Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 8
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 8
Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammedin ve âlâ âlihi ve ezvâcihi ve eshabihî ve edbâîhi ve etratîhi ecmaîn. Euzû bikelimatillahi ta’âm matimîn selma hâlkâ ve za’ef le’beah Rabbi euzûbike min’hemezatişşeyâtîyn ve euzûbike Rabbi enyehdûrûn
Most valuable and revered friends, we continue to convey discovery notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. The whole world knows that Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar is one of Al-Imam Al-Azam’s precious works. Al-Imam Al-Azam teachings of science (ilm) passed his students’ ears and penetrated into their hearts. Then his students protected the teachings (ilm) and thus the teachings (ilm) were compiled. The teachings (ilm) about spiritual bonds (itiqad) were compiled in Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar, too. The evidential documents regarding faith (iman) in the Almighty Islam were manifested by it. In other words, characteristics of faith (iman), and almighty concepts that we should believe were narrated.
Our current lecture is about Allah Ta’ala’s inherent (subuti) attributes. There are the following attributes. There are “Tahlik, terzik, Insha, and ibda’, ‘sun’ (an Arabic word, not the sun),” and similar attributes. Tahlik is Almighty Allah’s attribute of Creating. Terzik is Almighty Allah’s bestowal of food and sustenance. Insha is His attribute of renewal and re-creation. Ibda’, is Allah (c.c.) Creating something from nothing. He creates from nothing because there is nothing similar. There are no samples either. ‘Sun’ means “-to do” in Arabic. And, to kill, to resurrect, to finish, to produce, to give shape and figure are also the same inherent (subuti) attributes. Among the ones we have counted, the Tahlik, the Insha, and ‘sun’ (an Arabic word, not the sun) means creating something from something else, whereas the Ibda’, namely creating something from nothing is different from them. Because Ibda’ means creating something that is unique from absolutely nothing, without there being any previous matter. May Allah (c.c.) rest Al-Imam Al-Azam’s (r.a.) and All Islamic scholars (âlims) and the Ummah-i Muhammad’s souls. And may Allah (c.c.) bestow upon those who live in the world the harmony of Islam, brotherhood, and an everlasting faith (iman) that shall eternally shine through their hearts. There is not a beginning or an end of Allah Ta’ala’s names and attributes.
Dear friends, we must be cautious when learning His attributes and having faith (iman) in Allah (c.c.). Look, I am repeating my previous word for its importance. There is not a beginning or an end of Almighty Allah’s names and attributes. His names and attributes, are not hadiths either. Hadith is the things that are created later. Almighty Allah Ta’ala has no attributes that are created later. For those almighty attributes are eternal, and infinite and omnipotent. Hadith is the name for the things that were not in existence but created later. Allah Ta’ala with His names and attributes have no beginning. Notice the emphasis on, “with His names and attributes.” Understand this well, and put true faith (iman) in Allah. He has no beginning, and with His attribute of being timeless, He is eternal. If one of Allah’s (c.c.) attributes occurred later or gone, there would be a shortcoming in His attribute of divinity but that is just impossible. Almighty Allah, with His perfect attributes, is eternal, infinite, and everlasting; He is eternally free of imperfect attributes. In Allah Ta’ala there cannot be anything that are created later. There cannot be an increase or decrease in attributes and His Being. He has all eternal and perfect attributes. He is eternally free of imperfections. It is without a doubt that none of Allah’s (c.c.) names or attributes are hadith (created later). The who had knowledge (ilm) in the past, is a scholar (âlim) in the past, too. The one who was a scholar (âlim) is certainly is a scholar now, too. Hence, Almighty Allah has all almighty attributes from the infinite past to the infinite future. Allah’s (c.c.) attributes are eternal.
Al-Imam Al-Azam said, “Allah Ta’ala (Jalla Jalaluhu) with His knowledge (ilm) is eternally One .” Now, pay attention. He eternally knows. In other words, there is no such thing like, “he used to know,” or “he learns later.” He knows everything, starting from the infinite past to the infinite future; He always knows. Pay attention to the way Al-Imam Al-Azam comprehended Allah’s (c.c.) attributes. Ilm (knowledge) is one of His eternal attributes. The attribute “ilm” knows everything and has always been one of Allah’s attributes. He is able with His Power (kudrah). There can be nothing his Power (kudrah) cannot reach. His magnitude is enough for everything. Kudrah (power) is one of Allah’s eternal attributes. Allah speaks via his Kalam (utterance). Kalam (utterance), is another one of Allah’s (c.c.) eternal attributes. He is the Creator, with His attribute. To Create is one of his eternal attributes. Whatever He does, He does with his will. That is also one of His eternal attributes. So, dear friends, let’s have a look at His attribute of Creating. Al-Imam Al-Azam manifests the truths here as regards to Tekvin, Tahlik, and Icat. Al-Imam Al-Azam (r.a.) recorded the following quote while counting Allah Ta’ala’s attributes, “His Divinity is Permanent.”
Almighty Allah is permanent and eternal with His Divinity and attributes. Allah Ta’ala, with His knowledge, is always One. With the above record, Al-Imam Al-Azam rejected the words of the Mu’tazila School. Mu’tazila is an Islamic school of thought most of whose opinions have no correlation with the Ahlul Sunnah (the people of the Sunnah). There is a refutation to them, too. They say, “Allah’s (c.c.) attributes are identical with His Being. He is Alim (aware) and Qadir (possesses power) by His abstract Being. He is not Alim or Qadir due to His attributes.” Now, look, they said, “He is not Qadir.” That is one of the aspects of the Mu’tazila that does not suit the Ahlul Sunnah (the people of the Sunnah). The words of Al-Imam Al-Azam, and the eminent Islamic guider imams, and the words of the other Islamic school is enough to prove the point. There is no need for deviant innovations (bid’ah). Stay away from deviant innovations. Now, a pearl of wisdom behind that we bring Al-Imam Al-Azam forward is to have you stay away from deviant innovations. For his knowledge (ilm) comes from the imams of haqq (true) schools; that knowledge (ilm) comes from the imams of Ahl as-sunnat wa-ljamâ’at (the people of sunnah and the community), they are revered figures who profoundly comprehended Islam. His evidence is solid. His comprehension is strong. Friends, the words of the eminent Islamic guider imams, and the imams of Ahl as-sunnat wa-ljamâ’at (the people of sunnah and the community) are enough evidence for us, for the world. Do not be deceived by the Ahlul Bid’ah, meaning the followers of deviant innovations. There are deviant belief systems in the world, there are people who misunderstand and misrepresent Islam, too. We are showing the belief system of the people of the Sunnah to have everyone start thinking straight. They say, “Allah Ta’ala’s attributes are neither the same as His Being or different.” It is not our duty to dive into the depths of this issue. Let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam said (r.a.), “Allah does everything with His Will. His will is an eternal attribute; the object of His Will is creation, and His action is non-created. That attribute is eternal, it did not occur later, nor was it created. Whoever says the opposite, or is uncertain, or doubts them is not a believer.” We must also pay attention here. Now, please listen to our lectures over and over again, and understand them good. These lectures are the lessons of faith (iman), a Muslim should know all of these so that his faith (iman) can be a true faith (iman). Allah does everything with His Will. His Will is an eternal attribute. the object of His Will is creation. In other words, what He created are the creatures. But His Will is an eternal attribute. His attributes have always been eternal, they were not created later (hadith). Be careful not to confuse what is hadith (created later) and what is not. His attributes are not created either. Look, His Will has always been eternal, it is not hadith (created) nor was it created. “Whoever says the opposite, or is uncertain, or doubts them is not a believer,” said Al-Imam Al-Azam.
