To accept the repentances is a kindness of Allah.
Friends, another one of the matters tha are related with the amantu (fundamentals of belief) is that accepting the repentances is a kindness of Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu). To accept repentance, absolves the punishment that will be received due to the sins. You see that this is a gift from Almighty Allah. Again, the Mu’tazila had opposed to that. “wa-yatūbu llāhu ʿalā man yashāʾu” – “Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills,” commanded the Lord in the 15th verse of Surah At-Tawbah. Almighty Lord attributed that to His own will. Almighty Lord postponed the acceptance of the repentance of the people whom did not attend to the battle, whom stayed back from fighting by the side of the Prophet, but He accepted them later. He had accepted their repentations later. However, that is not the case for the repentations due to blasphemy. This kind of repentance is definitely accepted. If a person repents from being a kāfir, his repentance is accepted immediately. We know this matter via the consensus of the sahaba and the salaf (early muslims). The reason that the ālims of Ahl al-Sunna said that it is not certain whether the repentances of people whom repented will be accepted or not is because there was not a conclusive knowledge regarding the matter. However, that was related with whether that person repented honestly or not. They said the afore claim for the reason that there was not a conclusive evidence whether the conditions of repentance is fulfilled or not. Otherwise, our Almighty Lord said that the repentance of whom honestly repents will be accepted. It is clear that Allah accepts the repentance of the one whom repent honestly, and renders him successful him in that repentance, too. “wa-huwa lladhī yaqbalu t-tawbata ʿan ʿibādihī.” – “wa-yaʾkhudhu ṣ-ṣadaqāti,” – “And He is the One who accepts repentance from His servants,” – “and accepts Sadaqāt [zakats and tithes from His servants].” Friends, the first quote was from the 25th verse of Surah Ash-Shura, the latter was from the 104th verse of Surah At-Tawbah. “The one who repents from sin is like one who did not sin.” Look, this report is from our Prophet according to the direct narrations of Ibn Majah and al-Bayhaqi. He said: “ التَّائِبُ مِنَ الذَّنْبِ كَمَنْ لا
“The one who repents from sin is like one who did not sin.” The people should repent honestly, they should beg to Allah for Him to grant them honest repentances. People should also repent due to the imperfections and short-comings in their repentances. “The repentance of whom repents due to a major sin is accepted even if he continues commiting another major sin. And he will not be punished for the sin from which he repented.” Tövbesi kabul edilmiş, gerçek tövbe ettiyse artık ona o günahtan tövbe edilmez.
According to the Kharijites, in the event that he died the one who rises against Allah dies as a kāfir, doesn’t matter if his uprising was minor or major. That was what the Kharijites said. So, as a result they stayed far away from Ahl-al Sunna, and many of them opinions are wrong. They said that such a kāfir would stay in the Hell continuously.
Dearest friends, the Kharijites one of the ahlul bid’ah (evil innovator) madhabs. We do not accredit their remarks. Ancak gerçek ortada, hak delil, Kur’an, sünnet, mütevâtir haber olduğu zaman iddia onların değildir. The claim is the truth itself. “He abjurates from imān if the sin is a major sin,” look, the Mut’tazila says this, but they add, “He won’t fall into blasphemy,” they are saying, “He will stay in the Fire continously.” You see, that is the opinion of the Mu’tazila. These do not suit Ahl-al Sunna. They had said, “If the committed sin is a minor one, it is not permissible for him to be punished.” We see that the Mu’tazila is interfering with Allah’s work. They had also said, “It is not permissible for him to be forgiven if he committed major sins together with minor sins,” they had also interfered with Allah’s work here. Never! Never in ever! These are the things that only Allah knows about, you can’t force Allah to anything. The following verse of Allah Ta’ala declines them: “Surely, Allah does not forgive polytheism, and He forgives anything short of that for whomsoever He wills.” You see that Almighty Lord had informed us that in the Glorious Qur’an. This was from the Surah An-Nisa, but we can see similar verses in other surahs, too.
The Messenger of Allah said, “He whose last words are: `La ilaha illallah‘ (There is no true god except Allah) will enter Jannah.” Yet that is if that remark is said honestly, and if the person who says that has no objections to the other definite commands of Islam. That is if he has complete acknowledgement, and testification. Friends, the people who repent from their sins, the people who were predestined for repentance by Allah, and the ones whom Allah wished to forgive are honoured by Allah’s mercy, and they are saved. However, that is up to Allah.
