Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 55-58
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 55
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
This is our 55th lesson, and we continue our life-giving lessons. We shall do our utmost for all people so that they may attain the blissful life.
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Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 56
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
Janâb-i Haqq sent the glorious Quran, the nūr (light) of Islam, and Prophet Muhammad upon the worlds as a rahmat (mercy), so that people may find life, be happy, and that they may earn the blissful end, and that they may follow the way to freedom.
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Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 28
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
A grand allâme (man of knowledge), Fakhr al-Din al-Razi had conveyed the following hadith: “Lâ yekbelullâhu müsemmiîn velâ mürâin velâ mennânin,”. “Allah does not accept anything from a sûmmaji,”. Sûmmaji is he who does what he does for showing off. “Allah does not accept anything from a mûrai, nor a mennân,”. Now, mûrai is he who displays vanity, and mennân is he who uses reproach to influence the people he helped. It is said that Allah does not accept anything from such people. This is, of course, a narration (rivayat) that came from our Prophet. And Fakhr al-Din al-Razi is present in the sources of this narration (rivayat). Now, Janâb-i Haqq does not accept anything from a sûmmaji. So, who is a sûmmaji? That is those who do good deeds in order to show off. And it is said that Allah does not accept from a mûrai. So, who is a mûrai? They are those who display vanity. “Or, a mennân,” so who is a mennân? A mennân is he who influence people with reproach. A mennân may do a favor but uses reproach to influence the person for whom he did the favor. He harms the honor and pride of that person, and rubs his nose in the favor he has done. It is said that Allah does not accept anything from such people. What a horrible thing indeed.
Now, what does Janâb-i Haqq accept then? Allah accepts the ibadat (worships) that are done with ikhlas. What is ikhlas? Ikhlas (sincerity) is doing everything for Allah, because Allah commanded you. Ikhlas (sincerity) is doing the ibadat (worships) only for the riza (approval) of Allah, and because Allah is worthy of ibadat (worship).
Ikhlas (sincerity) is disconnecting from everything when starting a worship, and living according to the command and riza (approval) of Allah, without thinking otherwise. You see, when one does these, his ibadat (worship) that is done with ikhlas (sincerity) is certainly an ibadat (worship) that is encompassed by the nūr (light) of tawhid (monotheism). That is, loving what Allah loves for Allah; and to criticize those who are criticized by Allah for Allah. In other words, we the command belongs completely to Allah, and we are the aide servants (qul). Those who fear from rīyā (showing off) used to give alms to the blind people. Some other would secretly place it in the pockets of the poor while they are asleep. You see, some of the Muslims who fear from rīyā (showing off) used to give alms to the blind people for they cannot see who gave them. Some other would secretly place it in the pockets of the poor while they are sleeping, only to stay away from rīyā (showing off). These are examples of the ibadat (worships) performed by people who only wanted to show it to Allah. Then again, the following is a hadith narrated (rivayat) in Kutub al-Sittah: “The most virtuous sadaqa is being able to secretly donate the highest amount you can afford,”. Now, everyone may give sadaqa (alms), but not everyone can give the highest possible amount they can afford, one has to be truly generous to do it. Let us discover another hadith-i sharif. In another hadith-i sharif which is present in Kitab At-Targhib Wat Tarhib, it is said that a person who had two golds donates half of it. You see, the worth of his goods and properties were two golds, and he donated half of it.
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Whereas the other could only give one hundred thousand dinars while he has thousands of dinars in his possession. And the narration says that the one who gave one of the two dinars have surpassed the one who gave one hundred thousand. But how did he surpass? You see, the one who had two dinars donated half of it, and he had only two dinars, but the one who donated one hundred thousand dinars had much more in his possession. His wealth was much more than two hundred thousand dinars. That is how he surpassed, for the one latter could not even donate half of his wealth. So, he one who gave one of the two dinars surpassed the one who gave one hundred thousand dinars, because Allah looks at the generosity of the heart. Now, this part is important so please pay attention. This narration (rivayat) came from our Prophet (asw) and it is present in Kutub al-Sittah. And Kutub al-Sittah is a collection of authentic sources, rather it is the primary source of hadith. Our Prophet said, “The most virtuous sadaqa (alms) is to give the highest possible amount one can afford,”.
In another rivayat (narration) that is conveyed in Al-Munzir and also in Kitab At-Targhib Wat Tarhib, our Prophet said, “Allah writes it as a concealed good when one does khayr (good) by concealing, and if he/she discloses it, then Allah will no longer write it as a concealed good,”. And said, “If he mentions it, Allah will write it as rīyā (showing off),”.
Let us say someone did a khayr (good) by concealing it, but he announced it later. What does Janâb-i Haqq do then? Allah removes it from the group of concealed good acts. And let us say that he started mentioning it, saying he has done this or that. In that case his act stops being a khayr (good), and “it is written as rīyā (showing off),” said our Prophet.
O, Muslims! Get your head together! Do khayr (good) only for Allah, and never do these for vanity, rīyā (showing off), and never in order to exercise control over people. Your actions will go in vain, and it will be a pity. Yet, those who receive your alms may benefit, but the giver should benefit as well. Islam does not want anyone’s loss, rather it wants everyone to profit. That is why the giver should not lose either, and the giver and receiver should both benefit. So, what is the duty that falls on us here? That is to speak the truths, and stay away from sycophantic attitude, and obsequiousness. We should never speak without investigating whether it is true.
Then again, in Bukhari Sharif and Kutub al-Sittah, our Prophet said, “Allah takes he who does not let his left hand know what your right hand is doing when giving to the poor under Allah’s own shadow,”.
The worlds and everything belong to Allah. Allah may take him under the shadow of the ʿArsh (the Throne), or the summits of Misk-i Amber. Allah may take him wherever Allah wants, for everything belongs to Allah.
“In the Great Gathering (Mahshar), one of the seven classes had done khayr (good) so secretly that their left hand did not know what their right hand was doing.” They would only seek the riza (approval) of Allah, and nothing else.
Moreover, as al-Tirmidhi’s rivayat (narration) in Fayz al-Qadir, “That which is given (i.e. alms) secretly shall cools the Rabb’s fire of anger,”. In other words, if the wrath of Janâb-i Haqq is incurred, and if punishment is coming, the khayrs (good) and sadaqa (alms) that were given secretly will cool the anger of Allah. That is, Allah will lay the anger aside. And if Allah was to give punishment, then Allah will either forsake, forgive, or postpone it.
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The entourage participates in it when you give a gift openly. In other words, it is said that if you have given a gift to someone, then those who are with him are also in on it. Therefore, we should never forget that the love of Islam is a social affection, and that generosity has a social aspect.
