Turkish English Fikhi Ekber Lesson 9
Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar – Lesson 9
Eûzubillahimineşşeytânîrracîm Bismillahirrahmanirrahim Elhamdulillahi Rabb’il âlemin. Vessâletü vessalâmû âlâ Rasulûna Muhammed ve âlâ âli Muhammed ve âlâ âlihi ve eshabihî ve edbâîhi ecmaîn. Nestağfirullah bi adedi zünübina hatta tufer. Allahu Ekber hatta tufer. Allahümmeslih Ümmete Muhammed verham Ümmete Muhammed. Allahümmağfirli cemiı’an Ümmete Muhammed bi hûrmeti Muhammed Mustafa sallallahu teâlâ aleyhi vesellem. Sübhanallahu ve bihamdih adedi hâlgıh. Ve mil’el mizân ve mûnte’hel ilm ve meblâğa rıda ve zinetel arş.
Most valuable and venerable listeners, dear friends, we are continuing on conveying preliminary notes from Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. May Almighty Allah forgive, and bestow his endless rahmat (blessing) upon Al-Imam Al-Azam and all other Islamic scholars (âlims). May Almighty Allah never keep his rahmat and forgiveness, and mercy from Islamic scholars (âlims). May Almighty Allah have the true faith (iman) shine from Ummah of Muhammad’s hearts. May He unite the hearts of the Ummah of Muhammad, and make us a united national community. May He unite our power. May Almighty Allah bestow upon the world the peace of Islam, and justice, social state and social justice, endless mercy, and blessings shading all âlims (Islamic scholars). May Almighty Allah manifest and bestow the Glorious Islam upon the entire world via Ummah of Muhammad as peace of the world, truth, and justice, and mercy. In short, may He bestow Islam as it is.
Editor’s note: Ummah means “community” or “nation”.
Dear friends, the Glorious Islam had established such an order, and such an authority that it does not need any alterations. The order Islam had established is has always been mighty, and will everlastingly be. The foundations of which is faith (iman), Islamic faith (iman). We need to know the fundamentals of faith (iman) quite well. Al-Imam Al-Azam had enlightened the world in that aspect, too. He showed the world the foundations of faith. Now, our lesson is now Al-Ahd wa al-Misak. Let’s see what Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa, namely Numan ibn Thabit (rahmatullah alayh wa alayhim ajmain) said regarding this topic. Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) and Taqaddas took from the children of Adam Alayhissalam – from their loins – their descendants, and He gave them intelligence. Then He address them, “Am I not your Lord?” (Al-A’raf 172nd Verse). They said, “Yes. You are our Lord. We have testified.” Then Allah (jalla jalaluhu) commanded belief (iman) and prohibited disbelief (kufr). They have testified this. That was the first belief (iman). Therefore, all human beings are always created with innate nature (fitrah) of Islam.
O, brother! Have a look at this article of faith (iman). This is one of the fundamental articles of faith that must be believed. The humans are always born with Islamic innate nature (fitrah). O, the people of the world! Do not disrupt your fitrah. You are created with this innate nature (fitrah), you and all people. The children are born into world with this fitrah. Do not let your child disrupt his fitrah. Improve that fitrah with Islam. This is the fitrah of all humankind. The Prophets were sent to improve and exalt this fitrah to the Paradise. Islamic Prophets have Islamic books. The last of which is Prophet Muhammad and Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Which is Allah’s Sharia. Allah is the Law Maker (Shari). The Sharia of Muhammad was manifested in law, morals, deeds, and creed. Come, brother! Return to your fitrah, do not disrupt it. The entire humankind was created with this fitrah, suit yourself. The people of this world, we are all Allah’s (c.c.) servants. We all servants of Allah (c.c.). We are conveying Almighty Allah’s message to Allah’s servants. For if we don’t, then that means we are not performing our duty. These are due to Allah’s blessing and kindness. Every good occurrence you see in the world are manifestations of Allah’s rahmat (blessing), mercy and kindness. This is the explanation of every good thing. The biggest and foremost amongst them is the manifestation of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s knowledge, upon the universe. We are striving for this purpose with our humbleness. The humankind shall be saved. Our hearts and souls shall be filled with peace and trust, and everyone shall be happy. What Almighty Lord manifested via Islam is the way to please Allah, His divine light, and the fundamentals of faith (iman). To reach the reunion with the Lord is via Islam, and Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and almighty values that are sent down to Prophet Muhammad which he showed.
We have to profoundly know the Al-Ahd wa al-Misak via Al-Imam Al-Azam. For he taught us the Glorious Qur’an, the splendorous Sunnah and Islamic sharia via his knowledge of jurisprudence (fiqh), and his Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. And we must live by the principles of faith (iman), die with faith, and enter the Paradise with that faith in order to reach the perfection of God. Al-Imam Al-Azam is an eminent scholar (âlim) of that, too. He is among the foremost teachers of the school of faith (iman). I will now repeat the words of the Al-Ahd wa al-Misak: You heart shall acknowledge it with your entire being, and your tongue shall testify it. You heart shall acknowledge it with your entire being, and your tongue shall declare it. The faith (iman) shall everlastingly shine through your chest, you shall live in this environment of trust. The faith (iman) is trust. The faith is being under Allah’s (c.c.) protection.