Now, the ijtihads of the mujtahids, in other words, their search for the din (religion) are both valid in this world and the Hereafter. What does the unenlightened do with this knowledge of the mujtahids? They implement it and be subject to it. Almighty Allah granted this authority to the mujtahids. Today, many Islamic scholars were raised in Al-Imam Al-Azam’s Ecole (School), which is called the Hanafi School, all of them are imams of Ahlul Sunnah (the people of the Sunnah). Same goes for Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali Schools, too. These ecoles (schools) are true ecoles. Al-Imam Al-Azam is one of the most eminent of the true ecoles (school). We are manifesting the science of aqidah and the science of faith via the knowledge (ilm) in his Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. In the belief systems of the Four Schools, there are no differences in fundamental matters. Doubt means that one cannot come to a decision regarding the existence or absence of the attributes of Allah because of his stubbornness or ignorance. Doubt and hesitation are the opposite of “yakin” in the dictionary. Yakin is ilm (knowledge). Faith (iman) requires absolute ilm (knowledge), attestation and confession. To attest from the heart means to believe from the heart, it means creed (itiqad). Allah’s oneness must be believed along with all of His attributes, this is one of the fundamental pillars of the faith. Those who do not believe that have no knowledge of Allah’s attributes. That means denying Allah (c.c.) and His Prophets. Al-Imam Al-Azam showed the danger. We must be cautious about that. Al-Imam Al-Azam said, “to attest from the heart means to believe from the heart. Allah’s oneness must be believed along with all of His attributes, this is one of the fundamental pillars of the faith. Those who do not believe that have no knowledge of Allah’s attributes. That means denying Allah (c.c.) and His Prophets.” Now, let’s open up this issue a little bit.
For the book is originally brief, sufficient information about Allah Ta’ala’s attributes that we should know are included in the text. There is a great benefit in uttering the ones we need to know. The attributes we need to know in the Glorious Allah (c.c.) are in three parts as, “obligatory (wajib), permissible (jaiz), and impossible (to believe) (mumtani).”
Wajib (obligatory) attributes are: “the existence (wujud), eternity (qidam), and infinity (baka), and oneness (wahdaniyat), and not bearing any resemblance to any created thing (Muhalefat al-hawadis), and Self-dependence (qiyam bi nafsihi), life, (hayah), hearing (semi’), seeing (basar), will (irada), power (kudrah), speech (kalam), and creation (taqwin). The attribute of existence (wujud) is an essential attribute (al-sifat al-salbiyya). The following five attributes are called, “Al-Sifat al-Salbiyah,” or, “sıfat-i maneviye (immaterial attributes),” or, “sıfat-i tenhiziye (the attributes which free Allah from what they attribute to Him).” Eight of the attributes starting from the attribute of life (hayah) are called, “sifat-i zatiye (personal, zati attributes), or, “sifat-i subutiye (inherent, subuti attributes), or, “sifat-i vucudiye (attributes of His existence). And the attribute of Creation (taqwin) is called, “sifat-i fiiliye (attributes ascribed to His Actions)”. Because the taqwin is His attribute of Creating. This is an attribute ascribed to His Actions.
Jaiz (permissible) attributes are bestowed blessings (tarziq), tenim (providing or restricting for whom He wills), giving life (ihya’), causing death (imata), and Te’dip (to teach), these are studied under Taqwin (attribute of creating). The opposites of these can be attributed to Allah (c.c.).
And the Mümteni ones are the opposites of the ones we listed under the Wajib (obligatory) ones, their opposites cannot be attributed to Allah (c.c.). Those who wish to gain extensive knowledge regarding the subject should look for the detailed books written in this field.
Dear friends, we have many valuable books. We are giving you preliminary notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar because it constituted the fundamentals of those books; So that everyone can wake up, attain true faith (iman), and protect their faith (iman) from the dangers that could harm it. You have to attain eternal faith, eternal. The man who says he will become a disbeliever one hundred years later is a disbeliever today. Get your head together. Faith (iman) requires eternal approval and eternal declaration. One cannot doubt even for a second. Now, there is the following explanation in Imam al-Maturidi’s Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar, “Allah Ta’ala’s attributes are neither Him nor anything other than him. The School of Qadariyah and Mu’tazila rejected Allah’s attributes and said, “His attributes are other than Him.” Moreover, according to the Mu’tazila and Ash’ari, Allah Ta’ala’s Actions and Attributes are hadith (created later). Look, they have said, “His Actions and Attributes are created later.” For them, the ability of writing does not exist, until the action of writing commences. They do not see the construction if no one is working in it. They acknowledge the ability only when it occurred. For that reason, they say “Allah is the Creator,” only when He creates. They say, “Allah is Tarziq (bestows blessings),” only when He bestows. They say Allah (c.c.) is the Creator only when he Creates.