The lights of m’arifat shine through the heart, all the waswas (satanic whispers) are gone, and all desires of the person has died, and the heart has dived into the sea of a’zamat (grandeur). There are people like this, and when they give alms openly, they actually promote people to khayr (good). So, giving alms openly will not harm them, and they still earn its benefits. That is, the ones whose hearts are filled to brim with lights of m’arifat, and rīyā (showing off) cannot draw near them. All the waswas (satanic whispers) are gone, and the desires of the heart has died. Their hearts have dived into the oceans of the a’zamat (grandeur) of Allah, and they do not get harmed when they disclose their alms, for rīyā (showing off) cannot draw near them, and they become completely devoted to the Real (al-Haqq).
They have seen the Divine, and others cannot influence them any longer. So, what does it mean when they disclose their alms? They would be promoting people to do khayr (good). Disclosing the good does not harm them, and they gain the benefits.
Now, in the 75th verse of Surah al-Furqan, Janâb-i Haqq said, “They are given the highest place of Janna (Paradise) in return of their patience. They shall be met with respect and peace.” These are the venerable figures who are steadfast in the way of Allah, for a life by practicing Islam from a to z require a powerful belief (iman), and with that powerful belief (iman) there is a powerful patience.
Those people are steadfast as they perform their worships, their good deeds, and all the necessities of Islam. The strength of belief (iman) is perseverance (sabr), and the strength of perseverance (sabr) is living Islam with pleasure, and being steadfast while living it.
Besides, abandoning all harams and sins is also in proportion with the strength of the perseverance (sabr) and the belief (iman). That is why they have the highest places of Janna in return of their perseverance (sabr). Those places will be given to them, and they will be met with respect and peace.
Then again, in the 159th verse of Surah al-A’raf, there is a people among the Jews who believe in Prophet Muhammad, and they guide with the truth, and they are just. Why did Allah say this here? There has always been a community in the ummahs (nations) of the many prophets. However, when the influence of that community becomes ineffective and evil people take the authority, then peace will be gone and storms will begin. Yet there has always been a community that speak the truth (haqq). There is also a community in Muhammad’s nation that shall continue to exist until Last Day (Qiyamah).
Moreover, in the 110th verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran, Allah says: “You are the best ummah (nation) produced for people,” and that is the ummah (nation) of Muhammad. And, “You are the best ummah (nation) produced for the better good of the people, you order goodness, and prohibit evil, and you believe in Allah with every fibre of your being and with a real belief (haqq iman).”
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That is a characteristic of the ummah (nation) of Muhammad. This haqiqi (righteous) nation shall preserve its characteristics and traits until the Last Day (Qiyamah). Then again, in the 181st verse of Surah al-A’raf, Allah says: “There is always a people who guide to the truth (haqq), and establish justice therewith,”. The people mentioned here is the ummah (nation) of Muhamad, and the Islamic nation. And in the 182th verse of Surah al-A’raf, Allah says: “We lead the deniers to their destruction [with istidraaj] step by step,” says Janâb-i Haqq. The success and rise of a disbeliever are an istidraaj (gradual destruction). And what is an istidraaj? Istidraaj is ascending a person only to toss him down. Janâb-i Haqq lets them rise at first, and then tosses them down. For example, the Iblis (Devil) roams about the West and the East, and this is an istidraaj. The Iblis (Devil) roams about in the West and the East, but he cannot leave the first layer of the heavens, yet he can roam about below. But his speed and abilities are not karamat (wonder), and they are certainly not mujizat (miracle). Rather, it is an istidraaj (gradual destruction). Those who go too far in disbelief (kufr) and polytheism (shirk) have gone too deep in rebellion, and they have dereke (degradation). Those who go too far in kufr (disbelief) have istidraaj. They always go straight down, deeper and deeper. They go towards the deepest point of Jahannam. However, those who rise with belief (iman) and Islam ascend towards the peaks of Janna (Paradise). They rise step by step.
Moreover, in the 103rd verse of Surah at-Tawbah, Janâb-i Haqq said: “Take sadaqa (alms) from their goods,” in other words take their alms, both obligatory (zakat) and voluntary (sadaqa), and take the amount from the goods of the rich in the necessary amount “to purify and bless them,” said Allah. We see here that charity and goodness purify the wealth at first, for there are poor-dues in it, and as long as he/she does not pay the dues of those in need, the wealth of the rich cannot be purified. In that case, it is filthy, and got mixed in haram, but they can be purified and blessed. As you see, it is an essential to take from the rich and give to the poor in the order of Allah. You can protect the capital, the labour, and the poor by ensuring the balance. That is why, Allah said, “Your dua (prayer) is quiescence upon them, so do pray for them,” to our Prophet. “Your dua (pray) will ease their hearts, and Allah (c.c.) is All-Hearing and All-Knowing,”. It is Allah who makes everyone in all worlds hear and see. It is Allah who makes us live. And Allah makes us talk. Allah makes us comprehend. Allah gives us aql (intellect) and success. It is Allah who gives us strength and power, for everything belongs to Allah. The life belongs to Allah, creation belongs to Allah, the command belongs to Allah. All the leaders of hidayat (guidance), flagbearers of the religion (din), and masters of the folk, to whom do they lead to? They lead to Allah, and they invite you to Allah. As for deviant leaders, deviant pioneers, and taghuti (idolatrous) mindsets, fake darwīshes, and fake sheikhs, all call people to themselves, not to Allah.
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They make the poor and ignorant folk deify them. Yet the real guides, and people of real ilm (knowledge) who are the pioneers of hidayat (guidance), the flag bearers of the religion, and the masters of the folk call to Allah, not themselves. They do not call people to deify themselves. The real âlims, foremost prophets, are the true pioneers of hidayat (guidance), and these people always call to Allah, and they always direct people to the way that goes to Allah, and the lead people to Allah. It is easy and good to travel with those who know those roads. Do not fare with those who do not know the roads, especially with those who are blind. The leaders who do not know the road and ask guidance from blind people, the fake darwīshes, fake pioneers, fake sheikhs, and blind people who do not know the road will lead you to blind holes, and you will fall into them one by one, and you will topple down. You will find yourself in Jahannam before you know it.
On the other hand, if you fare with knowledge (ilm), irfan (learning), and pioneers of hidayat (guidance), the flag bearers of the religion, and masters of the folk, you will have good luck, and your work will become easier, and all will be peace and bliss, but why? You are faring with those who know the road, but what does this mean? It means that you should follow a learned man, at least a mujtahid. You see, we have mujtahids. We have revered mujtahids. The way of Islam is clear, and its ilms (sciences) are defined, and its sources are defined. If people act in unison with those who know, then our work is guaranteed.
