Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 35-38

Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 35-38

Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 35

 

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful. We continue our lessons with the 35th episode. Astaizu Billah: [2:168] “yā-ʾayyuhā n-nāsu kulū mimmā fī l-ʾarḍi ḥalālan ṭayyiban wa-lā tattabiʿū khuṭuwāti sh-shayṭāni ʾinnahū lakum ʿaduwwun mubīn” [2:169] “ʾinnamā yaʾmurukum bi-s-sūʾi wa-l-faḥshāʾi wa-ʾan taqūlū ʿalā llāhi mā lā taʿlamūn” [2:170] “wa-ʾidhā qīla lahumu ttabiʿū mā ʾanzala llāhu qālū bal nattabiʿu mā ʾalfaynā ʿalayhi ʾābāʾanā ʾa-wa-law kāna ʾābāʾuhum lā yaʿqilūna shayʾan wa-lā yahtadūn” [2:171] “wa-mathalu lladhīna kafarū ka-mathali lladhī yanʿiqu bi-mā lā yasmaʿu ʾillā duʿāʾan wa-nidāʾan ṣummun bukmun ʿumyun fa-hum lā yaʿqilūn” Sadaqa Allaah al-‚Azeem (Allah Almighty has spoken the truth). Our Almighty Rabb (Lord) said: [2:168] “O, people! Eat from all blessings (nimet) on earth on the condition that they are halal (lawful) and good. But do not follow the footsteps of Satan. For he is an open enemy to you.” [2:169] “He always bids you to do works that are evil and immodest. And wants you to ascribe Allah things you do not know.” [2:170] “When it is said to them, ‘Follow what Allah sent down,’ they say, ‘We will follow that on which we have found our forefathers,’. Would they still follow them, if their forefathers could not comprehend anything, or find the true way?” Can you say that against the commands of Allah? They did. They insisted on idolatry. [2:170] “Those disbelievers (kāfirs) resemble the one who shouts at that which cannot hear anything except a call and cry. They are deaf, mute, blind, and they cannot understand.” You see, dearest friends! Almighty Rabb (Lord) continues to give us the life-giving lessons, which give us life. It is necessary to settle the meaning of the holy decree of the glorious Quran into your soul in order to find life. It is necessary to live the life that Quran shows us. That life is the Islamic life, which is the life-giver. Now, let us briefly talk about the exegesis of these verses. Shaitan penetrates your heart and ideas by means of illusion and anxiety. He uses the desires of your nafs (self). He uses nafs-i emmare (the self that bids you evil and enjoys it). The person becomes a satellite of the shaitan. The shaitan will make you talk about Allah’s Being (zaat). And the secrets about Allah’s Being (zaat). Shaitan has many tricks and traps, which we call polytheism (shirk). No one has the authority to talk about the Allah’s Being (zaat) one may only know the zaat sifāts (personal attributes) and believe them. One may know the Names of Allah and declare faith. One may see the Books, see Allah’s almighty qudrah, and declare faith. Otherwise, how was Allah’s Being (zaat)? It is disbelief (kufr) to research things like quality (keyfiyat) and quantity (kemiyet). …for no one can afford this. Abu Bakr (r.a.) said that… The result of canonical (shari), and auxiliary (far’i) decrees are known only by Allah. Human mind cannot know things like these two matters. Obsession in a science without doing research, and without having scholarly evidence is evil.

 

Time Stamp: 5:02

 

The person follows the desires of the nafs (self) instead of divine commands. They follow their nafs (self) or something wrong. Moreover, shaitan wants to deviate the person in the matter of qadar (predestination). Then, the person cannot perform his duty to Allah Ta’ala. The person will continue the rebellion, and complains about qadar (predestination). This is slander to Allah, and a rise against qadar (predestination). Qadar (predestination) is that Allah Ta’ala has knowledge of all things that have happened and will happen, and has written all of them. Allah has encompassed everything with Allah‘s knowledge (ilm). Allah knows all things that have happened in the infinite past, .and will happen in the infinite future. You cannot know what will happen one second later. You knowledge can only encompass what Allah has given you. But Allah is All-Knowing. That is why those who believe in the knowledge (ilm) of Allah can easily believe in qadar (predestination). And Allah does not write a wrong qadar (predestination). Allah knows what people are and their value, along with what they have earned and will earn, and writes it according to these. There is mubrem qadar (irrevocable fate), and there is muallaq qadar (revocable fate). The fate (qadar) that is written according to the person’s own will is muallaq qadar (undecided fate). What you will do with your own free will is also known by Allah in pre-eternity. That is why the shaitan and his men will drag you into wrong in the matter of qadar (fate). These people who cannot understand truth, and accept the wrong are directed by shepherd with whistle, howling and shouting. These people are like animals that do not understand anything except that sound they hear from the shepherd who directs them. They do not understand the truth (haqq), and the meaning. They can only hear howling, and shouting. These people only eat, drink and then rest. The shepherd leads the flock by shouting, howling, and howling. The situation of those who do not believe in the truth is worse than the animals that can only hear the shouting of the shepherd. It is important to use our organs, and physiology the way Allah wanted. Allah has given us our organs, and a soul and a body so that we may use them in the way of Allah. It is true (haqq) to eat from halal (lawful) things. It is a duty to abstain from haram (sinful) things, and be grateful. It is haram to eat a sacrificial animal (qurban) sacrificed in the name of someone other than Allah. You cannot eat from it if the animal is sacrificed in a turbah, if it is sacrificed in the name of someone other than Allah. If you study the Islamic aqidah, and sourcebooks of Islam, you will see this. One of these sourcebooks is the first volume, and 486th page of the first volume of Elmalılı. Elmalılı has revealed and discovered these truths while explaining these verses. The aqidah, and kalam aspect of the verses are also denoted. [2:173] “ghayra bāghin” – one should not cause someone to die. And it is a duty to not take their possessions by force, and to not violate them. [2:173] “wa-lā ʿādin” – not being rebellious. Also, not eating more than you need to save yourself from death in a situation of starvation. In fiqh (jurisprudence), exigency renders haram (sinful) things acceptable. But in the event of exigency you are only allowed an amount that will save you.

 

Time Stamp: 10:00

 

Deniers (munkir), polytheists (musrik), and hypocrites (munafiq) work day and night non-stop to earn Jahannam (Hell). They will have to endure eternal punishment. Let us talk about the Jewish leaders who hid the verses in return of gifts. They hid the verses of Torah. In return, they received large sums of money, and gifts. There is Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf, Ka’b ibn Asad, Malik Bin Sayf,  Huyey bin Ahtab, Abu Yasir ibn Ahtab for example. The situation of those who hid the verses about the traits and attributes of Prophet Muhammad should be a lesson and warning for Muslims. This must be received as a warning, and moral lesson. Muslims should derive the necessary lesson from their acts. Al-Quran Al-Karim must be known, and explained to the world properly. Now, let us see the 177th verse of Surah al-Baqarah. What does Janâb-i Haqq say to the entire humanity here? Allah gives the true lesson here, just like Allah gives the true lesson in every matter. Allah explains here what goodness, and ‘l-birru’ is… The word ‘l-birru’ is maturity, goodness, complete obedience, and good deeds. Allah narrates these in the verse. This is what ‘l-birru’ means. *the original text of the hadith* “Give the beggar (sadaqah) even if the beggar is riding a horse.” This hadith was reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal. This hadith was said this to draw attention to the fact that generosity is a truly virtuous act. Otherwise, one does not choose the non-needy people while there are those who truly need. It is a religious obligation (fard) to give to those who need. Charity is not given to those who turn beggary into an art. What is praised here in this hadith is generosity as a trait. Now, let us see what our Beloved Prophet said about this verse. *the original text of the hadith* “Those who deal deeds in accord with this verse will have perfected his belief (iman). This hadith was reported in Nesefî Medâriku’t-Tenzil. Another narration from Ibn-i Abbas (r.a.) says: “Eat from what is halal (lawful). He said, ‘The repentance of he who eats from haram (sinful)… is not accepted for 40 days,’ and then he took an oath. So, who is Ibn-i Abbas? He is one of the greatest âlims among the sahabah. Dearest friends! And he is son of Al-‚Abbas, uncle of our Prophet. And he is one of the best disciples of the school of Prophet Muhammad. Now, let us continue our lesson with the other verses. This is our 35th lesson, and we shall continue to explain the verses. These are the lessons of the life-giver. And the life-giver is Islam and Al-Quran Al-Karim. We call to Islam and Quran, and we call both ourselves and the humanity. We deem you worthy of what we deem worthy ourselves. We cannot be like those wish misery for humanity while they wish bliss for themselves. This is because Islam is a universal blessing (rahmat), and mercy. Islam is universal, and it is the most exalted life-style. That is, Allah encompasses all things in eternity and pre-eternity. With Islam, Allah has manifested justice and blessing (rahmat) to this world.