Dear friends, Allah Ta’ala and Taqaddas (jalla jalaluhu), brought forth the offspring of Adam Alayhissalam – from his loins – as small particles, and He gave them intelligence. Then He address them, “Am I not your Lord?” (Al-A’raf 172nd Verse). They said, “Yes. You are our Lord. We have testified.” At that point Allah (jalla jalaluhu) commanded belief (iman) and prohibited disbelief (kufr). They have testified this. That was the first belief (iman). Therefore, all human beings are always born with fitrah of Islam. O, brother, you were created like this. Do not disrupt your fitrah, never deviate to falsehoods. We are born with this fitrah. Everybody is born with this faith, all are born with innate nature (fitrah) to embrace faith, and Islam. Being born with this innate nature is called “fitrah”. The word fitrah, which means “innate nature” is used here as “innate inclination towards belief, and the old promise.” According to entirety of the Ashab-i Kiram (the chosen sahabah) and the Tabi’un, and the most of the authors: Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) brought forth the offspring of Adam from his loins and obtained a promise. They unanimously agreed this is Al-Ahd wa al-Misak (roughly means the old promise). Some authors stated that this act of obtaining promise and offer that we call Al-Ahd wa al-Misak was not done with bodies but only souls. This does not change anything. This Al-Ahd wa al-Misak was clearly expressed in Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Look, let’s see what Almighty Lord said in Surah Al-A’raf 172nd Verse, Sadaqa Allah al-‚Azem: “And when your Lord took from the children of Adam – from their loins – their descendants and made them testify of themselves, “Am I not your Lord?” They said “Yes, we have testified.” Lest you should say on the day of Resurrection (Qiyamah), “Indeed, we were unaware of this.”
O, dear friend! Kufr (disbelief) is something the humankind fabricated, it is something they earned on their own and fallen into eternally on their free will. There is no need for disbelief (kufr). Innate inclination (fitrah) towards belief of Islam is a fact. Disbelief (kufr), polytheism (shirk), and hypocrisy (nifaq) are things that are fabricated by people. Brother, come, return to your innate nature (fitrah). Your innate nature (fitrah) is the belief of Islam. Had they said, “We have forgotten about this Al-Ahd wa al-Misak (the old promise). What is the evidential feature of this proof,” we would have said, “Allah (jalla jalaluhu) made us forget this Al-Ahd wa al-Misak (the old promise). The world is a house to the unseen. And what we need is believing in the unseen. Even if we had remembered, our apologies would not be valid.” This is the reason of that (Surah Al-Mujadila 6th Verse): “Allah had enumerated all their deeds, while they forgot. Allah is, over all things, Witness.”
Dear listeners, as it was stated in this verse of the Qur’an, the people always forget what they did. Whereas Allah (jalla jalaluhu) had us remember the history that we forgot time to time, via sending down upon us books and Prophets. Therefore, apology would not be meaningful. Apologies are not valid in this case. There have been many Prophets sent for the humankind. They are all Islamic Prophets. No other Prophets or books were sent down. Each Prophet had made the humankind remember the iman (faith) and the Islam that is their innate nature via the scripture or books in their hands. You think you will disrupt your inner nature (fitrah) and stand against the Prophets, too? You think you will both refuse to believe in the divine books and put forth an apology, saying you forgot? These are invalid endeavours. You must get your head together. Almighty Allah, we are announcing the truths via the mouths of the humble ones. My Lord, we have eternally believed. I have testified. O, Lord, render our beliefs (iman) perfect, and everlasting. Please do not render us amongst deviants who deviated, or the ones who are destroyed by Your rage and wrath, o, Lord please!
Dear friends, whoever had become a disbeliever (qafir) after this promise had altered their innate nature, and disrupted it. Look, your innate nature (fitrah) was believing in Islam. If you altered this, then you did it on your free will. Now, what are you going to say to Allah Ta’ala?
Come, and repent immediately so that you may be a Muslim with a true faith (iman); join iman and Islam, join the faith of Islam. Become a Muslim by repenting, and have true iman (faith). Save yourself, and pity yourself. The humankind was created with innate inclination (fitrah) to Islam. Look, we are not talking about the people of the west or east, nor the Arabs, nor the Turks. The innate inclination (fitrah) of all people is belief of Islam. You do not have any right to alter that. You think you will disrupt your innate nature (fitrah), attain disbelief (kufr), practice polytheism (shirk), deviate to falsehoods and after all these you think you can find someone else to blame? You are the only culprit. You should return to your innate nature (fitrah), return to Islam, and belief (iman). Almighty Allah is the Lord of all realms. Allah Ta’ala is the Lord of all humankind. He created the entire humankind by this belief, and innate inclination (fitrah) towards Islam. You have disrupted your innate nature (fitrah) and denied belief (iman). You have chosen disbelief (kufr). What do you think you did? Let me tell you, you have turned yourself into a wood, fuel, to be burned in the pits of Hell. Turn towards the Paradise. Turn to the perfection of Allah via belief (iman), and to the Paradise via Islam. Please, do not do this evil to yourself.