He used to perform fard namāzs (obligatory prayers) always with jama’ah, and he would perform the nafila (voluntary) ones in his house. Who? Prophet Muhammad (asw). Even in the battlefields he would always perform his namaz with jama’ah.
Zakat (alms) is given to the believers (mu’mins).
The hukm (decree) does not apply to past events, just like the interest (riba) before Islam. Islam removes all past decrees before it but new decrees are valid for the current and future events, not past ones.
Asma bint Abi Bakr (r.a.). Asma bint Abi Bakr’s mother Qutaylah and her grandmother were polytheists. They had asked for something from Asma, and she told them that she cannot give anything prior to asking for permission from Rasulullah, for they were not from her religion. The person who said that was Asma (r.a.). She is the sister-in-law of our Prophet, and the daughter of Abu Bakr, and she is also the sister of our mother Aisha.
Nafila sadaqa (voluntary alms) can be given to all nations as the case may be. So, what did our Prophet say to her? Our Prophet had told her to fulfil their needs. You see, her mother Qutaylah and her grandmother were polytheist, and they had asked for something from Asma, and she consulted to our Prophet, and our Prophet told her to give sadaqa (alms), and fulfil their needs.
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Nafila sadaqa (voluntary alms) can be given to all nations according to the situation. However, what is essential is in the 273rd verse of Surah al-Baqarah. Please pay attention to this verse! The mujahideen (fighters) and those who devote themselves to ilm (knowledge) are foremost, and one should choose them first. Do not ever forget this, and I am giving the number of the verse too. It is the 273rd verse of Surah al-Baqarah. So, read it carefully. When you want to do good, give alms, or any kind of help, or when you mobilize all your means for the people, start with these first: mujahideen (fighters) and those who devote themselves to ilm (knowledge). The work these two classes of people do is the most benevolent and most important work. Their work is the greatest amel (deeds). Besides, these people do not have the chance to do trade. That is why there is benefit for the all people in starting from these two classes.
The mujahideen (fighters) protects the humanity against tyrants and despots. They are the brave fellows who stand up against disbelief, polytheism, nifaq (discord), fitnah (strife), and zulm (tyranny). They do their jihad (struggle) in the front line. As for those who devote themselves to knowledge (ilm) and learning (irfan), they save people from ignorance, and they establish the predominance of social justice. It is important not to forget that the mother of all evil is ignorance. The first entity we should know is Allah Ta’ala. And we shall know Allah by the Names, Attributes, and the Book that is Al-Quran Al-Karim. We shall know Almighty Allah via Muhammad (asw).
“Allah likes those with iffat (chastity), and those who protect it.” What does “to have iffat (chastity)” mean? It means utmost honor, modesty, and virtuousness. In this hadith-i sharif narrated (rivayat) by Ibn-i Masud (r.a.), it is said that Allah likes those with iffat, and those who protect it. Allah does not like those who exceed the limit in praise and invective, the brazen, the impudent, the beggar, and the self-assertive. So, who are unliked by Allah? Those who exceed their limit in praising, who praise the taghuts (false gods). They praise those who do not deserve it. They praise the enemies of Allah and flatter them. Al Also, there are those who exceed their limit in profanity, they start swearing them. Then there are the impudent, shameless, self-assertive beggars, Allah does not like them either. These are narrated in Fayz al-Qadir by Ibn Majah as well.
It is said that Allah makes those who abstain from greed rich. Wealth is richness of the heart, and those who are greedy are always poor. They are still poor in spite of all their wealth, but those with rich hearts who abstain from greed are surely made rich by Allah. Allah increases the honor, izzat (glory), and iffat (chastity) of those who abstain from impudence who try to protect their iffat (chastity). This is a hadith-i sharif narrated (rivayat) by al-Tirmidhi and Ahmad ibn Hanbali: “It is better to carry wood on you back and sell it than begging,”. This is important! Manual labour is the most makbul (acceptable) earning in Islam. Being one of the prophets, Davud (David) Alaihissalam was also like that. He would wrap the food he bought with his own earnings and carry it, and he would eat only from his manual labour, he would not even touch his sons’ earnings.
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Labour is the most acceptable (makbul) earning, and there is appetite, cure, and provision in it. Feed your body, organs, systems, flesh, blood, and bones with halal (lawful) earned food. Do not ever eat what is haram (sinful), and try to abstain from even the doubted things.
We continue to announce you these reports that shed hikmat (wisdom), the life-giving divine commandments, and the words of the Prophet, and the life-giving and glorious values of Al-Quran Al-Karim.
Biat is a pledge of allegiance. Now, there is biat in Islam, and it is a pledge of loyalty. So, what does it mean? It means that you should stand by your word. And which word is it? It is the promise you have given to Allah when you said, “lā ʾilāha ʾillallāh, Muḥammad rasūlu llāh,”. With that promise you accept being a Muslim. You have given a promise to Allah, saying you shall believe and live all of the values of Islam. You have promised to protect it, and work to establish the predominance of iʻlā‐i kalimatullah (word of Allah) in the world. You have given a promise to the Prophet, the Muslims, and the entire humankind. You have established the Islamic nation and the Islamic state, and you have taken on a duty, and you have pledged your allegiance to the one who is leading you. It is said that this biat is a pledge of allegiance, and you should keep your pledge. This pledge shall not be broken, and you shall keep it forever.
Now, let us try to say a few words about Ashab-i Suffah. Ashab-i Suffah are the disciples of the school of the Prophet, who devoted themselves to the way of Allah. The Ashab-i Suffah were in Madinah, who were educated in somewhere in Masjid an-Nabī. They have studied in the school of the Prophet, and they graduated from it. There were deserted, needy, poor, and wretched people, and they became the Ashab-i Suffah. They graduated from the school, and they became governors (wali) of the cities, and others became generals. This is important. Each and every one of those who studied in the school of the Prophet and graduated had become extraordinary heroes, and unprecedented states people, and governors. These were deserted, poor and homeless people at the beginning. They learned ilm (knowledge). They learned Al-Quran Al-Karim. They learned hadith-i sharif, and they observed the fast. There were almost four hundred of them, and they were all abid (devout), zahit (austere), and mujahideen (fighter) people. Radeyallahu anhum wa ardahum ajmain.