 

Time Stamp: 15:05

 

That is why we say, “Let us live together in this sea of blessing (rahmat),”. Astaizu Billah. [2:172] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū kulū min ṭayyibāti mā razaqnākum wa-shkurū li-llāhi ʾin kuntum ʾiyyāhu taʿbudūn” [2:173] “ʾinnamā ḥarrama ʿalaykumu l-maytata wa-d-dama wa-l-laḥma l-khinzīri .wa-mā ʾuhilla bihī li-ghayri llāhi fa-mani ḍṭurra ghayra bāghin wa-lā ʿādin fa-lā ʾithma ʿalayhi ʾinna llāha ghafūrun raḥīm” [2:172] “O! Believers! Eat from the nice and clean things we have provided you with, and show gratitude to Allah, if it is only Allah that you serve.” [2:173] “Allah has made haram (sinful) for you only these: Dead animals, blood, pig, and the animals that are sacrificed in the name of someone other than Allah. Then, if someone is constrained to eat from these – if they are close to death due to starvation – there will be no sin for him with the condition that he does not violate someone else’s right, and exceed the limit of necessity.” For Allah is the Most Forgiving, and Most Merciful. We see here that Janâb-i Haqq has given a permit to eat from them in the amount that will save your life in such a situation. Astaizu Billah. [2:174] “ʾinna lladhīna yaktumūna mā ʾanzala llāhu mina l-kitābi wa-yashtarūna bihī thamanan qalīlan ʾulāʾika mā yaʾkulūna fī buṭūnihim ʾillā n-nāra wa-lā yukallimuhumu llāhu yawma l-qiyāmati wa-lā yuzakkīhim wa-lahum ʿadhābun ʾalīm” [2:175] “ʾulāʾika lladhīna shtarawu ḍ-ḍalālata bi-l-hudā wa-l-ʿadhāba bi-l-maghfirati fa-mā ʾaṣbarahum ʿalā n-nār” [2:176] “dhālika bi-ʾanna llāha nazzala l-kitāba bi-l-ḥaqqi wa-ʾinna lladhīna khtalafū fī l-kitābi la-fī shiqāqin baʿīd” [2:174] “Those who hide things a thing from the Book that Allah has sent down and take a little bit of money in return will certainly not eat anything but fire until their bellies are full. On the day of Qiyamah, Allah will neither say a word to them, nor will Allah purify them (of what they did). There will only be an agonizing punishment for them.” They will not be absolved from the guilt. [2:175] “They are the ones who abandon guidance and forgiveness but purchase deviance and punishment. And how patient are they in the face of the Fire.” That is, those who cannot resist haram (sinful) things in life, and those who cannot make do with halal (lawful) things have to endure the Fire. [2:176] “Indeed Allah has sent down the Book with a true (haqq) reason. As for those who fall into dispute regarding the Book are indeed in a division rather away from the truth. May Janâb-i Haqq make us servants who acknowledge (tasdiq) all commandments of Islam and Al-Quran Al-Karim with pleasure, and without having any hardship. May Allah make us servants who acknowledge (tasdiq) these with every fiber of their being and their heart, who also testify (iqrār) these with their tongue, and live them with pleasure. May Allah make us servants who have good deeds (amel-i salih), who have attained the favor of Allah, and who have reached the ultimate meeting. You see, this (177th) verse is a verse of birr (all kinds of goodness, truth, obedience etc.). It starts with “laysa l-birra”. “Al-birra”. [2:177] “laysa l-birra ʾan tuwallū wujūhakum qibala l-mashriqi wa-l-maghribi wa-lākinna l-birra man ʾāmana bi-llāhi wa-l-yawmi l-ʾākhiri wa-l-malāʾikati wa-l-kitābi wa-n-nabiyyīna wa-ʾātā l-māla ʿalā ḥubbihī dhawī l-qurbā wa-l-yatāmā wa-l-masākīna wa-bna s-sabīli wa-s-sāʾilīna wa-fī r-riqābi wa-ʾaqāma ṣ-ṣalāta wa-ʾātā z-zakāta wa-l-mūfūna bi-ʿahdihim ʾidhā ʿāhadū wa-ṣ-ṣābirīna fī l-baʾsāʾi wa-ḍ-ḍarrāʾi wa-ḥīna l-baʾsi ʾulāʾika lladhīna ṣadaqū wa-ʾulāʾika humu l-muttaqūn”

 

Time Stamp: 20:11

 

“Do not think it is Al-Birra (goodness) to turn your face sometimes to east and sometimes to west. Do not think consider it the wider good. Do not think consider it the truly good. But those who have Al-Birra (goodness) are those who believe in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the book, and the Prophets, and who gladly gives from his wealth to those who are close to them, and to the orphans, to the poor, to the stranded, to the beggars, and in order to save slaves. They spend from their wealth, perform namāz (prayer), and give the zakat (poor-dues) and they fulfill their covenant when they have covenanted. And those who show patience and resolution even in times of trouble and sickness, and in the ve most intense time of battle, and it is them who are the true, and the pious. It is them who attain eternal bliss.” They are under the protection of Allah. You see, our dearest and most venerable friends! Our Almighty Rabb (Lord) speaks to us, and we continue to announce. May Janâb-i Haqq aid us all in being servants who live in the eternal bliss.

 

Time Stamp: 22:11

 

–          The End        –

Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 36

 

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful. [2:178] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū kutiba ʿalaykumu l-qiṣāṣu fī l-qatlā l-ḥurru bi-l-ḥurri wa-l-ʿabdu bi-l-ʿabdi wa-l-ʾunthā bi-l-ʾunthā fa-man ʿufiya lahū min ʾakhīhi shayʾun fa-ttibāʿun bi-l-maʿrūfi wa-ʾadāʾun ʾilayhi bi-ʾiḥsānin dhālika takhfīfun min rabbikum wa-raḥmatun fa-mani ʿtadā baʿda dhālika fa-lahū ʿadhābun ʾalīm” [2:179] “wa-lakum fī l-qiṣāṣi ḥayātun yā-ʾulī l-ʾalbābi laʿallakum tattaqūn” [2:178] “O, believers! Qisas (retaliation) is made a fard (religious obligation) for you in the event of murder. A free person for a free person, a slave for a slave, and a woman for a woman. But if the one is forgiven by the brother of the victim in return of something then he must follow the law, and pay to him the diyāt (blood money) nicely. This is an alleviation and a mercy from our Rabb (Lord). There is a painful punishment for he who transgresses after this.” [2:179] “O people who have a clear understanding! There is a life for you in qisas (retaliation), it is hoped that you may shield yourselves.” So, what is qisas (retaliation)? It is a life-giving law of Allah that protects all people in the world. [2:180] “kutiba ʿalaykum ʾidhā ḥaḍara ʾaḥadakumu l-mawtu ʾin taraka khayran-i l-waṣiyyatu li-l-wālidayni wa-l-ʾaqrabīna bi-l-maʿrūfi ḥaqqan ʿalā l-muttaqīn” [2:181] “fa-man baddalahū baʿda mā samiʿahū fa-ʾinnamā ʾithmuhū ʿalā lladhīna yubaddilūnahū ʾinna llāha samīʿun ʿalīm” [2:182] “fa-man khāfa min mūṣin janafan ʾaw ʾithman fa-ʾaṣlaḥa baynahum fa-lā ʾithma ʿalayhi ʾinna llāha ghafūrun raḥīm” It is made a fard (religious obligation) for you, when death comes for one of you and he leaves behind an asset, that he make a legitimate bequest for his father, mother, or his closest relative. This is an obligation upon those who fear Allah, and it must be fulfilled. And whoever alters it after hearing this (verse) the sin is only on those who alter it; indeed, Allah is all-hearing, and all-knowing. And whoever fears a mistake or a sin from the testator and makes things right between the parties, there is no sin for him. Indeed, Allah is most forgiving, and most merciful. Now, we will talk about some discovery notes of these verses. We will give you essential notes regarding these verses. The Christians said it is an obligation (wajib) to forgive the murderer. In other words, when someone murders the Christians told people to forgive him. As for the Jews, they said there is no amnesty, it is a must to kill the murderer. They forbid from taking diyāt (blood money) for the life of the victim. There was no justice, they were executing poor people, women, slaves, and jariya (slave-girl). If someone killed one of them, they would kill two people in retaliation. For example, the son of a prosperous man is killed. Then, they ask the father what he wants in retaliation, and he say one of the three: One, they will resurrect my son. Two, they will fill my home with stars. Or, I will kill all of your tribe, and I will still not count this as retribution.