O, dear friend, we are admirers of Al-Imam Al-Azam’s knowledge. Why, you ask? Won’t you have a look at Al-Qur’an Al-Karim? Al-Qur’an Al-Karim’s and Hadith-i Sharif’s knowledge is perfect. The true knowledge that is based on the Qur’an and true belief is within Al-Imam Al-Azam. Importance of an Islamic scholar (âlim) is due to nothing but his knowledge. This revered figure had written Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar for the salvation of the humankind way back in the past. He had manifested the fundamental articles of faith (iman). You may not attain such information even though you read Al-Qur’an Al-Karim one thousand times. You cannot attain his rank without a profound research of the sunnah, ijma, qiyas, entirety of all Islamic evidence and the meaning of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim. Look, you have been offered a table filled with sciences of faith. Come, join, be a recipient of this blessing and be spruce yourself up with belief (iman). This is a manifestation of Allah’s kindness. Brother, come, do not devoid yourself of this divine feast. Whoever became a disbeliever (qafir) after the old promise had altered and disrupted his innate nature (fitrah). And whosoever believed and affirmed has conformed and remained steadfast in his inner nature (fitrah). Yes, whosoever believed and affirmed after that remained steadfast in his inner nature (fitrah). Dear brothers, let’s take a better look into the issue. Our valuable authors have accommodated these truths in their works. Abu Hafs is one of those authors. To alter the belief that is in one’s inner nature (fitrah) may only occur by his free will. In other words, people had altered their inner nature (fitrah) by their free wills. For Almighty Lord had prepared the humankind before putting them into this field of test. You have altered what by your own free will? You have left belief (iman) and chose disbelief (kufr). Who am I referring to, you ask? We are only referring to those who chose disbelief.
Editor’s Note: As you read above, the hodja refers to the disbelievers by saying “you”. Same goes for our other lectures, too. The hodja generally does not refer to you by saying “you” but rather the people he is talking about.
The ones whose hearts are sparkling with belief are the protectors of their inner natures by Allah’s kindness. The person’s choice of disbelief (kufr) occurs via his own endeavour after he was at age. In other words, a human chooses the right or the wrong after are able to make their decisions. That is puberty, whether a girl or a boy, whatever, age does not matter. So, when does a human reaches puberty? According to Islam, age of puberty is 9-15 in girls, and 12-15 in boys. These are approximately the ages a child gains ability to make decisions. The girls reach puberty the time they had her first menstruation. For the boys, the sign is a wet dream, which is also called “deception by Satan,” and if such a wet dream (if during which ejaculation of sperm occurred) occurred then that means he reached puberty. When one reaches puberty and when he can make his decisions, he is responsible for all commands of Allah. That point forward, he needs to become a true Muslim by doing good deeds and continuously exalt oneself to reach perfect faith by taking assistance from Islam. The people who choose disbelief (kufr) are going downwards. There is ‘tanzil rutba), which means lessening in rank. They are destroying themselves. Disbelief occurs when one chooses it, which alters his innate nature. The person who was given intelligence reaches puberty, at that point he can confirm belief and remain steadfast and that would only be by his own free will. In other words, it is completely up to him, that is their own decision and earning.
If someone said, “This is contrary to the statement, ‘Allah (jalla jalaluhu) created people free of both belief and disbelief,’” this would be our answer “Allah Ta’ala created people with innate inclination towards faith, but they choose themselves whether to believe after puberty.” Let’s see what Hadith-i Sharif says. For the above issue is not a contradiction. There is innate inclination towards belief (iman), and there is the belief (iman) which person chooses himself after puberty. Therefore, a contradiction is absolutely out of the question. “Küllü mevlûdin yûledu âlel fıtratı’l İslâm. Fe ebevahu yuhevidanihi ev yünassıranihi ev yümeccisanihi.” This is the translation of the text: “Every child that is born is born upon innate inclination (fitrah) towards faith. Then, their parents, in other words, their mothers and fathers make them Jew, Christian or Majusi,” said our Prophet. This Hadith-i Sharif is the proof that all children, whether their parents are Muslims or not are born as believers, with an innate nature (fitrah) towards Islam. The children that are small and did not reached puberty are Muslims. The children of non-Muslim nations are also Muslims until they reach puberty and choose disbelief (kufr). They are Muslim by nature. They are created with an innate inclination (fitrah) towards Islam. Whenever the child grows, reaches puberty, chooses disbelief or any other path other than Islam at that point forward he would be deviating from his innate nature (fitrah), he would lose Islam and deviate to falsehoods.
So, the child chooses false religions entirely by his own will when he reaches puberty. If he can sustain his innate nature (fitrah) he accepts Islam as a whole and that fitrah begins exalting as it is developed by Islam, until it reaches Allah’s consent, and perfection of the Paradise. Allah Ta’ala does not force the people He created on belief (iman) or disbelief (kufr). Allah does not force anyone, neither upon belief (iman) nor disbelief. He does not force no one. Allah created people as individuals, rather than as believers (mu’min) or disbelievers (qafir). Belief (iman) and disbelief (kufr) are both, people’s own decisions. So, this is self-made belief (iman), and self-made disbelief (kufr). In other words, people attain these by their own actions, by their own free wills. There are two aspects of this, the first is innate nature (fitrah), and the second is self-made one, which is chosen after reaching puberty. Allah knows the disbeliever, in his state of disbelief, as a disbeliever. And if he thereupon becomes a believer, then He knows him to be a believer in a state of belief. And he likes the believers, too. The changes in the servants state of belief or disbelief does not alter His knowledge or attributes because Almighty Lord has always had knowledge of all things eternally, and will everlastingly have. There would be no alterations in Allah’s knowledge but there can be changes in states of humans. He knows both the state of change of someone who have changed, and whether if someone is going to change or not. Almighty Lord knows all things. Allah (jalla jalaluhu) does not create belief (iman) or disbelief (kufr) in a servants heart by force without the servant asking for it. Had Allah forced His servant on belief (iman) then there would not be disbelievers (qafir) in the world. Had He forced disbelief (kufr) then there would not be a believer. Almighty Allah placed us in the field of test and offered iman (belief) to us, said “Obey Allah,” and sent down on us Prophets, and given us intellect and books. He gave us an innate nature which is called Islam while creating us, and created us in that way. After which He offered us iman (belief) and Islam via Islamic Prophets and books. One must become a Muslim immediately after puberty and try to learn Islam until reaching it. For our Prophet commanded, “You should start teaching children at age of 6 or 7 how to perform namâz. Have them perform namâz. Teach them things about religion. The child should not leave namâz at the age of 10. Then upon reaching puberty he should try to fulfil divine commands as a person who learned his religion.” At that point onwards, age of responsibility has begun. Mukellefiyet (liability) has begun. The person who is liable to Allah’s offers are called ‘Mukellef,’ which means liable.