Moreover, in the 122nd verse of Surah at-Tawbah, Janâb-i Haqq said that in state of war, leave the people of ilm (knowledge) behind to enlighten every segment of society. This is important. The religion of Islam, and Janâb-i Haqq do not neglect the front lines, nor the nation that is left behind. So, what does Allah say here? “In order to enlighten every segment of society, leave the people of ilm (knowledge) behind,”. “Do not take them to the battle, but leave them behind, so that they may spread the knowledge and learning to the society.
You see, the people of ilm (knowledge) conquer the hearts. They conquer the hearts, and work for the sincerity (ikhlas) of the selves. The mother of all evil is ignorance, and people of ilm (science) clear that ignorance.
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And what do they do with their knowledge (ilm) and learning (irfan)? They educate the society to settle these in the hearts, souls, and brains. They guide, and spread the knowledge (ilm) and learning (irfan). Islam foresees that in state of war education will discontinue, and Janâb-i Haqq commands that some people shall employ themselves in education. As for the sadaqa and zakat (alms) should be given to those who perform jihad (struggle) in front-lines and those who are busy with knowledge (ilm) at first. Thereafter, alms can be given to the poor and needy in the population. Islam is a social state. The necessary aid should be given to all poor people, and the social state do its part. A just distribution of the national income should be reflected to the society in a just manner.
Our Prophet said this to Ashab-i Suffah: “O, Ashab-i Suffah! Those of you who join me in the state you are in are my friends,” he said. This is a narration (rivayat) that came from Ibn Abbas (r.a.). Let us pay attention to this hadith. Our Prophet (asw), said the following to Ashab-i Suffah: “O, Ashab-i Suffah! Those of you who join me in this state you are in are my friends,” he said because the Ashab-i Suffah were studying in the school of the Prophet. They studied in there, and they participated in important missions and important places.
They even spread to many places on earth in order to spread Islam. They went to Turkistan, Africa, Anatolia, and Tripolitania, and many important places of the world. Those who could afford travelled distances to announce the truth (haqq). They called the entire humanity to the life-giving and glorious Islam; in other words, they were calling people to Allah. They called people to sovereignty of Allah who is One, and Islam that is the law and order of Allah.
Ali ibn Abi Talib (r.a.) only had four dirhams of silver. It is narrated that he had donated one in daylight, one at night, one by disclosing, and one in secret. Our Prophet (asw) asked him, “O, Ali! Why did you do this?”. Ali said, “I did this to be entitled to the promise of my Rabb (Lord),”.
So, what did Janâb-i Haqq say? “Day and night, openly and in secret, they spend their wealth in my way,” said Janâb-i Haqq. And Ali only had four dirhams, and just like Allah Ta’ala commanded in the verse, he had spent all four, one in daylight, one at night, one openly, and one secretly. He did that so that he would give all four dirhams by following the command of his Rabb (Lord).
Moreover, Ashab-i Gûzin had implemented whatever Quran said into their lives. He followed the command even though he had only four dirhams. He does not say that he lacks the wealth. He does not say that he is a poor man; and what will he or his house folk eat or drink if he gives that four dirhams? He did not say this but why? This is because they pinned their faith on Allah. They do not see Allah as someone far away. They know that Allah is closer to them then their own selves.
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They believed with a real iman (belief), that is why Abu Bakr was rich, and some people reproved him when he donated his entire wealth. They said the he had spent his entire wealth, leaving nothing behind for his wife and children. When they asked him, “What did you leave behind?” He would say, “I left Allah and the Rasul (Messenger),”. So, what does it mean? It means a complete iman (belief). He knew that Allah Ta’ala was closer to him than himself. And that the originator of all blessings (nimet) is Allah. He had a complete faith, and this is the iman of a siddiq (trustworthy). And you may see the iman of a faruq when you look at Umar and Zinnurayn. You see this iman (belief), when you look at Hz. Ali el-Murtezâ. Radeyallahu anhum wa ardahum ajmain. You see this iman (belief) in all of them.
The other sahabah (companions) are also like this, though they have grades. “Leke zalike,” said our Prophet to Ali. What did he say? Our Prophet (asw) said, “The verses you have said, these were sent down for those who fed the jihad horses,” according to a narration (rivayat). In other words, he said that he had earned a reward with his action. And that reward belongs to him only. That is what our Prophet said to him, and then he celebrated him. So, our Prophet said, “This reward belongs to you only,” and then said that the verses were sent down for those who fed the jihad horses.
And today, the Muslims should always be prepared to help the mujahideen (fighters) and those who devote themselves to knowledge (ilm) both financially and morally. Muslims should have a national defence, and their investment in knowledge (ilm) and learning (irfan) should be at the sufficient level. This is for the peace and conciliation in the world. Muslims have to be powerful. You must be the most powerful nation in the world in two things. One if science and education (ilm and irfan) and the other is economy. Only then you will not be the receivers but the givers who save those in the need. Only then you will be the peacekeepers. Otherwise, if you do not become the most powerful nation in these things, you will live under the rule of imposers, and live as slaves of despots. You and the humanity will suffer, and the world cannot be saved from turmoil. Those who produce terror are tyrants. They factionalize the humanity. They are the ones who do not acknowledge the laws and the rulership of Allah. They are the terrorists who produce terror. The humankind is created as free beings. As long as rights and liberties are not given to everyone in the sufficient amount, one side will live in the world of lords, and the other side will have a hard time finding daily bread, and bombs will rain down upon them at the same time. Can there be peace in such a world?
Besides, what is essential is to evaluate the conditions of the time, and spend in the best possible way. In other words, you have to evaluate the conditions of the age you live in well. You must have a deterrent power in science (ilm), economy, knowledge (ilm), learning (irfan), scientific studies, and national defence. You must have the deterrent power of justice in your hands.
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You must hold the power of justice, and be the peacekeeper so that you may protect the peace against the tyrants. That way you can establish a continuous peace in the world.
A cohesion and constant circulation between individual and general economy is crucial. This is important. A cohesion and constant circulation between individual and general economy is crucial. Circulation in the economy must be ensured in a just manner by relying on the principles of justice, by staying away from exploitation, and by protecting both labour and capital.
In the 29th verse of Surah al-Isra, Janâb-i Haqq says, “Do not be among the tight-fisted (ungenerous) ones, and do not be a waster, or you will be blamed, and you will regret,”. Now, these are life-giving and divine advices.
And if you fail to protect the justice and the social state against the tyrants, then they will siphon off the banks before your very eyes, and they will exploit the rights of the orphans. These are marked and big thefts, those who do these are bandits, and vampires. They have no mercy. They do not have mercy for the nation, for they are the enemies of the nation. They do not think about the homeland, for they are the traitors. They collapse the economy and make the state and the nation be in need of others. They wish to destroy the homeland with a swift strike, for they have the mindset of vampires.