 

Time Stamp: 5:01

 

They were this extreme. They would not acknowledge Torah, Bible, and the justice of Allah. And especially the Jews used to do this in that way. Then, these verses were revealed. Lexical meaning of qisas (retaliation) is retaliation in kind. “Fī l-qatlā” is a word about the slain, it is singular and it means the victim. It is a fard (religious obligation) for all believers to implement qisas (retaliation) unless there is amnesty or an agreement, for unjustly killed freemen, slaves, men, women, Muslims, and people of other religions who live under the protection of Islam. Qisas (retaliation) is a fard (religious obligation) in Islam. The life cannot be protected without qisas (retaliation), you cannot prevent murder in any other way. In qisas, the murderer is killed in retaliation. In Hanafi School (Madhab), mefhumu muhâlif (argument from the contrary) is not permissible (jaiz). In other words, it is not a valid proof. Let us see the 45th verse of Surah al-Maidah: “A life for a life, an eye for an eye.” The right to live is an equal right for everyone. And qisas (retaliation) is also an equal right, and it is a complete justice. You see, this is why there are differences in the ijtihad related opinions of Imam al-Malik and Imam al-Shafi’i. But, we have seen the view of the Hanafi School (Madhab) as well. And the meaning of the verse is clear. You see, the Muslims have missed the tread once. And now, the lives of the Muslims and the entire humanity is at stake here. People have made qisas with a Muslim in retaliation of a dhimmī. Our Master (asw): *the original text of the hadith* “I am the one who is most fitting to fulfill your promise.”

 

Time Stamp: 8:07

 

–          The End        –

Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 36

 

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful. [2:178] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū kutiba ʿalaykumu l-qiṣāṣu fī l-qatlā l-ḥurru bi-l-ḥurri wa-l-ʿabdu bi-l-ʿabdi wa-l-ʾunthā bi-l-ʾunthā fa-man ʿufiya lahū min ʾakhīhi shayʾun fa-ttibāʿun bi-l-maʿrūfi wa-ʾadāʾun ʾilayhi bi-ʾiḥsānin dhālika takhfīfun min rabbikum wa-raḥmatun fa-mani ʿtadā baʿda dhālika fa-lahū ʿadhābun ʾalīm” [2:179] “wa-lakum fī l-qiṣāṣi ḥayātun yā-ʾulī l-ʾalbābi laʿallakum tattaqūn” [2:178] “O, believers! Qisas (retaliation) is made a fard (religious obligation) for you in the event of murder. A free person for a free person, a slave for a slave, and a woman for a woman. But if the one is forgiven by the brother of the victim in return of something then he must follow the law, and pay to him the diyāt (blood money) nicely. This is an alleviation and a mercy from our Rabb (Lord). There is a painful punishment for he who transgresses after this.” [2:179] “O people who have a clear understanding! There is a life for you in qisas (retaliation), it is hoped that you may shield yourselves.” So, what is qisas (retaliation)? It is a life-giving law of Allah that protects all people in the world. [2:180] “kutiba ʿalaykum ʾidhā ḥaḍara ʾaḥadakumu l-mawtu ʾin taraka khayran-i l-waṣiyyatu li-l-wālidayni wa-l-ʾaqrabīna bi-l-maʿrūfi ḥaqqan ʿalā l-muttaqīn” [2:181] “fa-man baddalahū baʿda mā samiʿahū fa-ʾinnamā ʾithmuhū ʿalā lladhīna yubaddilūnahū ʾinna llāha samīʿun ʿalīm” [2:182] “fa-man khāfa min mūṣin janafan ʾaw ʾithman fa-ʾaṣlaḥa baynahum fa-lā ʾithma ʿalayhi ʾinna llāha ghafūrun raḥīm” It is made a fard (religious obligation) for you, when death comes for one of you and he leaves behind an asset, that he make a legitimate bequest for his father, mother, or his closest relative. This is an obligation upon those who fear Allah, and it must be fulfilled. And whoever alters it after hearing this (verse) the sin is only on those who alter it; indeed, Allah is all-hearing, and all-knowing. And whoever fears a mistake or a sin from the testator and makes things right between the parties, there is no sin for him. Indeed, Allah is most forgiving, and most merciful. Now, we will talk about some discovery notes of these verses. We will give you essential notes regarding these verses. The Christians said it is an obligation (wajib) to forgive the murderer. In other words, when someone murders the Christians told people to forgive him. As for the Jews, they said there is no amnesty, it is a must to kill the murderer. They forbid from taking diyāt (blood money) for the life of the victim. There was no justice, they were executing poor people, women, slaves, and jariya (slave-girl). If someone killed one of them, they would kill two people in retaliation. For example, the son of a prosperous man is killed. Then, they ask the father what he wants in retaliation, and he say one of the three: One, they will resurrect my son. Two, they will fill my home with stars. Or, I will kill all of your tribe, and I will still not count this as retribution.

 

Time Stamp: 5:01

 

They were this extreme. They would not acknowledge Torah, Bible, and the justice of Allah. And especially the Jews used to do this in that way. Then, these verses were revealed. Lexical meaning of qisas (retaliation) is retaliation in kind. “Fī l-qatlā” is a word about the slain, it is singular and it means the victim. It is a fard (religious obligation) for all believers to implement qisas (retaliation) unless there is amnesty or an agreement, for unjustly killed freemen, slaves, men, women, Muslims, and people of other religions who live under the protection of Islam. Qisas (retaliation) is a fard (religious obligation) in Islam. The life cannot be protected without qisas (retaliation), you cannot prevent murder in any other way. In qisas, the murderer is killed in retaliation. In Hanafi School (Madhab), mefhumu muhâlif (argument from the contrary) is not permissible (jaiz). In other words, it is not a valid proof. Let us see the 45th verse of Surah al-Maidah: “A life for a life, an eye for an eye.” The right to live is an equal right for everyone. And qisas (retaliation) is also an equal right, and it is a complete justice. You see, this is why there are differences in the ijtihad related opinions of Imam al-Malik and Imam al-Shafi’i. But, we have seen the view of the Hanafi School (Madhab) as well. And the meaning of the verse is clear. You see, the Muslims have missed the tread once. And now, the lives of the Muslims and the entire humanity is at stake here. People have made qisas with a Muslim in retaliation of a dhimmī. Our Master (asw): *the original text of the hadith* “I am the one who is most fitting to fulfill your promise.”

 

Time Stamp: 8:07

 

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Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 38

 

I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful. Dearest and most venerable friends! We continue our talks of the life-giving holy values, and the life lessons. Insha ’Allah Ta’ala our lessons will continue, and we are in the 38th lesson at this time. We have given you the essential meanings of the verses in the glorious Quran so far, and we continue our lesson with the 183rd verse of Surah al-Baqarah. We present you the essential meanings of all verses of Al-Quran Al-Karim. What is more, we make certain discoveries as regards to those verses. Also, the reason we do that is to enlighten ourselves by understanding the life-giving light better by means of these discoveries. May Janâb-i Haqq help us be among the servants whose every word and deed is true (haqq), whose entire being is a heavenly light, who has attained the life-giving light itself. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. [2:183] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū kutiba ʿalaykumu ṣ-ṣiyāmu ka-mā kutiba ʿalā lladhīna min qablikum laʿallakum tattaqūn” [2:184] “ʾayyāman maʿdūdātin fa-man kāna minkum marīḍan ʾaw ʿalā safarin fa-ʿiddatun min ʾayyāmin ʾukhara wa-ʿalā lladhīna yuṭīqūnahū fidyatun ṭaʿāmu miskīnin fa-man taṭawwaʿa khayran fa-huwa khayrun lahū wa-ʾan taṣūmū khayrun lakum ʾin kuntum taʿlamūn” “O, believers! Fasting is made a fard (religious obligation) for you, just like it was made for those before you.” That is, the fasting in the month of Ramadan Sharif. It is a fard (religious obligation) for every believer (mu’min) and Muslim who believe in Al-Quran Al-Karim, Allah, Islam, who know Allah and accept the commandments of Allah. “So that you may become pious.” You see, the commandments of Allah are protective, and they are rescuers. “The fasting that is made fard (religious obligation) for you is for a limited number of days. As for the sick among you, or the ones who are on a journey they should fast the same number of days some other time but fidyah (donation) in the amount that will feed a poor person is required from he who have difficulty in fasting. Then, whoever increases (the amount of the) fidyah (donation) for goodness, that is better for him. However, if you know, fasting is better for you.” That is because fasting is a command of Allah. And there is ruhsat (permit) for those who cannot fast. As every command gives life, fasting is better by all means. [2:185] “shahru ramaḍāna lladhī ʾunzila fīhi l-qurʾānu hudan  li-n-nāsi wa-bayyinātin mina l-hudā wa-l-furqāni fa-man shahida minkumu sh-shahra fa-l-yaṣumhu wa-man kāna marīḍan ʾaw-ʿalā safarin fa-ʿiddatun min ʾayyāmin ʾukhara yurīdu llāhu bikumu l-yusra wa-lā yurīdu bikumu l-ʿusra wa-li-tukmilū l-ʿiddata wa-li-tukabbirū llāha ʿalā mā hadākum wa-laʿallakum tashkurūn” On that month, Ramadan Shareef, the glorious Al-Quran Al-Karim was sent down as a guide (hidayat) to people with proofs to distinguish between the truth (haqq) and falsehood (batil).