Now, Al-Imam Al-Azam does not bear the same opinion. Al-Imam Al-Azam has perfectly explained this issue. Look, al-Maturidi said regarding the subject, “Allah the All-Powerful, is always All-Powerful.” Do you see? Is Allah (c.c.) All-Powerful enough to create? Yes, He is All-Powerful even when He is not Creating. Allah the Al-Alim has the attribute of ilm (knowledge) which is also constant. And all of His personal (zati) and inherent (subuti) attributes are constant, too. Allah is The Creator before Creating, too. You see, al-Maturidi was following the path of Al-Imam Al-Azam. Imam al-Maturidi says, our answer to the ones who say, “Allah’s attributes are hadiths (created later),” is this: “Allah (c.c.) is the creator, and the doer before commencing an action, too. Allah (c.c.) has the attribute of writing also before He wrote. If He had not been the Creator before creating, and He had bestowed Himself that ability, then Allah Ta’ala should have been helpless prior to creating that ability. It is not even permissible (jaiz) to think that. The authentic view regarding Allah’s (c.c.) attributes is this: Attributes of Allah (c.c.) are the truth. They are without beginning, and eternal. They are neither the same as Him or other than Him. There is no difference between His Names and Attributes in terms of them being without beginning and eternal,” Al-Maturidi, Commentary of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar.
Dear friends, we must pay attention to the difference between Al-Imam Al-Azam and al-Maturidi. Al-Imam Al-Azam’s difference is obvious. Al-Imam Al-Azam is a glorious Islamic scholar (âlim) who is different in all matters. May Allah bestow his rahmat (blessing) upon our other Islamic scholars (âlims) as well. Al-Imam Al-Azam is known by the world. His knowledge spread throughout the world. Look, taking the last thirteen or fourteen centuries into account, you can see how the world still benefits from Al-Imam Al-Azam (r.a.). Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s utterance (kalam). Al-Imam Al-Azam manifested the true Islamic faith against those who cherish the opposite. He is a revered figure who showed how perfect a book Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is. Let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam said: “Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the Kalam of Allah (c.c.), written on the books and preserved in the hearts, recited on the tongues, and revealed to the Prophet Alayhissalam.”
Al-Qur’an Al-Karim was revealed from Allah (c.c.) to Prophet Muhammad. Our utterance of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is created. In other words, our voice, our utterances, for example, the letters (alphabets) we speak, the sound and the ink we use to write, these are all created things. Al- Qur’an Al-Karim itself is Allah’s Kalam (utterance). Our ability to write it, ink and paper that we use, what are they? They are created. But Al-Qur’an Al-Karim itself is Allah’s Kalam (utterance). Our ability to write it is created. The Qur’an is absolutely not created, it is Allah’s Kalam (utterance).
Now, we need to understand these profoundly. Allah’s Kalam, being his attribute of utterance, is read and memorized via Gabriel Alayhissalam as audible letters that consist of words. For these are amongst our abilities. And the entirety of our abilities is created with Allah’s Creation. The letters (alphabets), writings, paper, pen, verses, all of these are tools that we need for the Qur’an. Misunderstand not, these are tools for the Qur’an. Allah Ta’ala’s Utterance (Kalam) is existent within His Being, and the meanings of His Utterances were understood via those things. “Therefore, whosoever says, ‘Allah Ta’ala Kalam (utterance) is a creature that is created,’ that person would be cursing Allah the Almighty, and doing heresy,” he says. Allah’s Kalam (utterance) is not created. People’s alphabets, utterances, pens, inks are all creatures, but they are tools of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. People need these tools in order to understand Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. That is why grand scholars said, “Those who say Allah’s Kalam (utterance) is created,” befall into blasphemy. Whosoever says, “Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is created,” and refers with that the word of the Qur’an; if they refer to Allah’s al-kalam al-nafs (self-speech) just like the School of Karramiyya did, falls into blasphemy because he refused the infiniteness of Allah’s attribute that exists within His Being. They would again fall into blasphemy for they attributed Allah with things that are created later.
Their faiths may be destroyed. Friends, we have to pay attention to such matters. One must not confuse the created, with the Creator’s Kalam (utterance). To display the distinction better, Al-Imam Al-Azam explained the issue, clarified it, and did in such a beautiful way. The founder of the School of Karramiyya is Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Karram. They consider Allah is a substance and He has a bod, and think that He lives in a palace. They also assert that faith can be acceptable without acknowledgment of heart, so they are counted amongst the group of Mujassimah (Anthropomorphists). There are works about their faction and their opinions. They can be seen throughout the history of Islamic schools. They are narrated in the work called Al-Farq Bayn Al-Firaq, too. Karramiyya school is not amongst the haqq (true) schools, they are amongst superstitious schools. Now, we are pointing at some superstitious and deviant (ahlul bid’ah) schools so that the Muslims can stay away from such dangers; and so that they can profoundly comprehend the understanding of Al-Imam Al-Azam about Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. I am conveying the note of Al-Imam Al-Azam, again. That is a marvelous preliminary note. These notes are lectures of faith, the science of true faith which shall penetrate into the depths of your hearts and stay there forever. Let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam said about Al-Qur’an Al-Karim: “Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the Kalam of Allah (c.c.), written on the books and preserved in the hearts, recited on the tongues, and revealed to the Prophet Alayhissalam.” The way we pronounce Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and the things that belong to us are created. The way we write it is created. Yet, the Qur’an is not created. There is alphabet, voice, paper, ink for us, these are things in our possession, these are created things but Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is not created, it is Allah’s Kalam (utterance). Let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam said later: “The things Allah Ta’ala mentioned in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim about Musa (Moses), and the other Prophets – Aleyhimüsselâm – and also the Pharaoh and the Satan by means of stories are His Kalam (utterance). And Allah’s Kalam (utterance) is not created. For such tidings are conveyed via Allah’s Kalam (utterance).” But the speech of Musa (Moses) and other creatures are created. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s Kalam (utterance), and it has no beginning, it is eternal, unlike the speech of the other creatures. Almighty Allah uttered everything in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim by Himself, so Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s Kalam (utterance), which has no beginning, and is eternal. The Ash’arites said, “The writings in the Qur’an are not actually Allah’s Kalam (utterance), but His narration.” Hence, they permitted to burn its pages or to erase the ink using water when forced to. Whereas Kalam (utterance) is His attribute. Islamic scholars say, “His attributes are not other than Him.”
“We say to who say such thing,” look, this is the response of the followers of Maturidi School to the Ash’arites, “This opinion of the Ash’arites, just like the opinions of the Mu’tazila, belongs to themselves, has no link with the Ummah. For the thing that is inevitable is already known to Allah by His Knowledge (ilm). If what is written in the Qur’an had not been actually Allah’s Kalam (utterance), then Allah’s attribute of Kalam (utterance) would be non-existent amongst His servants. That would require the divine book to disappear, which is not permissible (jaiz).” That was the response of Imam al-Maturidi to the Ash’ari. Al-Imam Al-Azam and Imam al-Maturidi are the schools we should follow in the argument. Al-Maturidi follows the way of Al-Imam Al-Azam. Ash’ari himself is an eminent Islamic scholar (âlim) but we are pointing out the incidents in which he deviated from Al-Imam Al-Azam and al-Maturidi.