You have to shield the social justice against them. You have to protect the rights of the nation, and the social state. When we look at today’s world, we see a system of exploitation. That is why one side is living on the capital, and the others are poor. The distribution of income is not just, that is why there are countless hungry and miserable people in the world, and there is no peace.
People are being killed in masses. Islam is here to stand against these imposers, and to establish the true justice, true sovereignty, and true peace under the rulership of Allah. Islam itself will do this! They say, “antiquated”. Allah cannot be antiquated, and the Book Quran cannot be antiquated. Islam or the decrees (hukm) in Islam cannot be antiquated.
Those who violently defraud the humanity do not believe in Allah, the Prophet, or the Book. They are worse than monsters, and only they are more antiquated than the concept of antiquatedness.
They do not have mercy for the humanity. As for Islam, it is the manifestation of the mercy and grace of Allah upon all worlds. Islam is the embodiment of Allah’s mercy, and implementation of Allah’s justice. Islam is the rulership of Allah. If you know Islam but pose it as the religion of a sheikh, as if it is the order of that sheikh, that leader, this or that political party, or this or that pioneer you would be defaming and slandering Allah. If you pose Islam as the religion of this or that person by showing a caliph who did not do his duty, then you would be defaming Allah. Islam is the religion of the entire humanity. Allah is the Rabb (Lord) of all the worlds. Who do you think you are defaming? Do you think a firefly represents the Sun? Do you think the Sun and the stars came to existence via a firefly? Or did everyone take their light from the Sun? Everyone took their light from Islam, and they shall continue to do so, for Islam is a light that Allah lit, and it is a light that shall never fade.
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If they refuse to believe, then they would put out their own iman (belief), and that is it. It would be a pity for them, and we also pity them. Our goal is to ensure that no one is at a loss, and no one’s iman (belief) fades away, but we cannot force anyone to believe. Just like we cannot force anyone to disbelieve, we cannot force them to believe. We can only bid the Real (al-Haqq) to them, and convey the message to them. We present them the truth, and invite them as much as we can. We call them to Allah, but not ourselves. We are all servants (qul) of Allah. Therefore, we cannot call people to ourselves. Those who call to themselves are the ones who divided the humanity. They shred Muslims to pieces. They and their patrons divided the humanity, as if they divided groups of sheep to place them in different farms. That is not Islam. Islam is the assurance of the rights and liberties of the humanity, and the real freedom. Islam is to be subject to Allah, and to live free from everything other than Allah. Islam is independence and freedom. Islam is being subject to Allah, and to be free from everything other than Allah. That is an independent freedom, which is a complete liberty, and a state of subjection to Allah.
What would happen if you do not stay subjected to Allah, and enter into someone else’s command? That someone became your god. When you do not accept Allah, and enter into the service of a mortal, you are either worshiping your own self (nafs), or you are under someone’s command. So, are you free now? True freedom is possible under the rulership of Allah Ta’ala. It is possible by subjection to Allah. It happens by abiding by the laws and commands of Allah, and implementing them.
It is Allah Ta’ala who gave you freedom and liberty while creating you, and the guarantor of the liberty is only Allah Ta’ala. That is manifested upon the worlds with Islam. Islam is not to blame if someone implemented it wrong. It is not Islam’s fault if they did not implement it correctly. The blame is on those who do not know Islam correctly. As for Islam, it is the embodiment of the rights and realities (haqq and haqiqa), and all that is true.
Now, in a hadith-i sharif narrated (rivayat) by Ibn Majah and Ahmad ibn Hanbali, Janâb-i Haqq said: “El miksirune hum humul esfelune ya nabi Allahi illa men,”. Let us see what is meant here. The polytheists (musrikun), those who collect exorbitant wealth who do it by exploiting the rights of the nation in illegitimate ways are rascals.
“O, the Rasul (Messenger) of Allah! Who is an exception?” they asked. Our Prophet said, “they are rascals,” over and over again. Our master said, “they are rascals again, again, and again,”. Then, in the end he said, “those who spend in the way of Allah in all four sides are exceptions,”. That is, they turn right and spend for Allah, they turn left and spend, they face forward and backward and spend for Allah. These are exceptions. Otherwise, those who exploit the rights of the people in illegitimate ways who collect exorbitant fortune do not know that there are poor-dues in that wealth, they carry those dues in their pockets, and those who refuse to pay them are vile people, “they are rascals, rascals, and rascals,” said our Prophet. And the sahabah (companions) asked, “O, Rasulullah! Is there no exception to this?” In the end, our Prophet said, “Those who spend in the way of Allah in all four sides are exceptions,”. They are those who rule over their wealth, for the wealth should not master you. Your fortune should not rule you, rather you should rule your wealth.
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They are exceptions, and he said they are few in numbers. Now, please pay attention. They are few in numbers, because when Allah gives too much wealth to someone they go astray, and when Allah gives too little, they deviate. Janâb-i Haqq has arranged khayr (good) for everyone. Allah set everyone’s fitrah (innate nature) to what is good for them, but some people have distorted this fitrah (innate nature) later.
Some say the hukm (decree) was assigned with the 60th verse of Surah at-Tawbah.
“La sarefe fil khayri,” – “There is no extravagance in good (khayr) (i.e. charity),”. For example, let us say that you have done so many charities and good (khayr), can there be extravagance here? No. However, there may be extraordinary situations such as state of war, in those situations there has to be a national wealth. The wealth must be evaluated on a national scale in such events.
Let us talk about the attitude of the ansar (helpers) and their aid to the muhajirs (immigrants). How did the ansar get their name? The Muslims of Madinah had helped the muhajirs (immigrants), thus they became the ansar (helpers). In other words, Janâb-i Haqq gave the name “ansar – helpers” to those who help people in the way of Allah, the muhajirs (immigrants), and those who protected the poor. Al-Quran Al-Karim praises the muhajirs, for they migrated in the way of Allah. It praises the ansar (helpers) as well. Al-Quran Al-Karim has praised these two classes of people. These two classes of people deserve to be praised until the Last Day (Qiyamah).