 

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So, whoever witnesses that month among you, shall fast in it. And he who is sick or on a journey should make up for the days he has lost by fasting on other days. Allah wishes ease for you, not hardship. As for Islamic life, it is a blissful life. It is the life that removes hardships. Allah wants you to complete the number (of fasts) and recite Takbīr (Allahu Akbar) for Allah has shown you the true way. It is hoped that you may be grateful. Dearest and most venerable friends! We are trying to present you the holy values of Islam, and the glorious Quran which is the divine book sent by our Almighty Rabb (Lord) that prepares humanity for the eternal life, and gives life to them. We say, let us find life together, and be happy together, because for us, it is unthinkable for one person to laugh while the other cries. It is unthinkable for us to have one person sleep hungry while the other rests blissfully with a full stomach. Islam is the religion of mercy, and brotherhood. We do not deem people suitable to anything that we do not find suitable to ourselves. Almighty Islam has encompassed the humanity and the universe by Allah’s rahmat (mercy). Almighty Allah shows mercy to everyone who are to be shown mercy. And for those who are out of this, Allah implements the justice. The following is said in a narration reported in the hadith collection of Abu Dawood. In a hadith-i sharif reported by Abu Dawood, our Prophet said: **reads the original text of the hadith** “The one who speaks his own opinion (regarding Quran) would have made a mistake even if he was right.” In other words, one must speak about Al-Quran Al-Karim only by knowing, and comprehending it completely, and properly. Each word in Quran is an utterance (kalam) of Allah. One should say that, and to convey a true message should be a primary objective for everyone. No one can interpret Al-Quran Al-Karim according to his/her sweet will. That is, even if their interpretation were correct. So, our Prophet clearly stated that he who interprets Quran on his own will would be making a mistake. This is because Al-Quran Al-Karim is the utterance (kalam) of Allah, not someone’s opinion. Therefore, no one has the right to say things like, “I think differently,” “I think it should have been like this,” etc. One must interpret Quran by knowing all the rules, and the knowledge (ilm) and wisdom (irfan) behind it. Abu Muslim al-Isfahani is a mufassir (commentator) who does not accept naskh (abrogation). According to a hadith-i sharif reported by Abu Hurairah, our Prophet said: “A person who has done good deeds for seventy years shall lose it all due to an unjust testament, and he shall enter the Fire.” Those who go bankrupt here are those who violate people’s rights. In an unjust testament there is rightful due. “And with a good testament he shall enter Janna (Paradise),”. This is a hadith-i sharif reported in Kutub al-Sittah. To correct a wrong testament is a ruhsat (permit). Matters such as leaving your wealth not to close relatives but to non-relatives, or bequeathing to foreigners in order to avoid leaving your wealth to closer relatives are also considered in the same category.

 

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Now after conveying our notes about this topic let us continue our lesson by mentioning words of our Prophet regarding fasting. “Fe aleyhi bissavmi fe innessavme lehu vicahun,” said our Prophet. In the hadith-i sharifs reported by al-Bukhari and al-Muslim, our Master, and Prophet (asw) tells Muslims to fast, for it has a pleasant effect on unruly nafs (selves). What is more, in another hadith-i sharif reported by al-Bukhari and al-Muslim: “Essavmilî ve ene eczibihî,” said our Prophet. “You fast for Me, and only I shall give its rewards,” said Allah. So, dearest friends! Fasting has so many life-giving aspects that even if the entire mankind and all doctors, all hodjas, theologists, and others gathered together they will not be able to explain the benefits of fasting to its full extent. This goes for all commandments in Islam and Quran. Islam is an ever-existent ocean of life. Islam, whose every command is a divine order gives life to us people. Fasting was made a religious obligation (fard) one and a half years after Hijra. Our Prophet said, “Essavmü cünnetün minennâr,” regarding this. He said, “Fasting is the shield that protect one from the Fire,”. But of course, we are conveying its merits and virtue as regards to the religion. Yet a lifetime is not enough to narrate the wisdom and merits behind it. The same goes for fasting, namāz (prayer), jihad (struggle), and all other divine commandments. And all of these are based on Al-Quran Al-Karim, which is their source. What is more, Prophet Muhammad has personally implemented this to the world. It is narrated by Hasan al-Basri (r.a.) that fasting in Ramadan was a religious obligation (fard) for the Jews and Christians. Then, the Jews changed it to one day every year. And the Christians changed it to 50 days. They also changed the month, and worshiped other Lords. You see, truly, the religion of Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus) was Islam. You see, the tried to distort their religion, and they managed to do so. Let me remind you a dua (prayer) of Umar. I am conveying this as an example of dua (prayer). He says, “My Allah! Forgive me, by your rahmat (mercy) that encompass everything,”. This is important. He says, “by your rahmat (mercy) that encompass everything,”. In these worlds, whatever good there is for the humanity is nothing but the rahmat (mercy) Allah has manifested. And on the other side is Allah’s justice. And Allah’s justice is also a rahmat (mercy). Let us mention our Prophet (asw). When fasting in Ramadan Shareef was made a religious obligation (fard) he always fasted in the months of Ramadan Shareef. Muslims fast for a month, that month may be 29, 30 or 31 days. What is a religious obligation (fard) here is observing the fast for a month. Now, the word ‘safar’ is present in the 185th verse of Surah al-Baqarah. Safar means exploration, to reveal, to manifest, to uncover. As for its canonical meaning as a technical term, it means three-day-journey or eighteen-hour-journey.

 

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In order to be counted as a traveler a Muslim has to have intention to make an eighteen-hour-journey. Various information regarding safar is given here. Âlims still give legal opinions (fatwa) based on old land, air, and sea transportations. Certain principles and rules of jurisprudence (fiqh) are interpreted differently today. We have many âlims (Islamic scholars), Elmalılı Muhammed Hamdi Yazır is one of them. It does not matter which means of transportation you use, the person who starts an eighteen-hour-journey becomes a traveler (safarī) You may travel by air, via passenger planes. But of course, what is accepted here is planes that travel with average speed. As for the land vehicles, traveling with average speed is accepted. So, unless your journey takes eighteen hours you will not be considered a traveler (safarī). That is actually three-days in fiqh, you may calculate this three-day-journey. But this three-day-journey is lowered to eighteen-hours at best. There have been many studies on this topic. You will not be considered a traveler (safarī) for journeys that take less than eighteen hours. So, after that let us briefly talk about the matter of fidyah (donation). Fidyah means price. Half measure wheat, one full measure barley, grape and date palm. One sâ‘ or two oka is one full measure, and it translates to 1080 dirhams. One dirham is 7 miskal, in other words 16 kırat. It is necessary to properly calculate these things according to the conditions of today. So, what is the wisdom behind fidyah? Why we should give fidyah? These are rights of the poor. These donations that we counted so far must be re-calculated to answer to the needs of the poor in this age. These must be calibrated perfectly according to today’s conditions such as living conditions and customs. We have to think about the poor here. These must be regulated for the benefit of the poor. That is why the fidyah (donations) may be 10€. Or, that amount may differ in Turkey. It may be different in other countries. Hence, while calculating the amount we have to consider today’s customs, and market conditions. The fidyah (donation) must be calibrated by thinking about how a poor person will spend that money in a day to fill his stomach. We have seen the essentials here, these are wheat, barley, grape, date palm, and similar things but if other things are present due to conditions of the current time, then we have to perfectly calculate the value them as well. In other words, what is required to earn Allah’s riza (approval). Allah’s riza (approval) is to run to the aid of the poor, and meet their needs, and make them happy. You see, we must now forget that Almighty Allah is happy when the poor people are happy; and that Allah is pleased with you when you make that happen. This is what we should pay attention to in every command of Allah. What is more, as you know he who fasts abandons eating and drinking.