Three of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s verses are enough evidence to render those who think that Allah’s Kalam is created, helpless. Even three verses of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are enough evidence to render those who think Allah’s Kalam is created helpless. For each sentence of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is to the point, and miraculous.
The stories mentioned in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim and the verses (ayah) that contain them have no difference whatsoever with Surah Ayat al-Kursi or Surah Al-Ikhlas in being Allah’s Kalam (utterance). In being Allah’s Kalam, whatsoever is in the Qur’an, from start to finish have no difference, regarding being Allah’s Kalam (utterance), but there are some zikr verses (ayat) about how to recite them or mention them. Their merits are different, or else they are all the same in being Allah’s Kalam. Allah Ta’ala and Taqaddas (c.c.) mentioned in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim the tidings and stories about Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus) Alayhissalam, and the other Prophets in order to inform us about them. That being said, the words like, “May Allah’s wrath be upon such like the Pharaoh and the Iblis (Satan),” together with the verses (ayah) that narrate their affairs were already written in the al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (The Preserved Tablet, in which everything that happened, and will happen is written.) so they were not created later. The knowledge that is created later (hadith) may be obtained via hearing. Such tiding in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim conveys the message rather than their words, or sayings. For the speech of Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam and the others is created. Yet Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s Kalam (utterance), which means it is not created. Let’s hear what Al-Imam Al-Azam (r.a.) said: “Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam received Allah Ta’ala’s Kalam (utterance), as Almighty Lord said in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim (meaning): “Allah Ta’ala addressed Musa (Moses) in speech.” Allah Ta’ala (c.c.) was always attributed with Kalam (utterance), He could speak before revealing anything to Musa (Moses), too. He is the owner of the attribute of Kalam (utterance).” There, again, we can see him rejecting opinions of the deviants (ahlul bid’ah). Al-Imam Al-Azam manifests the understanding of strong religious faith in this matter also. Almighty Lord is All-Powerful to speak to his servant by one or different aspects. Almighty Lord is All-Powerful, but He uses means such as voice and letters (alphabet) to have His servants hear Him. Pay attention to the above sentence. His speech is beyond time and space in order for His servants to understand, He uses means like voice and letters (alphabet). It is stated that Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam heard the Divine Words from within a cloud that was shaped like a pole, which shaded him. Allah Ta’ala commanded Musa (Moses) in silence and without words: “O, Musa (Moses)! Indeed, I am your Lord. So, remove your sandals.” And our Prophet (s.a.v.) said while this situation was narrated to him, “Fe lemmâ etâhâ nûdiye yâ mûsâ. İnnî ene rabbuke fehla’ na’leyke.” When Musa (Moses) reached him, he heard the following voice. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim says, “O, Musa (Moses)! Indeed, I am your Lord. So, remove your sandals. Indeed, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa. I have chosen you for Prophethood. Now, listen to what is revealed to you.”
Allah Ta’ala knew before the beginning that Al-Qur’an Al-Karim were to be revealed to our Prophet Muhammad (s.a.v.) and in it, there would be tidings of the prophets and others were to be mentioned. He also knew He would include command and prohibitions in it. Yes, dear friends, He knew even before the beginning. For that reason, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s Kalam (utterance), which is not amongst the created things. Therefore, Allah Ta’ala is the Creator, even before willing to create anything, and always ascribed with Kalam (utterance) even before revealing anything to Musa (Moses). His attributes bear no resemblance to the attributes of the creatures. He is attributed with knowledge, and his knowledge bears no resemblance to human knowledge. He is All-Powerful, which is not like our power. He is The Most Able. He attributed the humans with power, but His Power is unlike our power. He is the All-Capable. His Hearing and Sight bears no resemblance to our hearing and sight. His Speech is by no means like our speech. The human voice can only be articulated via means of tools and alphabets, which are created. For His Speech, no such means is required. For Allah’s Kalam (utterance) is not created. Allah’s Kalam is an eternal thing, in other words, Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is Allah’s Kalam, which has no beginning and is eternal. His attributes are free of amendments and denaturation. And no attribute in no way is similar to Allah’s attributes. Almighty Lord knows everything with His attribute of the Knowledge (al-Ilm). His attribute of the Knowledge (al-Ilm) is eternal. Knowledge of human is hadith (created later). People’s knowledge is created later. Allah’s knowledge has no beginning or end. Again, if one confuses what is divine and what is created, that faith shall lose its essence and is no longer faith. Allah (c.c.) is All-Powerful (al-Qadir). His Power is All-Capable for all inventions eternally. Whereas people’s power is created later, which has no effect on the creation of things and occurrences. We are only capable of inventions by means of tools and auxiliary causes. Allah the All-Powerful (al-Qadir) require no help or tools because Allah is All-Capable, and Allah creates things out of nothing. Think of humans, they need all sorts of means and tools. In fact, whatsoever things humans have in their possessions are forever in need of Allah Ta’ala. Because everything there is in existence is granted by Allah (c.c.). We can see the colors and shapes by means of tools and instruments (things that are required for work). Whereas Allah Ta’ala needs no tools, instruments, preconditions, time or space for seeing. Almighty Allah (c.c.) has eternally been attributed with Kalam (utterance). Allah Ta’ala’s Kalam that has always been eternal exists within His Being.
Editor’s note: The word “eternal” means absolutely eternal with no beginning. And “everlasting” means has absolutely no end. They do mean the first and the last.
His attributes do not fade. Almighty Allah’s attributes which eternal with no beginning and everlasting does not disappear, they are everlasting attributes. Whereas many skills of humans may disappear one day. That is a characteristic pertain to the created. That does not change even for the most successful people. People are creatures, they are created later. We need to understand Allah the Almighty profoundly. Almighty Islam, the Glorious Qur’an, the Islamic Prophet, the companions, Islamic jurists, eminent Islamic scholars, and mujtahids know this “thing,” just like they know the Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma and the Ummah.