“Kâdel fakru eyyekune kufran,” a narration (rivayat) in Kashf-ul-Hafā that says, “There shall be disbelief (kufr) where there is poverty,”. Now, people may fall into such situations, and being in the need of others is a terrible danger for people. A Muslim should not be in need of anyone other than Allah, he should be in this endeavour. That is, poverty may bring such a moment that will leave you face-to-face with a danger of disbelief (kufr). That is why our Prophet said, “There shall be disbelief (kufr) where there is poverty,”. In other words, poverty may bring about such settings that will leave you face-to-face with falling into disbelief (kufr). For example, some people change their religion in return of wealth and fortune, and what is this? This is a complete disbelief (kufr). That is why he/she who abandon Islam has abandoned belief (iman), and adopted disbelief (kufr), due to this or that reason. The circumstances may vary from person to person, or according to the setting and conditions. However, one thing is essential. That is, the Muslims should endeavour to be the givers not the receivers. They should also endeavour to not be in need of anyone other than Allah. Throughout our history the poor people among the ahlul kitab (people of the book) and non-Muslims received aid from the Muslims.
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– The End –
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 58
We continue with our 58th lesson. We continue to convey (tabligh) the life-giving divine commandments that came to save the humanity. Janâb-i Haqq commands the following in the 159th verse of Surah al-Baqarah, which is about our current topic: [2:159] “ʾinna lladhīna yaktumūna mā ʾanzalnā mina l-bayyināti wa-l-hudā…” the verse continues.
Janâb-i Haqq spoke about those who concealed the manifest proofs and guidance that are clarified in the Book. Allah said, “ʾulāʾika yalʿanuhumu llāhu,” which means that the laws of this life-giving divine order are completely clarified in Islam and Quran. Allah curses those conceal and do not announce the verses of the Book correctly. Those who know it must explain the glorious Quran to the entire world until Qiyamah. Everyone must convey it, and know it, for servitude to Allah is possible by knowing Islam. You have to know the laws first, and abide by them. You have to obey, and perform worship (taat and ibadat).
You have to implement the rules of Islam properly, and be subject to the divine measures and standards. Those who spend in illegitimate ways… Those who spend their wealth, goods, properties, life, and knowledge in illegitimate ways have gone bankrupt. However, there has never been a person who spent in the way of Allah and then went bankrupt, for those who are in the way of Allah are protected by Allah. The wealth of those who spend in the way of Allah are multiplied generously by Allah and returned to them.
Now, what is the result of ornate events, laughter, booming sounds, and waste in front of the eyes of the poor? That would be loss. That is what turns the balances of the society upside down. Please pay attention now. There is a saying that goes, “Qiyamah will break loose where one sleeps hungry while the other sleeps with a full stomach,”. Where did this saying come from? Our elders had heard the truth from its source, that is why they said it. This is important! The result of ornate events, laughter, booming sounds, and waste in front of the eyes of the poor is nothing but loss. This turns the balances of the society upside down. What do they do in front of the eyes of the poor and wretched? They will dance, jump, and waste things, and leave the poor hungry. And they will watch them with an empty stomach in despair. And the others will swim in extravagance. That is nothing but loss.
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Islam does not accept this ever. There is a saying that goes, “One side eats, the other looks, and hell breaks loose,”. Moreover, we should pay attention to the word of our Prophet (asw). He said, “He is not a believer whose stomach is filled while his neighbour goes hungry,”.
Now, what does Janâb-i Haqq say? “Had you fed and dressed up the poor, I would have been happy as if you had fed and dressed Me,”. “Had you visited the sick, caressed the head of an orphan, and fulfilled his/her needs, I would be happy as if you did these to Me, and I would have made you happy,” says Janâb-i Haqq. The last two quotes are hadith-i qudsi.
You should pay close attention to the verses of Quran.
Now, let us continue. “O, you! Deceived by conceit, ignorant of quwwat (might)! Smacked be your brain with a smack of qudrah, in your day of bliss,”.
Do not forget the following, ever. If you bleed people dry, exploit them, leech off of others, and reign over people’s tears, then you will be smacked so hard that it is said, “Smacked be your brain with a smack of qudrah, in your day of bliss,”. You will be smacked in your most blissful day. Whose “smack” is that? You will be smacked by haqq and haqiqa (right and reality). You see, “O, you! Deceived by conceit, ignorant of quwwat (might)! Smacked be your brain with a smack of qudrah, in your day of bliss,”. Do not forget this. There will be no rest either in the heavens nor in the earth before this divine justice is manifested. The divine justice shall be manifested so that all souls, all hearts, the earth, the continents, the heavens, and the seas can be at ease. The tyrants who leech off of the poor people, those hyenas, as long as they are present on earth, there will not be peace on the earth, the seas, or the heavens. And certainly, there will not be any peace in the hearts. As for the tyrants, they will not be in peace either. It does not matter how hard they try, how hard they endeavour. Their insides will swarm with worms no matter what they eat. Storms will blow inside them, and their souls are filled to brim with terror. Their hearts are nothing but battlefields, but why? That is because the essential duty is to settle the belief (iman), subjection to Allah, and love of Allah into the heart, but they settled other things into their hearts.
Look at the pages of your life book well. Each breath is a chapter of it. Each breath you take is a piece from your lifetime. Each time you take a breath, a seal is put on it to mark that you have lived your life until that moment. And between two breaths you can do dhikr (remembrance) of Allah, and do good deeds. That is why two blessings (nimet) are bestowed to you with each breath. One saves you from death, and the other gives you life. Do not forget that two thanks are necessary for each breath. Did you ever think if there are rights of others in the banquet you held? Allah gave wealth and property to the rich, and said there are rights of the poor in it.
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Did you ever think if others are entitled to the dining table you prepared? You are eating off of the rights of the poor if you do not give zakat (poor-dues) properly, if you did not do good (khayr) and charity properly, if you wasted your money away, if you jumped up and down, and if you considered nothing but your own joy. Do you know whose rights are you eating off o when you do these? You are living in luxury on the backs of the poor. You shall answer for this, but to whom? To the divine justice. This justice may not come in the world, but it will surely come in the mahkeme-i kûbra (the grand court), and zebanis will descend upon you. They shall restrain you. Your wealth will become a fire, and you will be thrown into what you have earned yourself. If you consider the truths and realities of Al-Quran Al-Karim as “nonsense” then clearly your soul is filled to brim with nonsense, just like your head. What is nonsense is you, and there cannot be any nonsense in Islam. There cannot be any falsehoods in Islam. Islam is Al-Quran Al-Karim, Allah, and the laws of Allah. Islam is the embodiment of haqq and haqiqa (right and reality).