Furthermore, al-Māturīdī said the following in his book, “Indeed blasphemy is a believed path because a person believes in a madhab (school of thought) through everlasting faith. For that reason, the kāfir is punished eternally. Because the imān (faith), faithlessness, and blasphemy are eternal. The punishment of the other sins are given for a limited time if not forgiven, for the other sins are not committed eternally.” This opinion of al-Māturīdī is perfect. That judgement is for the rebellious ones.
Moreover, another one of our valuable ālims says, “We hope that the good people amongst the believers shall be forgiven and admitted to Jannah via Allah’s mercy.”
Almighty Allah Ta’ala has a promise in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Allah has bestowed His favor upon His good servants. And said that He will bestow favor upon them. “Allah’s Messenger said, “The deeds of anyone of you will not save you (from the (Hell) Fire).” They said, “Even you (will not be saved by your deeds), O Allah’s Messenger?” He said, “No, even I (will not be saved) unless and until Allah bestows His Mercy on me,” he said. Friends, everyone may enter Jannah through the favor of Allah. And through His justice people also fill the Hell.
It also a favor of Allah to understand these matters correctly. “Enter Paradise for the deeds you have been doing,” this is the 32nd verse of Surah An-Nahl. You see that Allah accepts the deeds as reason for entering the Paradise. He accepts your imān (faith) and good deeds as reasons for entering the Paradise. So, this is the transliteration of the afore verse: “dkhulū l-jannata bi-mā kuntum taʿmalūn”, says the Lord. He accepts your imān (faith) and good deeds as reasons, but that is also due to His kindness and benevolence. The people whom He will grant benevolence will only be the ones who has done good deeds. The rank is the work of the deeds, but entering Jannah is due to generosity of Allah. You should listen carefully to these matters. The rank is the work of the deeds, but entering Jannah is solely due to generosity of Allah. No one can earn the Paradise via their actions. They can’t be honoured by these bounties for the eternity. That is a benevolence and generosity of Allah. Besides, the believer has an everlasting faith. This is important the faith of the believer is everlasting, it has to be everlasting. So, he will stay in the Paradise for eternity because his imān (faith) was eternal, too. Allah favours the person who has an everlasting imān (faith) by granting him eternal refuge in the Paradise. He favors him due to his generosity. Therefore you should get your mind together. For no one has the chance of saying, “I did this, so it happened. I have earned this or that.” You should endeavour to have true imān (faith), and try to be a true Muslim. Thus you should never forget that these are the kindness and generosity of Allah. Their eternal refuge in the Paradise is by virtue of their good intentions and eternal faiths, and that is the case of the believers.
Now, the person stays eternally in the Fire. Why is that? It is because his denial and blasphemy is everlasting. He had never thought of believing. He had decided on eternal denial. On the other hand, the believer had believed, he had decided on believing. For that reason, blasphemy leads one to deserve an eternal punishment that is staying eternally in the Fire; whereas imān (faith) leads another to deserve eternal refuge in the Paradise. This is because they both have an eternal belief. The first one has denied, and acknowledged blasphemy. He chose that while the other one chose imān (faith). May Allah turn us into the servants whose imān (faith) is everlasting.
In our opinion, it is permissible for the major sins to be forgiven without repentation and without intercession. For that is up to Allah’s will. There is also this, even with intercession, it is Allah Ta’ala who forgives whomever He wills. شَفَاعَتِي لأَهْلِ الْكَبَائِرِ مِنْ أُمَّتِي – “My intercession is for the people who committed the major sins in my Ummah,” said our Beloved Prophet according to a narration. In the sources of the above report you can find our valuable muhaddiths such as al-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood. May Allah Ta’ala grant mercy upon all our Islamic scholars (ālims). It is possible for intercession to take place before entering the Fire, just like it is possible for it to take place after. In other words, some people may have the honour of intercession before entering the Fire, this way he might not enter the Fire at all. However, some may enter the Fire, but will leave it due to intercession later. Yet these are for the people who are sinful believers who have imān (faith). “So the intercession of the intercessors will not avail them,” this is the 48th verse of Surah al-Muddaththir. We clearly see that there are some people who will never benefit from intercession.