Allah Ta’ala (c.c.) is an “entity/thing” but does not bear any resemblance to entities or things we know. Look, bears no resemblance to anything. So, He is an “entity/thing” but is absolutely unlike other things. One should pay attention to this part. The meaning behind saying “entity/thing” is merely to prove that He has no body or substance. One must understand this well. Allah Ta’ala is an “entity/thing” but bears no resemblance to the entities or things we know. The intended meaning of “entity/thing” is to prove He is not a substance (jawhar) in which things (a’rad) exists. Allah is not a body (jism). Allah is not a substance (jawhar). Allah is not A’rad (a thing that exists within another being). The word “entity/thing” was used to affirm his existence. The “entity/thing” word here was used to prove He is in existence. The Ayah (verse) also used it in the same meaning. Almighty Lord commands, (Surah Al-An’am 19th Ayah): “Say, ‘What thing is the greater in testimony?” “Say, ‘Indeed, He is but one God, indeed, He is the greatest.” We said before that ‘thing’ is not a body. For a body may shatter. And what shatters is a composite (muraqqab). And composites (muraqqab) are always created later. And everything that is created later, namely hadith, is in need of a creator. For that reason, they are in need of Wajib Al-Wujud (a synonym of God), namely Allah the Almighty.
Again, in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim (Ash-Shuraa 12th Ayah): “Or have they taken allies beside him? … He is over all things competent.” As you see, this ayah (verse) clearly proves the point we’ve just explained. Together with the previous ayat, this one also proved our point. That “thing” is not a substance (jawhar). Substance (jawhar) is the site in which A’rad (a thing that exists within another being) exists. Indeed, the substance is hadith (created later). Allah Ta’ala is free of that. He is not an a’rad either, for an a’rad cannot exist without refuge in another being. A’rad needs a thing in order to exist. For that reason, His Existence is possible. Almighty Allah is not a substance (jawhar) nor an attribute (a’rad), He is the Creator of those things. Allah Ta’ala’s existence has no limits, ends, equals, opposites, nor comparables. The Iman (faith) of one is not valid unless he knows Allah (c.c.) well. Allah Ta’ala and Taqaddas (c.c.) has no limits nor ends, equals, opposites, nor comparables. Limit defines that a thing has bounds and constituents, which can only mean that thing consists of matter. Allah Ta’ala is a Being whose existence defies physics. Limit sometimes means “the end,” which is something Allah (c.c.) is devoid in all aspects. In other words, Allah there is no limit of Allah’s Being and Power.
Most valuable friends, we continue to convey preliminary notes from this profound sea of knowledge, that is Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar.
Almighty Lord has attributes to which a ‘how’ cannot be applied. Except for Allah (c.c.), no one may truly know the meaning and quantity behind them. As it is mentioned Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, Allah Ta’ala has attributes to which “how” cannot be applied. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim mentions Allah Ta’ala’s hand, face, and self. He has hand, face, and self, but His hand bears no resemblance to any other. His face is unlike the others. His self (nafs) is not similar to any other. The “how” and “quantity” of which is not known to any other than Allah Ta’ala. These are called Sifat as Mutashabih. It does not have a “how.” You cannot ask “how” to it, only Allah Himself can answer that. The following are the verses in which such attributes are mentioned. Almighty Lord’s such attributes are mentioned Al-Qur’an Al-Karim (Surah Al-Fath 10th Ayah): “Those who pledge allegiance to you, are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. Allah’s hand is over their heads.” Look, this ayah (verse) clearly mentions a ‘hand’ but because he has no comparables, His hand can bear no resemblance to any other creatures’. He does not have equals or comparables, and there is nothing similar to Him. Whatever Allah Ta’ala referred with ‘hand’ is known only to him, for we can’t ask ‘how’ to such attributes. The above ayah (verse) was Surah Al-Fath 10th. The following is (Surah Ar-Rahman 26th and 27th Ayah): “Every creature upon the earth is mortal. Solely the Face of your Lord shall remain.” Look, He says, that your Lords face shall remain. What does ‘face’ refer to here? That means ‘face’ but in that context, it is a Sifat as Mutashabih. There is not a chance for anyone other than Allah Ta’ala Himself to ask ‘how’ to it, and know the answer. These attributes are cannot be attributed with a ‘how’, and their entire meanings are submitted to Allah’s Knowledge (Ilm). When we say Sifat as Mutashabih, there is no chance of asking, ‘how’, because only Allah Ta’ala knows that. For there is nothing similar to Him.
The verse of the Qur’an that includes the word “nafs”, meaning self, is about Isa (Jesus) Alayhissalam. In the day of Qiyamah, Allah Ta’ala said Isa (Jesus) Alayhissalam, “O, Isa (Jesus), did you say to people ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah?’” The continuation of the verse in which Isa (Jesus) Alayhissalam replies is below. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim conveyed these tidings in Surah Al-Ma’idah  116th Ayah.
Look, Almighty Lord mentioned ‘nafs’, meaning self, in this utterance of His, but for there is nothing similar to Him, the meaning behind ‘nafs’ is again a Sifat as Mutashabih, which only Allah Ta’ala knows. “If I had said it…” Now, Almighty Lord asked Isa (Jesus): “Did you say to people to take you and your mother as deities?” Almighty Lord announces the world that Isa (Jesus) said no such thing, “The world must hear,” says the Almighty Lord. Isa (Jesus) answered, “If I had said it, You would have known it. It is not for me to say the thing I have no right to. I am your servant,” he said. “You know everything within myself, and I do not know what is within Your Nafs (Self).” Look, Isa (Jesus) says, “My Lord, you know what is within myself. But I do not know what is within Yourself,” said Isa (Jesus) Alayhissalam. The word “yourself” is literally “your-nafs (self)” in the Arabic text. He says, “I do not know what is within Yourself.” “Indeed, You are the Knower of the unseen,” he says to Almighty Allah. Isa (Jesus) Alayhissalam never said: “I am Allah’s son.” To anybody. Neither did he say, “Take me as a deity,” nor “Take my mother as a deity.” He has no chance of saying that. No Prophet does wrong. People fabricated those words later, and Allah (c.c.) announces that to the world. When He questions them on the Day of Judgment, he may ask them, “Have I not announced you these on the earth? Have I not warned you?” The people may wake up or continue sleeping, that is up to them. Today we are in the world, but tomorrow we shall be with Allah. The world is a field of test. Those who leave Allah (c.c.) and take others as a deity, those who practice polytheism (shirk), their, and the world’s only path to salvation is to acknowledge and understand Islamic Iman (faith), and Islamic Monotheism (tawhid). Almighty Allah manifested the fundamentals of the accepted iman (faith) via Islam. The whole world shall put their faith (iman) in the fundamentals of iman (faith) that Allah the Almighty manifested, and their hearts shall acknowledge it, and their tongues shall declare it, then they shall become Muslims. The decision is up to you. Islam is here to save you, yet if you do not want to be saved, then it is your decision. There are only two paths, one goes to Hell, the other goes to Paradise. The latter leads to Allah’s Paradise and Pleasure, His Angels, His Face, and His everlasting blessings. The other leads to Hell, in which Allah’s Justice shall be implemented. That is the only way to go for who choose it. If you do not have iman (faith), you cannot go into the Paradise, and we are not talking about fake faith (iman) which are knee deep in polytheism, we are talking about the haqq (true) iman which Islam manifested. You must have iman (faith) and must have done good deeds.