Life goes as usual, but be careful about whose rights are violated by whom. Life goes, but be careful about whose rights are being violated by whom, and do not ever violate anyone’s rights. Do not come to the great gathering (mahshar) with haqq al-nās (rights of the people). In the grand court you shall stand before the judge of all the judges, and the ruler of all the rulers. The mahshar is encompassed by the armies of Allah. All of the armies are there, and they are bringing people to account. All people, the poor and the rich are being brought to account. Those who lack knowledge (ilm) and those who have it are both brought to the book. Do not ever forget that the humans and the jinn will be brought to account. You were created out of nothing, and you shall die. Then you shall raise, and the moment you raised you will jump to the great gathering (mahshar). You shall be brought to the great gathering (mahshar) with two soldiers escorting you. If you have belief (iman) and good deeds, then you will come with pleasure. On the other hand, if you are coming with your disbelief (kufr), polytheism (shirk), and wrongdoings (zulm), then you will be brought in chains like a criminal who got caught while trying to get away. In that case, you will be brought like a marauder. You cannot escape from Allah.
Do not forget the following, ever! In every bite you take, there are rights of the martyrs who shed their blood and gave their life, the children of the martyrs, and the poor. In every bite you take there are rights of a poor person. In every bite you take there are rights of the orphans whose fathers shed their blood and gave their life. Do not ever forget about the children of the martyrs. They are entitled to the dining table you have prepared, and each and every poor has a right in every bite you take, so pay their rights. You want peace in the world, and there will be peace once the rights of the wronged and oppressed are given. You shall say stop to the tyrants (zalimun), the oppressors. You shall side with the manifestation of the divine justice, and enter into the service of Almighty Allah, and acknowledge the rulership of Allah.
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A coherent society is possible by infāq-i kull. So, what is infāq-i kull? That is an equal and just distribution of the rights of the nation. That is a just reflection of the national income to the nation. You see, do not ever forget that a coherent society is possible by infāq-i kull. There will be nothing but terror, reactionism, turmoil, mafias, and illegal underground organizations as long as one sides exploits the rights of the other side. The reason of all these is those who exploit the rights of the nation, and the tyrants who impose.
There is also istihlâk. Now, what does istihlâk mean? It means consumption in an economical sense. It encompasses infāq (to spend). It is divided into two categories, legitimate and illegitimate. The legitimate expenses are halal (lawful) earnings. As for haram (sinful) earnings, the wealth procured by illegal ways prompt people to haram (sinful) ways. If the nation is directed to haram (sinful) ways, and if you distort the morals of the nation, then all those people who exploit people’s rights will continue to be a bad influence on the population, as long as that happens, the economic balances will stay upside down. Economy can be, and should be, stabilized with the law of balance. Then this economic stabilization will be reflected to the population along with complete equitable principles.
One of these principles is riba (interest), which is excess value. It is the unearned surplus value in a contract, which is measured in sort and quantity. However, there is reciprocity in trade. As for riba (interest), it is unearned income. It makes the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer. Quran calls this as “riba”, which is known as “interest” by the folk.
It is divided into two categories, simple interest and compound interest. Now, compound interest is like the interest of the interest, which is the type that makes one completely bankrupt. Compound interest crosses out the poor completely. It is the type of interest that makes the rich get much more wealth.
Forward sales are also riba, or rather interest. “Innamā riba finnesieti,” said our Prophet. This is a hadith present in Bukhari, Muslim, and Kutub al-Sittah. The excess value in the same type of merch is riba (interest). The following is a narration (rivayat) in Bukhari Muslim. The bartering of gold for silver, wheat grain for wheat grain, dates for dates, or barley for barley is not riba (interest) if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount. Umar had said that selem (unearned revenue) is riba (usury), for it is buying something on credit with ready cash. Leave it if you doubt there is riba (usury) in something. This is a narration (rivayat) that came from Umar. “It is a wajib (obligation) to leave the things that may have riba (usury).”
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Leave the things you doubt in every matter, and that is a complete taqwa (piety). That is the desired taqwa (piety). This narration is present in Bukhari, Muslim, and Kutub al-Sittah. The verses about riba (usury) were revealed in the late period, and they were announced with the Farewell Pilgrimage. They were announced to the world of Islam, and all places that the new could reach.
Janâb-i Haqq said the following in the 3rd verse of Surah al-Maidah: “ḥurrimat ʿalaykumu l-maytatu wa-d-damu wa-laḥmu l-khinzīri wa-mā ʾuhilla li-ghayri llāhi bihī,”.
It is said here that “mayta (carrion), blood, flesh of swine, and those that are slaughtered for other than Allah are made haram (sinful), to you”.
[3:175] “Do not fear the deniers, but fear Me,”. [5:3] “I have chosen Islam for you,” says Janâb-I Haqq. “I have chosen Islam as religion (din) for you,” Allah said.
Then again, the animals that are not slaughtered in the right way, and flesh of dead game, which are counted as mayta (carrion), no matter what it is, are made haram (sinful).
Moreover, in the 130rd verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran, Allah says, “Do not eat off of usury by multiplying it many times,”. And thus, usury is prohibited. Now, let us continue with the last verse about riba (usury). Janâb-i Haqq wanted to remove interest from the world completely with the 275th verse of Surah al-Baqarah.
Riba equals interest, and interest equals riba. Janâb-i Haqq has prohibited everything that is riba. Now, our lesson will continue with those verses.
[2:275] “alladhīna yaʾkulūna r-ribā lā yaqūmūna ʾillā ka-mā yaqūmu lladhī yatakhabbaṭuhu sh-shayṭānu mina l-massi dhālika bi-ʾannahum qālū ʾinnamā l-bayʿu mithlu r-ribā wa-ʾaḥalla llāhu l-bayʿa wa-ḥarrama r-ribā fa-man jāʾahū mawʿiẓatun min rabbihī fa-ntahā fa-lahū mā salafa wa-ʾamruhū ʾilā llāhi wa-man ʿāda fa-ʾulāʾika ʾaṣḥābu n-nāri hum fīhā khālidūn,”. [2:276] “yamḥaqu llāhu r-ribā wa-yurbī ṣ-ṣadaqāti wa-llāhu lā yuḥibbu kulla kaffārin ʾathīm,”.
Dearest and most revered friends!
Our Rabb (Lord), Almighty Allah, tells us in these verses that “those who consume riba (interest) will rise up only like a person who is struck by shaitan (devil). This punishment upon them is because they say, ‘trade is like usury,’. Whereas Allah made trade halal (lawful), and made usury haram (sinful). From now on, whoever stops usury after the admonition that came from his Rabb (Lord) to him, his past will be left to him, and his case is for Allah to judge. And whoever goes back to usury, and continues to consume interest, they are the people of Jahannam (Hell), and they shall abide there eternally.”
O woe to those who say usury is halal (lawful)! They shall abide in Jahannam (Hell) forever.
[2:276] “Allah will destroy riba (usury). Whereas Allah augments sadaqa (alms) and legitimate earning. Allah does not like those who insist on denial and sin.”