Now, “fa-mā tanfaʿuhum shafāʿatu sh-shāfiʿīn,” commanded our Almighty Lord. And although the verse was sent down regarding the kāfirs, the Mu’tazila presented this verse as evidence of their claims, the Mu’tazila have made a great mistake here. On the other hand, our ālims are deducing that the intercession is fixed for the believers.
Valuable friends, “Whoever rejects Faith, his effort will go to waste,” this is the 5th verse of Surah al-Ma’idah. You see that blashemy ruins the deeds, it destoys them, lefts no good deeds. On the other hand, being a fasiq (venial sinner) does not mean blasphemy in an absolute manner. For venial sinner sinners are also called as fasiq. Let’s say that the person has imān (faith), but also has major sins along with minor ones; these people are fasiqs (venial sinner). Therefore they are not kāfirs. They have a chance of getting out even if they enter the Hell. Yet, the Mu’tazila had opposed to this, too. “So, whoever does any good act (even) to the weight of a particle will see it [return],” this is the 7th verse of Surah Az-Zalzalah whose transliteration is, “fa-man yaʿmal mithqāla dharratin khayran yarahū,” He commanded. So, what does that show us? You can’t say that it means something like, “The person who dies as a kāfir after doing good deeds and charity will see the rewards of those deeds.” This is because the blasphemy of the kāfirs destroy their good actions. For that reason the verse is only applicable to the believers who die having faith. However, you can say that the kāfir sees the rewards of his actions in this world. For the bounty of the kāfirs are in the world. However, there is no bounty for them in the Hereafter. There is only Fire for them. They may also see the punishment for some misdeeds in the world through some troubles or nuisances. But who? The believers may also see punishment in the world. The kāfirs also see punishment in the world but they will see an eternal punishment in the Hereafter. However, the believers and the Muslims in the world will enter the Paradise in Hereafter, through Allah’s favor and ihsan. As for the situations of the sinners, that is up to Allah’s will. The believer or the kāfir person will most certainly see the punishment or reward of the things he had done from Allah Ta’ala. Allah requites his servant due to his good deeds by covering up his sins. However, the good acts of the kāfir is denied, and he is punished due to his evil acts. This is done like you have read for one is a believer and the other is a kāfir.
So, let’s say that a person repented from polytheism and became a Muslim, will be be punished due to his sins other than polytheism? Well, that is up to Allah’s will, and His wishing. Allah had said that He will forgive all them all if He wills it. He will give the right of the rightheous. However, there is no forgiving in rightful dues. The rightful dues should be paid in this world, and that event should not be left to the Hereafter. It is necessary to repent from all of the sins after repenting from polytheism, and one should also try not to commit those evil acts ever again. This is how repentance begins. Furthermore, there is no dispute between the scholars about repentance, and forgiveness of the sins, and that the servant is not punished for the forgiven sins.
For Almighty Lord does not punish His servant after forgiving him. “Say (on My behalf), “O servants of Mine who have acted recklessly against their own selves, do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Surely, [Almighty] Allah [jalla jalaluhu] will forgive all sins,” this is the 53rd verse of Surah Az-Zumar whose transliteration is, “qul yā-ʿibādiya lladhīna ʾasrafū ʿalā ʾanfusihim lā taqnaṭū min raḥmati llāhi ʾinna llāha yaghfiru dh-dhunūba jamīʿan.” This Qur’anic verse is special for whom has repented from blasphemy. It is necessary to understand these correctly. He has to have repented from blasphemy and polytheism. In the following verse the Lord said, “And return [in repentance] to your Lord,” which is the 54th verse of Surah Az-Zumar. For that reason valuable friends, to understand Islam correctly and to believe in it correctly is one of the greatest favors of Allah. Kötülükten tövbe bir de halkın tövbesi, gafletten tövbe. Now, all of these repentances have ranks and grades. There is “evbe” in them. So, in this instance “evbe” is the repentance of the prophets. In the 17th verse of Surah Sad, the Lord says, “innahū ʾawwāb,” – “Indeed, constantly turned to Allah [through repentance].” There is also the 25th verse of Surah al-Isra: “Indeed Allah is Most-Forgiving for those who [constantly] return to Him in repentance.” Evvâbin namazından bahseden akşam ile yatsı arasını tâatla ve Allah’tan başkasını düşünmekten tövbe etmekle geçirmektir. That is especially for the people of tawhid (monotheism). That is for the enlightened, and the real servants of Allah who are people of tawhid (monotheism). For that reason, “I repent as if I had abandoned the religion when some authority other than you came to my mind even if that was an inadvertent thought,” says Ibn al-Fand, who is amongst the greatest of the awliya.