Yes, Allah (jalla jalaluhu) creates the things people have chosen by their free will. Allah Ta’ala creates the belief or disbelief, but the most important thing in the creating is the servants liking and wanting. Allah creates whatever the servant likes and desires. So, don’t you see? Belief (iman) is beautiful but disbelief (kufr) is hideous. The people of faith (iman) hate disbelief (kufr), polytheism (shirk), hypocrisy (nifaq) and saying halal (lawful) to what is haram (sinful). They hate haram (sinful) things. The believers also hate the bad deeds that look good to disbelievers. Allah does not create people with voluntary belief (iman). He creates them with innate nature of belief (iman) but not voluntary belief (iman). So that you can earn voluntary iman by your own free will, and you can acknowledge it with pleasure. Belief (iman) disbelief (kufr), obedience and revolt are the servants own attributes and they are created by Allah. Allah creates whichever the servant desires. The field of test (the world) is being operated like this. Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) knows the state of the believer (mu’min) and the disbeliever (qafir) without any change to His knowledge or attributes. If His knowledge were to change, it would be a hadith (created later). The thing that is created later needs time and space. Allah Ta’ala free, and devoid of such things. Allah does not need anything.
So, dear friends, Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullah alayh wa alayhim ajmain) continues to scatter beams of knowledge to the world in the light of his knowledge. All deeds of the people like action and quiescence are actually fruits of their own attainment. Allah Ta’ala is the creator of such deeds. These are created by His Will, Ruling and Decree. In the dictionary “kesb,” in other words attainment, has the meaning of ‘demanding sustenance (rizq)’, ‘collecting’, and ‘all’. Whereas in technical term it, which is what we need, must be understood profoundly by all Muslims. It is power and will of a person attending to an action. This action is done by person’s free will and power so, it is obtained later, and it is created by Almighty Lord for He attended to his servants will and power. So, what does the servant do for a deed. He wants that deed, and attends to it. He persistently wants to do it, endeavours and attains it. Therefore, Allah creates that deed. All deeds and actions are created in this way. This issue is pointed out in Serhu’l Makasıd. The author of which is one of our eminent âlims (Islamic scholars), namely Taftazani. His date of death is the year 700, or Hijri 93. Actions or deeds of the servants are called “afal al-‚ibād.” In other words, belief (iman), disbelief (kufr), obedience and revolt or sin, these are all deeds of people which they can attain themselves but they are created by Almighty Lord.
For if Allah had not created, or wished not to create, then there would not be freedom, therefore this would not be a test. Dear friends, “Küllü şey’in bi kâderin hat’tel acze vel kesel,” roughly translates as, “All things ranging from intellect to foolishness are by Allah’s predestination.” The basis of this Hadith-i Sharif is Sahih Muslim and Al-Jaami As-Sagheer. The Hadith-i Sharif is also in Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s work Musnad, and al-Suyuti’s work Tenvirü’l Havalik, and also the Sharh al-Muwatta.
Dear friends, School of Mu’tazila says, “Allah demands from his servants their belief (iman) and obedience. The servants intention may be disbelief (kufr) and sin. The servant may choose these. In that case, Allah’s Will fails because rather than Allah’s Will, the servants will come superior.” Allah forbid, this is unthinkable! The situation is far from it. Mu’tazila had made a mistake here. Mu’tazila have many opinions that do not match Ahlul Sunnah. We have given some info about them, and we are continuing to give so. The School of Mu’tazila is followers of deviant innovations, and is outside of Ahlul Sunnah. For us and the school of the people of Sunnah all Wills of Allah is superior. He created disbelief for the disbeliever, and belief for believer. Allah’s Will is always superior in such action than the servant’s. For the servant wishes, and Allah creates. In this manner, Almighty Allah’s Will is always superior. He creates the field of test in accordance with the servant’s wishes. The entirety of all obedience is our debt to Allah by His command, affection, ruling and decree. The entirety of all sins is also by His ruling, decree and predestination but not by His love, pleasing and command. Look, about sins, in other words rebelling against Allah. Allah does not like rioters and their riot. This is not by His pleasing and command. He does not like that. Had not gave an order saying, “do this,” either. The entirety of all obedience is our debt to Allah by His command, will, affection, ruling and decree. The entirety of all sins is also by His ruling, decree and predestination but not by His love, pleasing and command. Allah does not command, “You, become a disbeliever,” to an infidel. For Allah is not pleased by disbelief (kufr). For this reason, Al-Imam Al-Azam called attention to these issues, too. “The humankind should comprehend these profoundly,” he said. Almighty Lord says, “Allah does not like hypocrisy.” Surah Az-Zumar 7th Verse: “Almighty Allah does not ever approve for His servant’s disbelief, and is not pleased by it. If you disbelieve, indeed Allah if Free from need of you. Allah does not need your belief.” Nonetheless, He is never pleased by his servants disbelief. He is not pleased by disbelief of any disbeliever. Allah does not like his servants being disbelievers. He doesn’t have no consent to disbelief (kufr). If you are thankful, that would be for your own benefit. Allah would be pleased by that, too. Allah wants His servants to win. Because when he believes and is thankful the servant is happy. Allah likes his servants happiness. Then Allah would be pleased. For he does not wish for his servant to be harmed, or go to Hell, but the servants wish to go there themselves. So, Allah creates their wishes. Surah Al-A’raf 29th Verse: “And when they commit an immortality, they say, ‘We found our fathers doing it, and Allah has ordered us to do it.’ Say to them, ‘Indeed, Allah does not order immorality. Do you say about Allah that which you do now know?’” In other words, they are slandering Allah. Al-Imam Al-Azam (rahmatullah alayhim ajmain) said the following in his work, namely Al-Wasiyyah: “We believe that our deeds are in three parts in the way they are done. There are obligatory deeds (fards), virtuous deeds, and sinful deeds, (masiyyat).”