So, dear friends, the attributes of hand, face and self (nafs) that are mentioned in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim are attributes whose meanings are hidden to us, namely Mutashabih. Only Allah Ta’ala knows the true meanings of those Mutashabih Attributes. If Allah Ta’ala had informed the most eminent of the ulama (Islamic scholars), then how good. If not, the ulama and the believers can only accept them as they came, submitting their entire meaning to Allah (c.c.). They say, “Only Allah (c.c.) knows their true meanings.”
(Surah Ali ‘Imran 7th Ayah: It is He who has sent down to you, the Book; in it are verses [that are] precise – they are the foundation of the Book – and others unspecific. As for those in whose hearts is deviation [from truth], they will follow that of it which is unspecific, seeking discord and seeking an interpretation. And no one knows its [true] interpretation except Allah. But those firm in knowledge say, “We believe in it. All are from our Lord.” And no one will be reminded except those of understanding.”
There, there are Ayat Mutashabihaat (verse who may accept more than one meaning) and Sifat as Mutashabih (attributes with hidden meanings, that are only known by Allah) in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim.
Dear friends, these attributes have hidden meanings, their ‘how’ and ‘quantities’ are unknown, only Allah knows them. The text of these attributes is seen, but their meanings are unseen. The text is there, present in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Yet their meanings are hidden and unseen. What are their meanings? That is submitted entirely to Allah Ta’ala. We being unable to comprehend their meanings do not necessarily render those attributes meaningless. As it was narrated, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, whose date of death is the year Hijri 241, said: “The how’s (meanings) of those attributes are unknown, and speaking about them is bid’ah (deviancy).” Look, Al-Imam Al-Azam warned the world about such attributes being Mutashabih, whose true meanings are unknown, thus, manifested the truth. Al-Imam Al-Azam knew these truths long before Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Imam al-Shafi’i (r.a.). He profoundly comprehended this even before al-Malik and manifested this knowledge (ilm). Al-Imam Al-Azam is the leader of all of them in this case, too. May Allah bestow much rahmat (blessing) upon them.
Dear friends, one cannot say the meaning behind His Hand is definitely His Power or His bounty. For such a definitive interpretation may negate Allah’s attribute of Will, and that would be the method of the Qadariyah and the Mu’tazila. Al-Imam Al-Azam had exercised great caution in this matter also.
We referred to the Imamah branch of the Shia School with the term, “followers of the qadar (fate).”
The term, “followers of fate” or rather the Mu’tazila, refers to the Shia School’s Imamah doctrine. Even though it seems like every follower of Mu’tazila is a member of the Qadariyah, not every Qadariyah member is a Mu’tazila. There are Hadith-i Sharif’s about Qadariyah members, too. Now, let’s get this straight, not every member of Qadariyah is a Mu’tazila. Even though it seems like every follower of Mu’tazila is a member of the Qadariyah, not every Qadariyah member is a Mu’tazila. Now, let’s have a look into the subject. Shia is being mentioned, let’s have a look at that. The linguistic meaning of the word “Shia” is “followers”.
Shia is the name of a branch of Islam whose foundations were laid in the period of Uthman (r.a.), and expanded in the period of Ali (r.a.), and emerged into the stage of history after the well-known historical event of Arbitration in the Battle of Siffin. Their primary objectives were political but then through time they also became one of the Main Schools of Islam. And Imamah is the name of one of the biggest groups in the School of Shia. You can find extensive information about the Shia and the Imamah in Al-Shahrastani’s monumental work, Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal (The Book of Sects and Creeds).
Dear friends, now, there is the Qadariyah School. They are called “the followers of fate (qadar),” because they absolved Allah (c.c.) of all responsibility regarding all things related with fate (qadar), and ascribed them to the humans. Now, pay attention to this part. That faction was called Qadariyah because they absolved Allah of all responsibility regarding fate and attributed the fate to humans. They had a great impact on the doctrines of other factions. The first person to discuss fate (qadar) was Ma’bet ibn Halid ibn el-Cuheni al-Basri, in Iraq. His date of death is the year Hijri 80. In Damascus, Ebû Mervan Ceylan bin Muhsen Etti Meşki. In general sense, the Mu’tazila School was counted as an independent school within the Qadariyah School. So, the author said the following as a reference to the above info, “A follower of Mu’tazila is definitely a member of the Qadariyah.” Again, there is the valuable work Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal, you can look into it for detailed information. We will continue to convey information about them in our upcoming lectures if need be. It is narrated that our Beloved Prophet (s.a.v) said the following in a Hadith-i Sharif (This Hadith-Sharif is recorded in Sunan Abu Dawood which is a major hadith collection, and the others): “Every Ummah (community) has their Zoroastrians. The Zoroastrians of our ummah (community) are ones who say, ‘there is no fate (qadar).’” There, our Prophet (s.a.v) miraculously announced of the situation of the schools called Mu’tazila and Qadariyah, beforehand. That school is a school of deviants who practice deviant innovations (bid’ah). There are some true aspects of their doctrine but they are mostly wrong. In particular, they possess deviation to the itiqadi (fundamental) aspects. Our Prophet (s.a.v) gave the news, he said, “The Zoroastrians of our ummah (community) are ones who say, ‘there is no fate (qadar).” “Whosoever dies amongst them do not go to their funerals, do not visit them had they got sick. They are followers of ad-Dajjal. Allah Ta’ala promised to annex them into the group of ad-Dajjal.” May Allah (c.c.) protect us. Those tidings were told. Abu Dawood said while the afore hadith was explained: The resemblance was because they attributed the good and the bad. For they said ‘The good is from Allah, the bad is not’, which resembles the Zoroastrian’s creed who believed fire represented God’s light.”