 

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Observing the fast forbids the self (nafs) from doing these. It protects the community, and our self from sins. It shields the heart from all except Allah. Fasting completely subjects the heart to Allah. Hence, the person lives his life devoted to Allah Ta’ala with tawakkul (perfect trust), with every fiber of his being. And after this, one does not keep his heart busy with wrong things. He exalts (takbir) and praises (tahleel) his Rabb (Lord) with dhikrs, and lives his life oriented at his Rabb (Lord). His tawajjuh (focus) is to no one except Allah. Fasting is a special opportunity for us in earning this sincerity (ikhlas). In Arabic, the word ‚month‘ is ’shahr‘. It means, -to reveal, sections of the solar year. The word shahr (month) is also used for the time between the two phases of the new moon in Turkish. Ramadan Shareef is mentioned in the Quran. We see that the word ramadan is mentioned in Al-Quran Al-Karim. We see that the 185 verse of Surah al-Baqarah starts with “shahru ramaḍān – month of ramadan”. So, we hope it will be beneficial for the Muslims to know the meaning of the phrase Ramadan Shareef. There is a narration of hadith in Kutub al-Sittah that says this is among the names of Allah. Also in another narration, this phrase is mentioned as the name of a specific month. Now, another meaning that is derived from the word “ramadıyyun” is “the rain that cleans dust”. This name is given to it for it purifies the believers (mu’mins) from sins. In other words, the main point here is that Ramadan Shareef purifies Muslims from sins. Another root for it is “ramdâbun ramida”. As for this aspect, the phrase Ramadan Shareef means the burning of the sins. Ramadan Shareef has this meaning as well. What is more, it also encompasses the following meanings: -to hone weapons, or -to sharpen. What is referred by the afore meaning is related with getting rid of bad habits. That is why, dearest friends! We try to discover every word as regards to our religion, and take the necessary inspiration from them, thus benefiting from these life-giving values batter. So, we see that the word inzal is mentioned in the verses. In this use, inzal means sending down of Al-Quran Al-Karim as a whole. As for tanzil, it means sending down of it in parts. Those who laugh often are candidates for crying. We have to know the truths, and live them too. And we should do these good deeds (amel) with sincerity (ikhlas). One should not get spoiled, and one can never abandon hope. There is both tanzil and inzal of Al-Quran Al-Karim. Inzal means sending down as a whole. And tanzil means that verses and surahs were revealed to our Prophet part by part as needed. So, both inzal and tanzil is mentioned when it comes to Al-Quran Al-Karim. The new moon must be observed visually rather than looking at evidence. In other words, to see the new moon in person is mandatory. Observing the fast is a right of Allah. One witness is enough, but for what? The fast stars if a single equitable person whose word is trusted says he has seen the new moon in Ramadan Shareef.

 

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As for iftar (evening meal) and bayram (feast), two witnesses are required for these are rightful dues. We see here that Janâb-i Haqq has protected rightful dues by obligating two witnesses. If there are adverse weather conditions, two witnesses are required for the months of Dhu al-Qadah and Shawwal. That is, if the new moon is not visible due to adverse weather conditions. That is what Hanafite mujtahids said regarding this matter. May Allah abundantly bestow rahmat (mercy) upon them all. May Janâb-i Haqq forgive their sins. May Allah’s rahmat (mercy) be always upon them. We have prayed for all of our mujtahids. As for Ramadan Shareef, a single equitable witness is enough. If there are no adverse weather conditions, collective witnessing is necessary. It is a religious obligation (fard) and a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah) upon all believers (mu’mins) to look for the new moon on the 29th day of the month. Witnessing of a single person is not permissible (jaiz) if there are no adverse weather conditions. That is, if the sky is clear, for it is another story if the weather is cloudy. Now, according to astronomy, a month is on average 29.5 days, and this value is fractional. So, according to astronomical calculations a month is neither 29 days nor 30 days. Besides, astronomical calculations are proofs, not thoughts. Not everyone may know them. Having observatories in every town would be better. That would be a rather suitable solution to this problem. What is more, if you ask about exact time when fasting in Ramadan Shareef starts, the answer would be seeing the new moon. In other words, fasting becomes a religious obligation (fard) when you see the new moon in Ramadan Shareef. So, when does Ramadan Shareef start? That is, exactly when one sees the new moon (in that month). Fasting is a religious obligation (fard) upon males and females after they reach puberty. According to Shafii School (Madhab), pregnant and lactating women are given ruhsat (permit). They were given a permit (ruhsat), so the pregnant and lactating women who are unable to fast, may fast later. That is the view of the Shafiite mujtahids. Same kind of permit (ruhsat) is given to very old people. However, Malikī mujtahids said fidyah (donation) is not an obligation (wajib) upon very old people. Now, in a narration reported in Bukhari Shareef, eating or having sexual intercourse by forgetting does not break the fast. It is said that these are considered divine feasts. Our Prophet said that it is a banquet from Allah  if a person eats something by forgetting he was fasting. That was a hadith of our Prophet reported in Bukhari Shareef. Now, let us talk about not fasting in special occasions. For example, if you are going to a war, or a long and troublesome journey. There are certain journeys that can be wear you out, that are truly safarī. If such a journey shall wear your body out and is troublesome, it is best to postpone fasting to a better time. This special occasion may be a journey, a long voyage, or war conditions. However, if the conditions let you observe the fast it is better and rather virtuous to observe the fast. A sincere Muslim who finds himself in that kind of a situation knows whether to observe the fast or not better than anyone. This is because Islam is based on inviting to what is beneficial, and warding off what is harmful. As long as a Muslim is sincere, he is the best person to evaluate his own situation.

 

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Our Prophet said that if it is not possible to see the Moon you should complete 30 days. The verse of Quran, and our Prophet points to the same things. That is what Allah wants. Our Prophet tells us to complete 30 days if we cannot see the Moon, and the crescent. Complete 30 days of fasting. More so, in the verses the word takbīr is mentioned. So, what is takbīr? Takbīr is exaltation of Allah. Takbīr is among the deepest respects to Allah. Takbīr that is done with the heart is done with belief (iman), ma’rifat (spiritual knowledge). In other words, the heart’s submission to Allah is the takbīr of the heart. Verbal takbīr is cognizing (iqrār) the exaltedness via Names and sifāts (attributes). As for actual takbīr, that is performing the worships, and the duties properly as a servant. That is why, Allah said the following in the 19th verse of Surah al-Isra: [17:19] “saʿyuhum mashkūra,” said Allah. So, what is the meaning here? Deeds done for the afterlife (ākhira) are acceptable with belief (iman). If a person does good deeds with his belief (iman), then his acts are acceptable. You see, [17:19] “saʿyuhum mashkūra,” said Allah. So, we see that Janâb-i Haqq gives rewards for good deeds. Otherwise, the deeds of people who have problems in their beliefs (iman) are not acceptable. Now, you may ask about what kind of problems can there be in belief (iman). A person heart has to have affirmed (tasdiq) the entirety of Islam. He must not have objected to any article in Islam. And his heart has to acknowledge all commandments of Islam wholeheartedly, with pleasure, and without there being a hint of doubt. He must not have objected to, or denied any one of the commands. Also, he must not oppose to the divine commandments as if he is denying them. What is more, he has to cognize (iqrār) all of Islam via utterance. These are the minimum requirements in which there should not be a problem. If the person has problems with his belief (iman), that is, if he accepts the commandments he likes and refuses the others, then there is no belief (iman) in him. We see that in these verses of Quran that the Naturists and the Ijabiyah School (Madhab) is refuted. These verses of Al-Quran Al-Karim denies their practices. The naturists reject the omnipotence (qudrah) of the Creator. They are not true naturists. Al-Quran Al-Karim rejects the Ijabiyah School (Madhab) and the naturists who deny the omnipotence (qudrah) of the Creator. So, what is their situation? These groups reject the Divine Will. What is more, they think Allah’s knowledge (ilm) is away from the nature. The Divine Will wished, and thus the worlds are created. And the knowledge (ilm) of Allah has encompassed all things ever existed and will ever exist. That is why Janâb-i Haqq says: “wa-naḥnu ʾaqrabu ʾilayhi min ḥabli l-warīd”. Says: “We are closer to him than his jugular vein.” The manifestation of Allah is the same for the worlds, the smallest atom, the ninth heaven (arş-ı âlâ) and all things that ever existed and will ever exist. There has never been anything nor will there be anything that is not encompassed by the knowledge (ilm), and the omnipotence (qudrah) of Allah. Allah, with Allah’s rahmat (mercy) is closer to all things than their essence. And Allah is closer to whom Allah wish with punishment.