Furthermore, in the sharīʿah (law) repentance is not returning again, and striving to abandon the sins forever, and regretting. The repentance is regretting for all evil actions.
Moreover, let’s say that a person endeavours to not to drink wine because it is harmful to him, and it hurts his stomach or makes him dizzy. the name of that action is not repentance. So, why is that? This is because he is not repenting for AllahThat person is not drinking wine because it hurts his stomach or makes him dizzy or due to some other reason, and same thing applies for other sins and harams, too.
The repentance: You shall promise to Allah not to do commit that sin ever again; for it to be repentance. So, it is clear that he would not repent if the wine didn’t hurt his stomach. It is also said that regret is also repentance. However, it is like I said, he shall repent to Almighty Allah as we said above, he shall beg, and submit his regretfulness to Allah. Tam pişman olduğunu Yüce Allah’a yalvararak, tazarru ile yana yakıla, yalvara ne yapacak? He shall submit his repentance to Allah, he shall repent to Allah, and ask forgiveness from Him [istiġfār].
It is a condition to regret the past. One should say, “Why have I committed those sins in the past?” Then the person should strive for staying away from those sins forever. It wouldn’t be repentance without the afore actions. İçki içmek gibi kul ile Allah arasındaki günahtan dolayı O’nun erkanı ve esasları bu şekildedir.
Now, namāz, fasting, and zakāt (charity) are the rights of Allah. So, if someone violates those rights, he must repent but at first he must repent due to violating those rights of Allah, and then he should try not to commit that evil act ever again. It is so that one should try not to postpone prescribed namāz, and he should perform qada‘ namāz for the missed namāz.
So, when the sin is due to a rightful due, one should give those rights to their owners, and ask for them to pardon. He should return the goods to their owners in order to please them, or he should ask for them to pardon. Or, he should appoint a trustee to fulfil that work. O, my valuable friend! There are specific and special repentances for each sin.
Thereafter, what should a person do if he was in debt to many people via cruelty and a collection of enormities, and he had no way of returning their dues for he didn’t know any of them? He should give the same amount of goods that would have reimbursed their dues to charity with the intention of paying his debt. Then he should repent to Allah Ta’ala. That person has to distribute the dues of the people whom he didn’t know to the poor as sadaqah (charity), and repent. However, if he has a due as in giving faulty products, and if he searched the debtees but couldn’t find them, and gave a similar product of equal product to the poor as sadaqah (charity), that debt would be out of his responsibility, they said. These are placed as individual calls. They are also written in the legal opinion (fatwa) books of ours. There is also this, if a person has a debt to his enemy, and if the payee dies without leaving behind any inheritors, the person should distribute same value of goods that equals to that debt to the poor. This action entrusts that right to Allah. Insha’Allah Ta’ala that action will be delievered to the payee.
Furthermore, if someone took some goods from a dhimmī, if someone took some goods from a non-muslim dhimmī through seizure or stealing, that Muslim will be punished due to the rightful due of that dhimmī. For you can’t hope that the dhimmī will be forgiven. The animosity of the dhimmī is much vigorious than the Muslim’s. So, who is a dhimmī? We mentioned this in our previous lectures but let’s remember one more time. They are the non-muslims who are under the protection of Muslims, in a Muslim country.
Anyhow, should the debtor say an unclear remark to the payee such as, “You have money owed to me. Please write off my debt,” or should he ask for blessing by expressing the amount of the debt.
If he hasn’t heard that word yet, he should ask forgiveness from Allah, and aim at not uttering such a word ever again. He should repent honestly and strictly stay away from gossip. Or else o woe to him. May Almighty Lord admit us amid the servants who had repented from all of their sins, whose repentance and istiġfār is accepted, and who has reached salvation.