So, friends, “Having iman (faith) in fate (qadar) relieves someone from thought and sorrow.” That Hadith-i Sharif was mentioned in al-Suyuti’s Saheeh al-Jaami as-Sagheer, Al-Fath Al-kabr, and al-Munavi’s Fayz al-Qadr, too. Our beloved Prophet says: “Having iman (faith) in fate (qadar) relieves someone from thought and sorrow.”
Valuable friends, Allah’s attributes of Face and Self (Nafs) are amongst Allah’s attributes that are without a “how” (modality), just like the „Yad“ (hand) attribute. Fahru’l-İslam Ali Al-Pezdevi said the following in order to show evidence of the attributes of hand and face, “To us, they are Mutashabih attributes whose true meanings are hidden. It is not permissible (jaiz) to deny the attributes that we are unable to understand their features. For the Mu’tazila School denied the fundamentals for they could not comprehend the attributes, hence they deviated.” Now, who said that? That would be Fahru’l-İslam Ali Al-Pezdevi. He is also a very eminent grand Islamic scholar (âlim). Anger and pleasure are two attributes of Him, but they must be acknowledged as they are, without a “how.” Now, Allah Ta’ala has anger and pleasure but these are attributes without modality. Their true meanings are only known to Allah Ta’ala Himself. The modalities of such attributes are unknown. His anger and pleasure bear no resemblance to our anger or pleasure. For our anger occurs via blood rushing to our heads, as the public describes it, and it is possible for to be pleased by something happening in the world. Yet Allah Ta’ala’s anger and pleasure are unlike the anger and pleasure of any other. That was why they said, these are amongst his attributes that must be accepted without asking “how.” That issue is explained in Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar.
Dear friends, Allah Ta’ala did not create things out of matter. He had knowledge of them before their creation. He is The One who willed and decreed. Look, the book says, He brought entities from the state of non-existence into existence. In other words, Almighty Lord created things out of nothing. Had he created them out of matter, then he had to create that matter, too. He knew the creation before their creation, too. Allah Ta’ala (c.c.) is The One who willed and decreed. Allah (c.c.) did not create the universe out of matter. He created the matter, out of the state of non-existence. How can Allah Ta’ala (c.c.) who willed and decreed for all things to happen not to know of the created? To will and the decree is only possible via His Knowledge and Ilm. Let’s see what ez-Zeccac said. He says that the world, “Taqdir,” which means God’s granting of the agency, and the word “Tadbir,” meaning God’s planning, is the same. And the true meaning of “Qaza,” is the fulfilment of a command via an utterance or action. The following is an example to the fulfillment of a command by means of utterance. Ve kadâ rabbuke – The Lord strictly commanded these: “And your Lord has decreed that you do not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment,” is Surah Al-Isra 26th Ayah. An example of fulfilling a command via action is the following: “Fe kadâhunne seb’a semâvâtin – Therefore, He completed the creation of the skies as seven layers in two days.” The last one was the way it was mentioned in the tafsir of Qadi Al-Baydawi.
So, dear friends, we continue to convey preliminary notes from Al-Imam Al-Azam’s Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar and present you the grand knowledge of our grand âlims (Islamic scholars). Nothing in the world or in the hereafter happens, nor can happen, without by His will, His knowledge (ilm), predestination (Qadar). In other words, nothing happened or will happen without Allah writing them on the Sacred Tablet. His writing in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz is a description, not foreordaining. This inscription is a description but not foreordaining. These are much valuable information, dear friends. Allah Ta’ala created the Pen, and then commanded, “do write.” The Pen said, “O, Lord! What shall I write?” Upon which Allah Ta’ala replied, “Write down the decrees of all things until the day of Qiyamah.” There are Hadith-i Sharifs as evidence that all things are written down. The Hadith-i Sharifs are proof that everything was preliminary written down. In the Sacred Tablet, namely Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz, all thing had been written down together with their modalities. Example of such modalities would be, beautiful-ugly, long-short, small-big, less-more, heavy-light, hot-cold, wet-dry, all attributes, and all events/affairs. And many things are written down which we can’t explain or write here because of our incompetence in knowledge. All things were written down, but that inscription included not the end results of the events but the reasons behind them, and their descriptions. Now, one must pay attention here. The reasons behind them and their descriptions were written down and were decreed. In other words, the inscription is not foreordaining, it is written down but that does not force you to do as such, it is no strict verdict but a description. For example, is it not written down as, “Zayd will be a believer, and Umar will be a disbeliever.” Had they been written down as such the first one had to become a believer, and the latter had to become a disbeliever. Whereas being a disbeliever, or a believer is only bound to peoples’ choices and free will. If Allah Ta’ala and Taqaddas (c.c.) had decreed and had not given the servants free will, that would surely be as it was written. Thus, it is stated that Zayd may become a believer on his own free will – this is important – thus jabr (definitive destiny) was absolved. Everyone may choose between belief (iman) or kufr (disbelief) on their own free will. If jabr (definitive faith) was not lifted, there would be no due for punishment. O, the humanity! You have to understand these profoundly. Almighty Lord wrote the decree as description, which is not foreordained, and does not force anyone to do anything, thus everyone has free will to choose. The servants do not know what they are going to do with their will either. Yet Allah (c.c.) knows everything. Al-Imam Al-Azam absolved the opinions of the Jabriya School with the above statements. As you see, Al-Imam Al-Azam rejected deviant innovations (bid’ah) one after another and manifested the Ahlul Sunnah’s (the people of the Sunnah) understanding of haqq, iman, and ilm. The Ruling (Qaza) and Decree (Qadar) and Will are eternal attributes of Almighty Lord, without a “how.” Their true meanings are unknown to us. Look, these attributes are like that, too. The Qaza and The Qadar, are Almighty Lord’s attribute of The Ruling and Decree, which are without a “how” (modality) and we cannot know their nature. We believe in all of those attributes for the essence is evident but only Allah Ta’ala can know their how’s (modalities) and quantities. For the modalities of these attributes are unknown, but their essence is apparent. The modalities of these attributes are not explained, too. Yet the original texts of these attributes are established in the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and ijma al-ummah (a whole community consensus). They are of Mutashabihaat. As it is stated in the verse, “And no one knows its [true] interpretation except Allah.” As you know, the afore quote is the 7th ayah of Surah Ali Imran. So, friends, may Almighty Lord invite us among the group of people with eternal and true faith (iman) and good deeds.
Dear listeners and valuable folks.