 

Time Stamp: 35:04

 

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (r.a.), that grand figure who is considered the imam of the greatest mufassirs is a valuable individual who said: “Allah is closer to every entity than its very self.” In other words, he says that Allah is closer to us than ourselves. Do not forge this my brother! Allah is closer to us than ourselves. We see here that Janâb-i Haqq enters between one’s nafs (self) and his heart via Allah’s power (qudrah) and knowledge (ilm). That is, amid the heart and the self. Allah is closer to a person than his self. Allah is closer to your heart than you are, for Allah is the Creator. As Allah is the Creator, is it not possible for your Creator to encompass you? You should know where you at; you are under the protection of Allah. You act by means of the power (qudrah) of Allah. You came into existence for Allah created you. You live for Allah sustains you; you belong to Allah. Do not forget that you are a servant of Allah. And as you belong to Allah, you are encompassed by Allah, and because Allah is closer to you than you are to your own self, you should live your life having the deepest respect to your Rabb (Lord), no matter where you live. Now, think about a servant who entered the protection of Allah, who have had such an education, earning respect of Allah via this love, this respect, and this tarbiya (education). You see, this is one of the life-giving lessons of Islam for the entire humanity. You should know your Rabb (Lord) for once, and know that you are under Allah’s command. Know that you are encompassed by Allah, and it is not just you, all worlds are encompassed by Allah. Thus, be respectful to Allah. Allah always sees you. Allah sees you, and your inner world. Allah hears you, listens you, knows you, for Allah is closer to you than your self. Allah sustains you, gives you life. So, what do you think will happen to you in the end if you continue to commit sins, eat from what is haram (sinful), and rebel against Allah while you are in the presence of Allah? You will be struck by Allah. Allah has various disasters and punishment. Every one of them is like a slap. You cannot know what will befall upon you, or what kind of punishment you will get. Janâb-i Haqq has created Jahannam (Hell), for Allah had known what the servants will do. And created Janna (Paradise) via the favor and generosity, for Allah knew there will be obedient servants who had belief (iman). Get your head together! Do not ever forget this quote from Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (r.a.): “Allah is closer to every entity than its very self.” Allah is closer to us than ourselves. Allah’s sifāts (attributes) are One with Allah’s Being (zaat). [50:16] “wa-naḥnu ʾaqrabu ʾilayhi min ḥabli l-warīd” Allah says: “We are closer to him than his jugular vein,” . This is a verse of the Quran. Dearest friends! Allah Ta’ala is the necessary existent (wajib) entity who is Self-Existent. Allah is the only reason for the existence of Allah. In other words, Allah Ta’ala is wajib al-wūjūd (necessary existent).

 

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All other entities except Allah are counted among the creatures, that are created later. The cause of all causes is single, and that is Allah Ta’ala. It is Allah who created every cause, for the cause of all causes is single, and that is Allah Ta’ala. There cannot be existence, and logic without Allah. Do not forget that. Let me explain the reason of the things that go wrong in the world, and the cause of wrong ways and methods that people use. That is, the mindsets that act as if Allah is non-existent, even though there are no creatures and no logic whose creator is not Allah. These people are doing wrong to themselves, and the humanity. They think they can block the way that goes to Allah. What is more, they deviate the unguided ones who think wrong like them. So, what did Janâb-i Haqq say to Shaitan? Allah said: “I shall fill My Jahannam (Hell) to the brim with you, and those who follow you”. Can one leave Allah? Can there be a creature except by Allah’s creation. Can there be logic without Allah? Allah is the cause of all things, and all causes. That is, not someone else but Allah Ta’ala. It is Allah who created the causes as well. That is why Almighty Allah is closer to us than ourselves; we should always pray to Allah. We are at Allah’s door, seeking refuse, presenting our hearts to Allah, humbly. We confess our inability, unwariness, and ignorance to Allah by exalting Allah. We say that Allah is unique, peerless, and exalted. We say that Allah is like Allah describes. I cannot praise you as You deserve, no matter how many times I make dhikr (remembrance) or praise You or thank you, do takbir, or do tahleel. I cannot say I worshipped You the way You deserve even if my body melted, because I prayed you too much. You are unique, and most Exalted. Say this, and confess your helplessness and that you eternally need Allah. Be a beggar at the door of rahmat (mercy) that belong to Allah. Do not ever beg someone other than Allah. But do not ever forget that you are in need of your Rabb (Lord) eternally. Let us see what Hadith Collection of al-Tirmidhi says: This is a hadith qudsi at the same time. Janâb-i Haqq says: “I shall give the best of it to he who is so busy remembering Me that he cannot ask from Me,”. Allah says here that if you have no time for asking from Allah due to fulfilling fards and wajibs (obligations), following sunnah (customs), and being busy with worshipping and jihad (struggle), Allah will give you much more than those who ask. Now, let us talk about dua (prayer). Dua (prayer) is an invocation or a supplication from the servant to the Creator. You see, we are all servants of Allah. There is no difference whether we exist or not. Our only worth is the values Allah has given to us. Otherwise, there is no difference whether we exist or not. We should never forget that humanity is created from the state of non-existence, and that we are created via a drop of semen. That is why we are smaller than the smallest atom in the presence of our Rabb (Lord). That is why dua (prayer) is request and supplication from lower position to higher position. That is the lexical meaning of the word dua (prayer).

 

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That is, to ask for aid from your Rabb (Lord) in a humble manner. In other words, one should ask for help from Allah with utter sincerity, utter resolve, whiningly, enviably, and sobbingly. We are in need of Allah in every aspect. You see, this is how we, the powerless servants, should supplicate, and beg for help from our Almighty Rabb (Lord). In other words, dua (prayer) has to be accompanied by belief (iman) and acts of worship so that it can be an actual dua (prayer) that is supported by worships, and utterance. If a person does not have good deeds or acts of worship but he prays with his tongue, then this is not a true dua (prayer). Where is your heart, your soul, acts of worship, good deeds, and actions? That dua (prayer) belongs only to a lazy person who lays in bed all day. Do you think one can request everything from Allah without performing his servitude? Such is the dua (prayer) of the ignorant and unwary. Lifetime, sustenance (rizq), creating, habits, and morals are all actualized. The evaluation of all people have been made in accord with their status, value, and touchstone. Your lifetime is indeed designed. Your sustenance (rizq) is indeed ordained. You have been granted a lifetime, and sustenance (rizq). The divine decree as regards to how you were to be created is already predestined. The morals and habits you will carry have already been ordained. These are completely finished things. This knowledge (ilm) of Allah is an encompassment of all things that have been and will be. Predestination (qadar) is Allah implementing these divine decrees (taqdeer) on you. There are so many people who misunderstand this matter. Some people revolt against Allah but blame their fate (qadar). In other words, they say it is Allah who has written his fate in that way. That is a slander to Allah. Allah did not write your fate (qadar) so that you may rebel. Allah knew in pre-eternity that you will rebel of your own free will. We have to understand this correctly. We need to be sincere and obedient in order to understand this correctly. There are people who object to the concept of dua (prayer), these people say we do not have free will and choice in life. The Jabriyah people are the ones who could not understand the matter of predestination (qadar). These are either people of Ijabiyah or Jabriyah. If it is known in the pre-eternity that something will happen due to a dua (prayer) made by a person, he will make that dua (prayer) eventually. And if it is known that he will not make that dua (prayer), he will not do it. The how/modality of predestination (qadar) and the knowledge (ilm) of Allah are incomprehensible by human intellect. Can human intellect comprehend the knowledge (ilm) that belong to Allah? Allah has endless and boundless power (qudrah). It is Allah who created human intellect. Can the creature fully comprehend the Creator? This is why you should listen to this part carefully. The how/modality of predestination (qadar) and the knowledge (ilm) of Allah are incomprehensible by human intellect. Allah’s Grandness and Omnipotence can only be known by the heart, and belief (iman). The heart knows that Allah’s knowledge (ilm) encompasses all things, and the heart affirms (tasdiq) this via belief (iman). Otherwise, if you try to encompass, understand, and comprehend the entire knowledge (ilm) of Allah, then your endeavor will be like that of an ant endeavoring to devour the universe. [40:60] “wa-qāla rabbukumu dʿūnī ʾastajib lakum” Let us see what Janâb-i Haqq says in the 60th verse of Surah al-Ghafir.