So, dear friends, a Muslim shall at first fulfil the obligatory and virtuous deeds, and forever stay away from sinful ones, and must not revolt against Allah. Forbidden things (haram) and sins, together with polytheism (shirk), disbelief (kufr), hypocrisy (nifaq), and cruelty are the foremost of the things we must never do, and one must never revolt against Allah about anything. The deeds that are obligatory (fard) are commanded by Allah Ta’ala. The obligatory deeds (fard) are definitively Allah’s orders. He says, “do these things,” to His servants with pleasure.
We have to fulfil our duties as a servant with pleasure, and by saying “We have heard, and obeyed,” and by full obedience. These deeds occur by Almighty Lord’s wish, love, pleasing, ruling and decree, verdict, creating and divine guidance and assistance. Their nature is written on al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Sacred Tablet). Virtuous deeds are not by Allah Ta’ala’s commands, he does not force anyone to do them. But virtuous deeds are by Allah’s wish, love, pleasing, verdict, his granting of agency, creating knowledge and assistance. These are also written on the Sacred Tablet. Allah offered these to His servants but had not rendered them obligatory. Almighty Lord said that one will attain a lot by doing virtuous deeds. This was the chapter of virtue. These are all written on al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Sacred Tablet). On the other hand, about the deeds that are masiyyat, or rather sinful, these deeds are not in Allah’s command, wish, love, ruling, pleasing, divine guidance, and assistance but they are in Allah’s knowledge. These are written on al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Sacred Tablet), too. Allah has ordered none of these things to anyone.
Allah says that he is not pleased by such deeds. But if there are people who are to do such deeds, Allah eternally knows them via His knowledge. Can there be anything that Allah is unaware? Know this, there are two kinds of sin; major sins and minor sins. The number of major sins is obvious. Yet there are such sins that if you keep insisting on doing them the numbers of minor sins may exceed the major sins. Safwan ibn Assal said: “Once a Jew said to his companion, let’s go to the Prophet!” His companion said, “Don’t address him as Prophet. If he hears you, he will be pleased.” They went to the Prophet, the Messenger of Allah. Then they asked the Messenger of Allah about the nine clear verses that are given to Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam. Our Beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) replied, these are the mentioned nine clear verses: “Do not hold anything equal to Allah, do not befall into polytheism, and do not become polytheists. Do not kill anyone except for a just cause. Do not misspend. Do not commit adultery. Do not take an innocent man to someone in authority to kill him. Do not eat usury. Do not accuse chaste women, do not dishonour them. Do not practice magic. Do not run away from the battle field. And specially, you, the Jews, do not hunt on the sabbath (Saturday),” said our Prophet. This way, our Prophet explained the Jews these nine verses in the Torah. Our Prophet explained the verses in the Torah. Safwan added: “These two Jew, kissed the Messenger of Allah’s hand’s and threw themselves at his feet. They said, “We bear witness that you are definitely a Prophet.” Our Prophet replied: “Then what forbids you from following me?’ The Jews said: “David prayed to Allah that the Prophets will always be from his offspring. We fear that if we follow you the Jews might kill both of us.” Do you see? They are threatening people with death lest the Jews become Muslims. These were the words of those two Jews. In the basis of this are individuals such as Imam al-Baghawi with his work Masabih al-Sunnah, and Al-Baydawi with his work Anwar al-Tanzil. So, dear friends, our Master Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) who is the Prophet of all nations, ages and the universe conveyed the truths to them as you have read. The Prophets are infallibles of all sins. Friends, all Prophets are far from committing a sin, whether major, minor, or disbelief, and of all that is distasteful. It may be, however, that they commit insignificant and trivial lapses or inaccuracies. The Prophets do not commit sins, whether major or minor. There may be , however, small and trivial lapses or inaccuracies.
Editor’s Note: These small and trivial lapses and inaccuracies are not errors, they refer to choosing the good, rather than the best.