Allah (c.c.), namely Allah Ta’ala knows the non-existent, while it is in the state of non-existence, as non-existent. And He knows how it will be when He will bring it into existence. He knows the existent while in existence, and He also knows how it will disappear. For example, Allah Ta’ala knows this when one stands up, but he also knows how the events will occur when he sits. This does not make Allah’s knowledge being changed or new knowledge added. Because change and alteration in knowledge are attributes of the creation. For Allah (c.c.) has seen all things eternally, and will everlastingly see. Such alterations in knowledge is pertain to the created. The knowledge of the created may differ from day to day. Whereas Allah Ta’ala’s knowledge has seen everything and will everlastingly see. Allah Ta’ala is The All-Knowing, with His knowledge. And Allah Ta’ala’s knowledge is an eternal attribute. His knowledge is everlasting. Just as His knowledge is not subject to change or alterations – now this is important – changes and alterations in the created do not alter His knowledge. Only He can alter all things, His knowledge has eternally been infinite, and will everlastingly be infinite. Change and alteration are pertain to the creation who are imperfect. Allah is not imperfect, he is free from imperfections. His knowledge is infinite. His knowledge knows everything, that knowledge sees everything.
Allah Ta’ala (c.c.) Taqaddas created humans free of both iman (faith) and kufr (disbelief). This part is very important. There is no kufr (disbelief) in the creation of people. Then he addressed them, commanded the good and prohibited the bad. For that reason, the kufr (disbelief) of the disbeliever is occurred by his free will. The disbeliever earned disbelief on his own. His creation has no correlation whatsoever with disbelief.
The people who denied the truth, and insisted on disbelief have fallen into blasphemy because Allah deprived them of His help and guidance. The man insists on disbelief, denies iman (faith). So, what does Almighty Lord do to them? He deprives them of His help and guidance. For the man does not acknowledge Allah, and His commands is not a believer. Do you have any idea who you are not believing, and not acknowledging? The man denies the Creator. He refuses to believe in the Creator’s commands and laws and insists on blasphemy. He resists. So, what does Almighty Lord do? He deprives them of his help and guidance. The people who denied the truth, and insisted on disbelief have fallen into blasphemy because Allah deprived them of His help and guidance. Why? Allah Ta’ala knows the answer and explains it, too. The people earn iman (faith) or kufr (disbelief) in the world by their free will. People were created in the state of Islamic purity, namely fitrah. Allah Ta’ala commanded us to obey, prohibited turning away. Surah An-Nisa 80th Ayah: “Obey me, do not turn away,” said Allah (c.c.). Kufr (disbelief) and turning away from God happens by the person’s own free will and choices. In other words, he chooses the disbelief himself. He wanted it. He could obey, but he chooses disbelief. Thus, he destroys himself. In the original text, the word, “steadfast” showed this meaning, “His assistance and guidance is with them.”
Dear friends, let’s go over it again. The belief of the believer is his own act. The believer’s iman (faith) and the act of declaring it – this is important – The believer’s faith (iman) and his declaration of it occur with Allah’s help and guidance. Because Allah Ta’ala wants belief from His servant. He says, “My servant, obey me.” Then, when that servant decides the point of his faith’s (iman) direction, Allah Ta’ala helps him with His divine guidance. Iman (faith) occurs within the believer by Allah’s guidance and assistance. Allah (c.c.) bestowed him His assistance because he chose to believe and declare his faith (iman). The guidance (at-Tawfiq), means Allah Ta’ala’s Ruling and Decree guiding the servant upon his own free will and willingness. At-Tawfiq means guiding to the right path. That guidance leads to the bliss, but in some cases, it leads to the bad, too. The guidance is neither to the absolute happiness nor to the absolute evil. Whereas the word, “at-Tawfiq” has been generally attributed to bliss. Another example would be the word, “Ilhad” which means “to be inclined to something,” but people generally attributed it to atheism, therefore it is used that way. For that reason, the one who was inclined to atheism is called, “Mulhid” which means a heretic. There are also valuable books referring to this issue. Let’s ask from Almighty Lord His guidance, assistance, and help, day and night. May He eternally render us amongst his devout servants whose faith (iman) is perfect, and everlasting, and whose deeds are all good. We have always believed Him, and will forever believe. We have no doubt forever. We have both acknowledged and declared our iman (faith). Almighty Allah is ascribed with perfect attributes, and free of imperfect attributes. Prophet Muhammad is the haqq (true) prophet. Al-Qur’an Al-Karim is the haqq (true) book. Islam is the haqq (true) religion. Almighty Lord’s and entire humanity’s religion have eternally been Islam, and everlastingly be. All Prophets had served in Islam. Allah (c.c.) sent all Prophets upon Islam religion. In the respected centuries, in other words, in their times, some of them were sent to villages, some of them to towns for a time and they have all performed their duties well. And lastly, Muhammad the Prophet of the Universe were appointed. To him Almighty Islam’s Book and Islamic sharia which renewed all the rulings of the past, namely Muhammad-i Sharia were given. Thus, the Islamic order was formed by the glorious book, namely the Qur’an which manifested the truth that will never get old, and the entirety of the past was renewed. He is the Prophet of all times, and all humankind’s, and the earth’s, and the skies’. And the religion upon which the Prophet who was sent as rahmat (blessing) for all realms was sent is again, Islam. Isa’s (Jesus) religion was Islam, too. They did not allow him to do his duty in his time. Allah (c.c.) saved him. Musa (Moses) fulfilled his duties, too. He was in charge in the period of time that he was appointed. Previously Ibrahim (Abraham), and Noah, and other prophets were appointed, too. Each and every prophet fulfilled their duties well. Islam is the religion of all of them. Allah is One, and His religion was never two. Those who deviated from the haqq (true) religion, what did they do? They fabricated heretical beliefs, non-stop. They revealed superstitious religions. Except for the Islamic belief which Allah (c.c.) manifested, no other religion is neither an acceptable religion nor belief. Faith (iman) of all Prophets are the same, which is the Islamic faith (iman). Allah (c.c.) has eternally been the same and is the same today, and everlastingly be the same. Allah was not two before. Today and in eternity, Allah is One. Allah (c.c.) has always been ascribed with almighty attributes, and he will everlastingly be. Therefore, faith (iman) of all Prophets is the Islamic faith (iman). All Prophets are Muslim. The world should unite in Tawhid (Monotheism). The people of the world should be brothers and sisters, there is no need for hypocrisy.