 

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Allah said: “Pray to Me (your Rabb) so that I may accept your dua (prayer),”. That is why we must stay humble to Allah in state of dua (prayer) with our every act and word, our spiritual world, and every fiber of our being. We are eternally in need of Allah. Our every act should be a dua (prayer) to Allah. We should always be humble before Allah. Hope and desire are the causes of success; fear and dread are its regulator. This is important. Hope is the causes of success. Fear is its regulator. If one has hope and desire, then there is success. Also, fear and dread are there as regulators of this success. That is why the servant shall live in between hope and fear. The servants must be in between the two. Do not forget that the servants live in between fear and hope. Allah’s punishment is severe. And Allah is the only entity to be feared. Allah’s rahmat (mercy) has encompassed all things that have been and will be. Allah is ar-Rahman (most Gracious), ar-Rahim (most Clement). And you cannot abandon hope from Allah. You cannot abandon hope ever. Those who abandon hope are the disbelievers (kāfirs). What is more, in a narration in Sahih al-Bukhari, our Prophet (saw) says the following: “Work, and everyone shall easily achieve what is created for them.” You see, our Prophet says that people will achieve what is created for the, with ease. But here is the important part he tells us to work and endeavor. Work only in the way of Allah, and under the command of Allah. And then, everyone will achieve what is created for them, with ease, says our Prophet. You should have good intentions, and your work should be legitimate and on the true (haqq) way. You should work in a halal (lawful) way, and you will see good results. You need to work by surrendering yourself to Allah, by having trust in Allah. Working without mentioning Allah is unwariness and error. One should also respect the omnipotence (qudrah) of Allah. O, my Rabb (Lord)! I am in your presence, and you know my situation. You should state this with your words and actions. But consider yourself in the presence of Allah. And say, “You know my situation,”. Say, “You know what I need best,”. And do not ever forget that you are in the presence of Allah. You may not see Allah, but Allah sees everything about you. All worlds, and all things are encompassed by the omnipotence (qudrah) of Allah, just like baby embraced by his mother. So, who manages everything in the space while they move incredibly fast around their own orbits? Who manages the heavens, the moons, the stars, the Sun, and the galaxies? Which power (qudrah) manages all that? A single Will manages the wills of all creatures in existence. For it is Allah who created them, and it is Allah who commands them.

 

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Dearest, most valuable, and most venerable listeners! We see that Janâb-i Haqq has attached much value to humans. Humans are the most honorable of all creatures. We see that all worlds and all things were created for humans. Humans are too valuable when they enter the command of Allah and become true Muslims. That is why one should live humbly in submission by saying, “You know my situation,“ to Allah. In a narration reported by Ibn Majah, our Prophet said that most virtuous (eftal) dua (prayer) is to say “alhamdulillah – praise be to Allah”. Allah ordered us to do dua (prayer) so that Allah may accept. Those who abandon worshipping and get arrogant shall enter the Fire, humiliated. How can one not worship Allah? Can one have conceit and vanity against Allah? Can one abandon worships due to arrogance and conceit? If you do, you will go down. And you will enter the Fire, humiliated. You will be thrown into the Fire head over heels, which will be a pity. See the 55th verse of Surah al-A’raf. “Supplicate Allah by beseeching, and in secret.” This verse commands us to do dua (prayer) to Allah. “Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.” So, what does transgression in dua (prayer) mean? That is, to request non-legitimate things. Or, you may ask from Allah things Allah does not like, and will not like. Another example would be praying for the enemies of Allah. You should pay attention to the duas (prayers) in Al-Quran Al-Karim. Also, remember the prayers that our Prophet used to recite. Do dua (prayer) with those prayers. You may not know Arabic, but you may use any language as long as what you say has the same meaning. You may pray to Allah in every language. There is no language that Allah does not know. “(Are they benevolent) or, the One who answers the call of the distressed? Who alleviate their suffering? Who makes you rulers of the earth? Or is it someone else?” That is what our Rabb (Lord) says in the 62nd verse of Surah al-Naml. “Is the most benevolent, the One who responds to the call of the distressed,” in other words, who is ready to help. “Who alleviates their distress, and who makes you vicegerents of the earth, or is it the mortals you keep embracing?” You should only embrace al-Baqi (the Infinite). What is more, in the 77th verse of Surah al-Furqan, Janâb-i Haqq says: “Why should your Rabb (Lord) value you if not for your supplication?”. Every action of a Muslim is a dua (prayer) to Allah. Dua (prayer) is the expression of the fact that you are eternally in need of Allah. [25:77] “qul mā yaʿbaʾu bikum rabbī law-lā duʿāʾukum,” said Allah. More so, in the 43rd verse of Surah al-An’am: “If only they had submitted as Our punishment reached them, rather their hearts became hardened, and Shaitan (Satan) adorned what they were doing. Dearest friends! When a trouble, disaster, a punishment from Allah befall upon people, they should know to bow down to Allah, repent and understand their mistakes, and renounce all evil. Such a pity that rather than that, their hearts had hardened. Then, the Shaitan (Satan) adorned and polished their wicked deeds. Today, there are people who only after advertisement, who do not know Al-Quran Al-Karim, who turn their backs on it, who seek happiness in the chaos of the mortal world, who do not care about the al-Baqi (the Infinite), who do not acknowledge the life-giving order established by the al-Baqi (the Infinite).

 

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Please, take a look at the situation of these people. So, where do they look for happiness? May Janâb-i Mevlâ not let us fall into a situation like that. And may Janâb-i Haqq bestow upon those who have fallen into that situation to listen, understand, and believe the life-giving order of Islam. As humanity, we are all brothers and sisters. That is due to our father Adam and our mother Hawwa (Eve). We must have a benevolent service to the humanity. The most benevolent service is to announce people these life-giving holy values of Allah, and Al-Quran Al-Karim comes first and foremost here, and there is also sunnah, and the order of Islam. Now, let us see what Janâb-i Haqq also said in these verses: [2:186] “fa-ʾinnī qarībun” “There is no mediator between Me and my servant.” You cannot pray to anyone other than Allah. [40:44] “wa-ʾufawwiḍu ʾamrī ʾilā llāhi ʾinna llāha baṣīrun bi-l-ʿibād” Please see the 44th and 60th verses of Surah al-Ghafir. “I entrust my affair with Allah,” he says. It is a Prophet who said that. The closeness mentioned here is due to Allah Ta’ala, not the servant. The servant would not be praying unless his heart is occupied with Allah. The utterance of the tongue means nothing here. One’s heart must be occupied with Allah. Moreover, the heart must be devoted to Allah. You shall say Allah with every fiber of your being. You shall beg to Allah wholeheartedly. You should know the meanings of the words that you use to supplicate to Allah, and that Allah listens you. You should make dua (prayer) by knowing that you need to supplicate, ask, and wish with every fiber of your being,  and that the words that come out of your mouth should be legitimate. This is why our elders said prayer is not valid unless one’s heart is occupied with Allah. Now, dearest friends! There is also the word “rafath” is mentioned. Insha ’Allah, our lesson will continue by discovering lots of words in Al-Quran Al-Karim. Moreover, let me give you some discovery notes as regards to fasting. So, it is said that all previous sins of the person who fasts in the month of ramadan al-sharif by waiting a reward from Allah, will be forgiven. That is, of course, small sins. Also, rightful dues are exceptions here, for rightful dues cannot be forgiven. It is a must for one to pay people their rightful dues. That is, if you violated their rights in the first place. It is necessary to pay rightful dues, and have them forgive you. That is why, when you fast like this, there are countless rewards and blessings for you. But there is also this good news. When minor sins are forgiven, major sins start becoming smaller. The major sins become minor ones via repentance. Repentance, and asking for forgiveness.