We said trivial lapses, an example of this would be Adam Alayhissalam eating from the forbidden tree. He ate because he forgot. He had not been given Prophethood, yet. He just forgot, therefore he had fallen into a lapse. Moreover, an example to the inaccuracies would be that Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam unintentionally caused the death of a person amongst Pharaoh Tribe. Indeed, he did not do what he did with the intention of killing that person but Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam caused his demise. Musa (Moses) Alayhissalam had no intention or malice in that case. Now, let me explain. He did what he did in order to save that Israelite from the hands of the Egyptian. He was trying to save an innocent person from the cruel one. He punched the cruel person, he died of that punch. There are other narrations, too. Musa Alayhissalam’s action of beating was an intent, but the man’s demise as a result of that beating, in other words, his death, was eventually a mistake, but he had no intention of doing that. Musa Alayhissalam’s action against that Egyptian whose death was predestined was caused by Musa Alayhissalam’s punch, slap or whatsoever it was. This mistake is an inaccuracy. Indeed, not every mistake is counted amongst such lapses, and vice versa. There is a definitive difference between lapses and mistakes. Just like we have described above, the errors that we call zelle (trivial lapses) may occur via mistakes but also unawareness and forgetfulness. Moreover, they can also occur in a way of choosing the good action rather than the best. Al-Nasafi says so in his book: “Islamic scholars (âlims) of Samarkand do not use “zelle (trivial lapse)” for Prophets. Because for them, even a trivial lapse, namely a zelle, is a type of sin. They say, ‘Prophets do the actions that are superior but less virtuous, this way they abandon more virtuous ones. Whereas them abandoning the deeds that are more virtuous is like other people abandoning obligatory religious duties (wajib).’” This is again, opinions of Islamic scholars (âlims) of Samarkand. There have also been individuals saying that the trivial lapses occurred by awliya and Prophets are a blessing in disguise for them to get closer to Allah. Abu Sulaiman al-Darani says: “David (Dawood) Alayhissalam did not do a worse deed than the deed he had done in the way of mistake. As a result of this faulty deed, David (Dawood) Alayhissalam continuously took refuge in Allah, escaped from his nafs (self) and worldly endeavours. That kind of fault in fact leads to the person’s desertion from his nafs (self) and worldly endeavours and that him taking refuge in Allah. Dear friends, if people constantly remember their faults and continuously pray for forgiveness and repent, then that fault leads him to humbly pray for forgiveness and repent in Almighty Allah’s presence, and keeps him away from cheekiness.
The Prophets Attributes, we will now talk about Prophet Muhammad (alayhi sall-Allâhu wa sallam), because Muhammad is the greatest Prophet. He is the imam and sultan of all Prophets. Muhammad (alayhissalatu wa sallam) is Allah’s loved one, Apostle, Prophet, and he is the one He chose and freed from all sins.
Muhammad never worshipped an idol. He is infallible of all sins, whether major or minor. Muhammad never worshipped an idol. He never held something equal to Allah (c.c.) not for a single moment, and he never committed a sin, whether major or minor. Dear friends, you may call it a trivial lapse (zelle) or whatever you like but there is not even a single and smallest sin that had occurred due to Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad is Allah’s beloved, and loved one. This is a Hadith-i Sharif: “We come the last in this world, but we will be the first and foremost in the day of Qiyamah. I, again, say without bragging that Ibrahim (Abraham) was attributed with the title of Khalilullah, and Isa (Jesus) with Ruhullah, Musa (Moses) with Kelimullah, Adam with Safiyullah. Moreover, I am the Habibullah, I am Allah’s beloved. In the day of Qiyamah, I will be de bearer of the banner of praise (liwa al-hamd).” This way written down and mentioned by Imam al-Baghawi. Al-Imam Al-Azam said in the text of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar for our Prophet that “He is Allah’s worshipper,” and by that word he drew attention two important things. The first one is just like it is mentioned in the first verse of Surah Al-Isra that the Rasulullah who were sent down to the world being a human was blessed by Allah. And the second one is that Ummah of Muhammad are protected by Almighty Lord from the things the Christians said about their Prophets.
So, dear friends, Prophet Muhammad said, “I am indeed a servant of Allah, and His Messenger (rasul), and His beloved.” Being a servant of Allah is the greatest sultanate and greatest privilege. This is the greatest of honours. Yes, our Prophet introduced himself as a servant in order to prevent Ummah of Muhammad them from falling into the situation of those deviants who mistook about Isa (Jesus). Moreover, he is the most honourable servant of Allah. He is the greatest and the last Prophet who is the Prophet of all ages, all nations until the Qiyamah.
So, dear friends, when our Prophet took the journey to most exalted ranks and positions, Almighty Lord spoke to him via revelation (wahy): “Do you know that which renders you this honourable?” Rasul al-Akram, our leader, (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) said: “O, Lord! Indeed, you know better. O, my Lord!” To which Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) commanded, “It is that you are describing yourself as My servant.” Nevertheless, Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu) said in the verse (ayah) of the Qur’an: “Allah Ta’ala (jalla jalaluhu), free of all types of imperfections took His Servant,” namely Muhammad (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam), “from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa…” Therefore, declaring this. Look, He refers Muhammad by saying “Servant”. For being a servant of Allah is the greatest sultanate, and the utmost of all honours. “Do not exaggerate in praising me as the Christians praised the son of Mary (Mariam), for I am only a Slave. So, call me the Slave of Allah and His Apostle.” The source of the afore Hadith-i Sharif is Sahih Bukhari, and Al-Suyuti’s book Al-Fath Al-kabr.