 

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However, if one insists on committing minor sins they shall grow and become major sins. It is important to be careful regarding these matters. That is, to abstain from seeing anyone but Allah. No matter where you look, live like you always see Allah. And Allah is the creator of all creatures. No matter what you see, at first, remember the Creator who created what you see. Abstain from seeing anyone other than Allah. No matter where you look at, know that the earth and the heavens are creations, or rather works of Allah. It is via that work you see the creativeness of the Creator. This goes for other sifāts (attributes), and names. When you hear the name, immediately think about its Owner. And when you hear the sifāt (attribute), think about the One who is described with that sifāt (attribute). You have to deduce from the name to sifāt (attribute), and see the true owner of its owner. You see, as this world and everything is a creation of Allah, we have to see the Creator right away, when we look at one of the creatures. Moreover, it is important to abstain from pleasures of the afterlife (ākhira). The afterlife (ākhira) belongs to Allah, for Allah created the Janna (Paradise), and Jahannam (Hell). So, what shall you do before the Janna (Paradise), and Jahannam (Hell)? What shall you do before tasting the pleasures of the afterlife (ākhira)? You have to remember they all belong to Allah. And remember that you can attain everything once you attain the riza (approval) of Allah, including the Janna (Paradise). You should try to earn the divine riza (approval). Thinking about Janna (Paradise) without remembering Allah is not a wise thing to do. Also, one should stay away from loving worldly things. You may use the world for Muslims are successors on earth, but it must not settle into your heart. The heart belongs to Allah. It should belong to Allah When love of world enters your heart, then love of Allah cannot enter it. for the love of world has entered once, and it refuses to get out, preventing love of Allah from entering. In that event, where is your love of Allah, and belief (iman) in Allah? You may live the worldly life; you may board the ship, but do not let water into the ship. When the ship takes in water, it will sink. And if you let world enter your heart, your heart will sink. The heart shall be bound to Allah, and it shall be filled to the brim with love of Allah. You shall love Allah wholeheartedly. Then, via that love, a new type of love that shall encompass all creatures will be formed. You see, that is the real, and true (haqq) love. A gentleman who enters his house bearing that love will reflect it to his spouse, and encompass her with it. And when the wife has the same love, it will also reflect to the husband. You see, that is the source of family happiness. This goes for their children, the nation, and the entire humanity. So, what shall be your opinion on all things in the universe, living and lifeless? You shall say that these are all creatures of your Rabb (Lord). And then, you will not be able to look at them with evil intentions, or do wrong to them. You shall want to use everything properly. And you will know how to use them. You may make use of the things that are lawful to use. From then on, spending your wealth for them, or rather generosity will become an essential addiction for you.

 

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You will take pleasure as you spend your wealth, for it is Allah who gave your wealth. Allah likes generosity. You shall find pleasure as you mention Allah. You shall find pleasure in worshipping Allah. You shall abhor all evil. At that time, goodness and beauty will prevail in you. In that event, you live under the encompassment of beauty. And the beauty in you will reflect to your family, the society, and the humanity. You see, this is the true model of personality. The model here is a true Muslim. Dearest friends, and most valuable listeners! Dearest audience! To refrain from sexual desires and lust is important. One should also refrain from other desires of the nafs (self), and one should have his nafs (self) worship Allah. One must not bow down to his nafs (self), and he has to refrain from sexual desire and lust. Feed your nafs (self) with what is halal (lawful) but do not spoil it. Do not let leave it hungry, feed it with what is halal (lawful), but do not waste anything. When you think properly going after sexual desires is unnecessary, because there is halal (lawful) nikah (marriage). What is halal (lawful) brings you reward (thawāb). And it is a worship. And true pleasure and bliss is there. There cannot be bliss in haram (sinful) things, such as fornication. That is why, to refrain from sexual desires and lusts is a primary objective for a Muslim, and this goes for all types of evil. You should observe the fast with your entire body, and your self (nafs). They should be worshipping Allah. The entirety of your soul and body should obey Allah. That is why, dearest friends! I’tikaaf is a worship that chastens the nafs (self). You see, another one of the worships that may get you closer to the riza (approval) of Janâb-i Haqq and also enhance your perfection (ihsan) is i’tikaaf. This is a worship that is actually a sunnah (custom). This can be done in a big mosque. This is a collective sunnah. It is a sunnah al-kifaya (collective sunnah) to stay ten days in a mosque while fasting, after the twentieth day of ramadan al-sharif. You see, this worship is all about chastening the nafs (self). Janâb-i Haqq made these two ibadats (worships) as means for earning ample reward (thawāb). Allah made this in order to bestow upon the servants. You see, each and every act of worship in Islam is a favor, and a life. Allah gives you life via those acts of worship, and equips you with fazeelat (bounty). Also, in fiqh (jurisprudence) there are principles called Sedd-i Zerîa which means, “to prevent loss,”. Do not overstep the boundaries of Allah. In other words, do not go near what Allah prohibited. There are haram (sinful) things, sins, and forbidden territories. So, do not go near what Janâb-i Haqq declared haram (sinful) in Islam. This is because Janâb-i Haqq has ordered you to follow the rules that prevent your loss. Allah saves you and the humanity from loss, by means of the keeping you away from what Allah declared haram and sin. You see, this is an utter trial. So, please contemplate on that with deep thought, and do not forget that the commandments of Allah protect you, and give you life.

 

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There is also the word “batil”. The word “batil” means illegitimate. The things that are not valid, or haram (sinful) are called batil. Batil practices are not valid, and not acceptable. There is also the word “tetlû”. Janâb-i Haqq says do not bribe a judge. In other words, do not try to prove legitimatize yourself by means of bribing. It is transgression for unjust people to become rightful by means of bribing. That is a person who violates people’s rights. And those who violate people’s rightful dues will all go bankrupt in the Great Gathering (Mahshar). They will lose all their worships for they will be given to those whose rightful dues are violated. That is why if a Muslim does wrong to someone, he would actually be fouling his own nest. This is why Muslims should not fall into a situation where he is wrong. He should not even think about violating people’s rights. Let us see what Abu Ayyub al-Ansari says about the 195th verse of Surah al-Baqarah. In that verse, Janâb-i Haqq says: “Do not throw yourself into danger with your own hands,”. And Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (r.a.) who rests in Istanbul is a grand figure from the Ansar, and companions of our Prophet. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari says that the greatest danger is to abandon jihad (struggle). He says that being occupied with wealth is the real danger. He says that he who loses jihad (struggle) loses everything. Dearest friends! The truth is, the number of months is twelve in the presence of Allah. This is (how it is written) in the record of Allah on the day Allah created the heavens and the earth. The sacred months are Dhu al-Qadah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab. In this verse Janâb-i Haqq informs us about the months. That is, in the 36th verse of Surah al-Tawbah. There is also a warning as regards to batil (wrong) beliefs. They enter their houses and tents not through the door but from the back, and they consider this piety and good luck. The customary regulations (adat) of the Jahiliyyah (ignorance) Period have been removed. All batil (wrong) beliefs and superstitions have been removed via Islam. Islam is a truth and a reality. Islam is a complete science, and knowledge (ilm). And aql-e-saleem (pure intellect) is under the command of the divine revelation. That is why, in the religion of Islam things that are not in accord with aql-e-saleem (pure intellect), wahy-i ilahi (divine revelation), and science have been denied. We see that aql-e-saleem (pure intellect) is subject to divine revelation (wahy-i ilahi). So, our intellect is means of distinguishing between what is superstion and what is not. Our intellect is a means to understand the true meaning of the divine revelation (wahy-i ilahi). We have to study the revelation (wahy) via our intellect, contemplation, and intelligence in order to understand it. That is why we say may Janâb-i Haqq make us blissful servants who are happy at the service of the truth (haqq), who knows the truth (haqq) as it is, who knows batil (wrong) as it is, who are averse to batil (wrong) beliefs, who keep up with the truth (haqq). And now let us continue our lesson with verses of the glorious Quran. Verily, Al-Quran Al-Karim encompasses more than all oceans.

 

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It encompasses more than all seas. It is more encompassing than the space. This is because the order Allah established is the manifestation of the most exalted knowledge (ilm), and words of Allah. That is why we say that the source of eternal bliss is Islam itself. That is, the verses of Al-Quran Al-Karim. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. We continue with our 38th lesson. So, let us continue our lesson with the 186th verse of Surah al-Baqarah. We continue with the divine lessons of the life-giving divine life, which are the holy verses of Quran. You see, the life given by the holy verses of Quran is the true life. [2:186] “wa-ʾidhā saʾalaka ʿibādī ʿannī fa-ʾinnī qarībun ʾujību daʿwata d-dāʿi ʾidhā daʿāni fa-l-yastajībū lī wa-l-yuʾminū bī laʿallahum yarshudūn” Janâb-i Haqq said: “If my servants ask you about Me, “I am indeed quite near.” In this verse, Allah answers to those who ask whether Allah is near or far. Allah says, “I am indeed quite near.” “I answer the prayer of the one who prays me when he prays. So, they should respond to my invitation and properly believe in Me. so that they may find the right path. You see, beloved friends! Janâb-i Haqq gives us life via these verses that shed light.

 

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–          The End        –

 

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