Dear friends, afore Hadith-i Sharif was explained in Sharh al-Mashariq (Resale) as follows: “You must not exceed the limits in praising me. The Christians went to far in praising the son of Mary (Mariam), namely Isa (Jesus). They even fallen into blasphemy (kufr) by saying, “He is Allah’s son.” You should say about me, “Allah’s Servant and Apostle,” lest you should be like them.” The sources of the above report are Sahih Muslim al Sahih Bukhari. Yes friends, it is also in other valuable books, too. Now, the text said for our Beloved Prophet both Allah’s Apostle and Prophet. This is stated by the verses (ayat) of the Qur’an, too. After all, the things Al-Imam Al-Azam mentioned have always been from the essence of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim because he manifested the articles of faith by extracting them from all verses (ayat). Look, the verse (ayah) says, “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah…” Again, a verse (ayah) of the Qur’an says: “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,” “O, Glorious one!” “Be steadfast in piety (taqwa).” “And fear Allah.”
Dear friends, they asked the Messenger of Allah (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) about the number of prophets and he replied, “124000”. Then they asked, “How many of them were messengers?” He replied, “315 of them were messengers.” There are oppositions in the narration of the afore hadith. There is also another narration stating the number “224000”. Islamic scholars said the narration has some weak aspects.
The Hadith-i Sharif said, “Indeed, Allah Ta’ala chose Kinanah from the children of Isma’il, and He chose Quraish from Kinanah, and He chose Hashim from Quraish, and He chose me from Banu Hashim.” The sources of this narration are Sahih Muslim and Al-Suyuti, and many more books as well.
Friends, “Rasul Akram (Alaihis-Salatu was-Salam), our master is Allah’s Chosen One (Mustafa),” what does this mean? Prophet Muhammad is Mustafa, in other words, he is a chosen Slave and this was explained in the Hadith-i Sharif which we have read the text and the meaning of. Folks, the entire Ashab-i Gûzin, in other words the chosen sahabah, are precious. There is Abu Bakr for example. Abu Bakr Siddiq is the first and foremost of people after Prophets. You can find proofs of this in the verses (ayat) of the Qur’an, the Sunnah, Ijma, election (shura) of the caliphate, and Abu Bakr becoming an Imam, and in our Prophet’s healthy times. There are various reasons and hidden causes of him being called a siddiq (truthful).
The polytheists did not believe when our Prophet told them about the event of Mi’raj. They went to Abu Bakr and he immediately confirmed it. “If Prophet Muhammad told you about this Mi’raj, then what he said is completely true,” he said. Allah’s Apostle arrived, and started telling the things the polytheists said to Abu Bakr in profound detail. The moment every time Rasulullah (Alehis-Salatu was-Salam) finished his sentence, Abu Bakr was confirming their authenticity. When Allah’s Apostle finished his words, Abu Bakr said, “I bear witness that you are indeed Allah’s Messenger. Our Beloved Prophet replied, “I believe also that you are indeed siddiq (truthful). Siddiq individuals come the first in line after Prophets. They come right after Prophets. This is how it was narrated in Tafsir al-Kabir. Tafsir al-Kabir is work of Fakhruddin Razi.
Regarding Umar’s virtue, the best of people after Abu Bakr is Umar Al-Farooq, Son of Al-Khattab (Radeyallāhu ′Anhum). Dear friends, we have in our hand proofs regarding about this subject as well. In fact, without having scholarly proofs such things could not reside in a glorious book such as Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. Almighty Lord, make us amongst the slaves who acknowledge the truth as it is and who followed Umar. Almighty Lord please make us know the superstitions as they are and make us shield ourselves from it. For whence the truth came forth, the superstitions vanished. The only thing superstition has a right to is to be destroyed.
Dear friends, in al-Baghawi’s work Masabih al-Sunnah, (Et-Tac) let’s see what our Beloved Prophet said about Umar in a Hadith-i Sharif: “Each Prophet has two viziers, one in the heavens, the other on the earth. My viziers in the heavens are Gabriel Alayhissalam and Mikhail Alayhissalam. My viziers on the earth are Abu Bakr and Umar.” The Hadith-i Sharif was narrated on the authority of Masabih. There occurred a dispute between a mischief-maker and a Jew. Look, the Jew said, “I am Jewish,” and the mischief-maker said, “I am Muslim.” There was a dispute between them. The mischief maker demanded the chief of the Jews, namely Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf as the referee. Look, the mischief-maker who claimed he was a Muslim goes for the Jewish Chief and wants him to be the referee. Whereas the Jew desired Prophet Muhammad to be the referee. There, you see the truth. Eventually both sides agreed on the refereeing of Prophet Muhammad, and arrived at the presence of Muhammad. They both came into the presence of our Prophet. Allah’s Apostle upon hearing both sides found the Jew righteous. The mischief-maker was not pleased with this judgment. Look, just look at that mischief-maker who says that he is a Muslim, is not even pleased by Prophet’s judgment. He said, “let’s go to Umar.” He is going to get what he deserved. They went. Loo, the Jew said, “Allah’s Apostle passed his judgment. This man wanted us to come to you for he was not pleased with it.” The Jew informed Umar about the debate. Umar asked to that hypocrite who said he was a Muslim, “Was this how it all happened?” He said, “Yes, he is telling the truth.” Umar then said, “You wait here for a while I will be back and give my judgment.” He went in his house, took his sword and got back. He beheaded the hypocrite and upon which he said these words: “This is my ruling for the person who is not satisfied with the ruling of Allah and His Messenger.” Then Gabriel Alayhissalam arrived, approached Allah’s Apostle and said that Umar could distinguish between right and wrong and therefore he was given the epithet Al-Farooq which means what we just said. In other words, the epithet Al-Farooq was given to him because of the above reason by Gabriel Alayhissalam.
Dear friends, both Uthman and Ali are inarguably amongst the individuals with utmost virtue and honour. The best person after Umar is Uthman bin Affan (Radeyallāhu ′Anhu). Allah be most pleased with all of them. Uthman married two of the daughters of our Prophet. In other words, Uthman married to Ruqayyah and upon her death he married to Umm Kulthum. “If I had fathered a third daughter, I would have her married to you with pleasure,” said our Prophet to Uthman. Now, there is also another narration which belonged to Ibn Sa’d in which our Prophet said “If I had ten more daughters…” So, friends… Uthman had become worthy of this praise of our Prophet and they saw many virtuous traits of him. “Uthman is indeed in service of Allah and His Messenger.” So, Prophet Muhammad said so about Uthman, alayhissalatu wassalam, and Radeyallahu ′Anhu. “Uthman is indeed in service of Allah and His Messenger.” “That man is in service of Allah and His Messenger,” after saying this he rigidly placed one hand atop his other hand and said, “This was for Uthman.” When did this happen Rıdvan? Yes, dear friends, our Prophet said, “This was for Uthman.” Then on his behalf, he rigidly placed one hand atop his other hand. Ali is a glorious Islamic caliph, and he is amongst the greatest figures of the earth. And after him the best of the people is Ali bin Abi Taleb Al-Murtada (Radeyallahu ′Anhu). Look, let’s see what our Prophet said about Ali: “Your position to me is like the position of Harun Alayhissalam to Musa (Moses), except that there will be no prophet after me.”
There friends, we see how Ali was praised by our Prophet. This hadith resides in Sahih Bukhari and Masabih al-Sunnah. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali (Radeyallahu ′Anhum) were all with the truth, and they were people who worshipped properly. Allah Ta’ala be pleased with all of them. We love all of them. We can only commemorate the companions of the Allah’s Messenger with good things. We need to commemorate the entire ashab (plural of companion) with goodness. Dear friends, we must leave the disputes among these people to themselves. One must never speak bad about any of them. “Follow my companions, and respect them,” said our Prophet. Look, “They are your benevolent ones. Those coming after my generation, the Tabi’un, and then those coming after the Tabi’un, namely the second generation which is Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in are the most benevolent ones. There, we can also see this narration in Khatib Al-Tabrizi’s book.
Yes, dear friends, no one should attempt to judge Ashab-i Gûzin (the chosen sahabah), and speak ill about them. For they are all similar to the splendorous stars lightening the skies (Radeyallahu ′Anhum). The disputes amongst them must be left to them, Allah and His Messenger. For no one has the power to judge them. Almighty Allah completely knows the occurrences amid them Himself. Our Glorious Prophet knows those occurrences profoundly, too. Allah and His Messenger knows them, and the state of affairs amid them. Allah will give his Ruling. So, what can we do for them? We can pray for them, saying, “Radeyallāhu ′Anhum”
Friends, there may be amongst them the ones we displease, and will displease forever, such as Yazid but such cursed and bloody-handed murderers are counted as exceptions. Otherwise one cannot speak bad about any of the eminent companions who were either correct, or faulty in their ijtihads. We do not like Yazid and Marwan, we curse them, but you should know this, there had always been cruel ones amid Muslims, even if they were Muslims, too.
Yet you shall never speak ill about the ashab (the companions of Muhammad). I am warning now, for to warn is my duty. We love Hasan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali and Ahlul Bayt (people of Muhammad’s house) more than our lives. To love them means being subjected to the Qur’an and the Sunnah by following their path and being subjected to the Sharia of Muhammad. There cannot be love of Ahlul Bayt, the Prophet and the companions by loving them in vain and deviating from their ways, disregarding Allah’s religion and Islam’s commands, and saying that haram (prohibited) things are halal (permissible). Loving them in vain and deviating from their ways, disregarding Allah’s religion and Islam’s commands, and saying that prohibited (haram) things are permissible (halal). There cannot be a love of Ahlul Bayt by doing these. There cannot be a love of Prophet nor Ashab, too. No one should deceive themselves. You will thirstily pour down your throat the prohibited things (haram). You will do what Ali, Veli, Bakr, Umar and Uthman did not do, and then you think you can brag? Those are invaluable individuals Radeyallahu ′Anhum). Their path is the Qur’an’s path. They are strictly devoted to Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, the Sunnah and the Sharia of Muhammad. Loving them means being subjected to Muhammad, which is only possible via the Qur’an, knowledge and wisdom. The Qur’an, the Sunnah, al-ijma al-ummah, al-Qiyas al-Fuqaha, and their knowledge, what should you with these? You should either study them or follow the mujtahid âlims (scholars) who know these profoundly. Saying “I love,” in vain is not truly love. That is a cheap imitation, and the imitation of the wrong, they are not even imitating the truth. You are doing what Ali, Veli, Umar, Uthman and Abu Bakr did not do, and ascribe what you did to them. They are eminent and grand individuals. You are trying to slander them, you can’t. That smudge is within you, and on your hands. You must cleanse yourself from that smudge first, and then embrace the methods of those clean people. This is my advice to you.