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[2:277] “ʾinna lladhīna ʾāmanū wa-ʿamilū ṣ-ṣāliḥāti wa-ʾaqāmū ṣ-ṣalāta wa-ʾātawu z-zakāta lahum ʾajruhum ʿinda rabbihim wa-lā khawfun ʿalayhim wa-lā hum yaḥzanūn,”. [2:278] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū ttaqū llāha wa-dharū mā baqiya mina r-ribā ʾin kuntum muʾminīn,”.
Let us see what Janâb-i Haqq said. “Those who have believe, and do good deeds, and establish namāz, and give zakat (alms) surely have a reward with their Rabb (Lord). There shall be no fear for them, nor shall they grieve,”. “O believers! Fear Allah, and abandon usury, if you are truly believers (mu’minun),”.
After announcing these in the afore verses, Janâb-i Haqq says the following.
[2:279] “fa-ʾin lam tafʿalū fa-ʾdhanū bi-ḥarbin mina llāhi wa-rasūlihī wa-ʾin tubtum fa-lakum ruʾūsu ʾamwālikum lā taẓlimūna wa-lā tuẓlamūn,”. [2:280] “wa-ʾin kāna dhū ʿusratin fa-naẓiratun ʾilā maysaratin wa-ʾan taṣaddaqū khayrun lakum ʾin kuntum taʿlamūn,”. [2:281] “wa-ttaqū yawman turjaʿūna fīhi ʾilā llāhi thumma tuwaffā kullu nafsin mā kasabat wa-hum lā yuẓlamūn,”.
So, what does our Almighty Rabb (Lord) say here? “If you do not do this,” or,” If you do not leave usury, then know that Allah and the Rasul (Messenger) have declared war on you. And if you repent, you shall have your capital sums. Do not deal unjustly, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly.”
In Islam, one cannot deal unjustly, or be dealt with unjustly.
“If the debtor is having financial hardship, then grant him/her time until he/she can pay with ease. There are poor and needy people who experience financial hardship. Grand them respite, and if you only knew, it is better for you to donate such debts as sadaqa (alms).”
A man cannot pay, and he would have paid if he could afford. It is said that if you can afford, forgive their debt, and do not give them a hard time. It is better for you if you do this. It is Almighty Allah who said that. The good deeds and favor you do will surely return to you. All blessings (nimet) are given by Allah, and it is Allah who creates the means.
“Fear from such a day, on that day you shall be returned to Allah, and everyone will be paid their earnings in full, and no one will be dealt with unjustly.”
You see, the life-giving verses of Al-Quran Al-Karim that shed light gives life to the humanity also in this context. Riba, usury, or interest is a terrible haram that ruins people, declares war on Allah, declares war on Prophet, devour the rights of the poor, make rich get richer, and make poor get poorer. Riba means interest and usury.
That is why dearest friends, we should know that harams, wrongs, exploitations, and all things that ruin the humanity are not permitted in the divine order.
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That is why we shall continue to discover these verses. We shall continue to discover these verses so that we may understand them well. We want to understand and explain the verses of our Rabb (Lord) better, that is why we continue with the hadith-i sharifs (sayings) of our Prophet, and the opinions of the mujtahids.
We should establish a fraternal social order in which no one is exploited. We should establish a fraternal social order, and this fraternal order is the order of Islam, which is the order of rahmat (mercy), and order of grace. Islam is the manifestation of divine justice; this is the explanation of Islamic sharīʿah (law). Usury is an order of jahiliyyah (ignorance). In other words, we have to get out of this jahiliyyah (ignorance) order, which is usury. Usury makes the population work for itself, and increate the poverty rate. Pay attention now! A small group of people will rob and exploit the population, making the nation work for them, which will increase the poverty rate. The poor and needy will be crushed between the cogs of the wheel. This also lays the foundations for riots. Riots and turmoil will increase as the poor gets more and more oppressed because of the hyenas who live like lords by exploiting the labour of the oppressed. In miʿraj (the night journey), Prophet al-Zeeshan, our Master, had seen the people who usurers. Then, Jibril (a.s.) had recited this verse. This is important. Jibril (a.s.) had recited this verse to our Prophet in miʿraj (the night journey). Our Prophet had seen the usurers.
Personal interest devours the national interest from the inside. You see, our Prophet says that if you take the personal interests to the forefront and disregard the national interest, then the society will collapse in on itself. Haram will come to the fore when it is mixed with halal. That is just like dropping a little dirt into a pot of stew. The dirt got into it, it does not matter how much, that stew is inedible now. So, haram will get the upper hand when it is mixed with halal. That is why we should save the society from loss despite everything. In the end, the matter that got mixed with dirt becomes fasid (corruption). That is why this is said: “hurmetü mâlil insâni kehurmeti demihi,” – “If a person’s asset is haram, then it is like his blood is haram,”.
You see, people’s lives are inviolable, and people have right to life. People’s assets are also inviolable, and people have right to property. Islam gave these rights to all people fourteen centuries ago. Islam appointed women as inheritors. Islam gave women their right from the inheritance, and fourteen centuries ago their rights were given to women by Islam. The right to inherit property is given to people with a divine partition. These laws are defined in the inheritance law of Islam.
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The following is a hadith-i sharif which is also narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbali: “Immorality encompasses dishonesty as well,”. If someone has immorality, then surely dishonesty will show itself in him/her. It hinders labour and production. Production is hindered in order of interest. It also hinders labour and employment rates. It hinders farz-i kâsem, in other words helping one another. And what will happen when helping one another is hindered as well? It will give way to enmity and hatred. So, what will the poor and needy do then? An enmity and hatred towards those who get richer and richer without doing anything.
Moreover, when that happens turmoil will start, which will lay the foundations of riots. One of the oppressed people may come up and say, “Look! They are eating off of our rights,” and they will gang up. This organized groups will turn into illegal organizations if their rights and liberties, and democratic rights are not given to them. So, who is laying the foundations of these? That would be those who violate the rights of the population. For example, what lies under the 2000-01 economic crisis in Turkey? This country could not advance for a century, why? In the last 40- or 50-years other nations have advanced. However, a country whose population is 99% Muslim, and the other Islamic countries failed to advance, but why? There is an abasement in the structure of Islamic countries. As long as there are imposers who preclude Islam, Islamic justice, belief, and rights and freedoms, and as long as the morality is distorted, as long as the good morals are violated, as long as the morality is forced to rot, what will happen to people? From then on, the human factor will be exploited. From then on, the humanity will be estranged from their real duty. These things lead to an incompetent mindset which will rob and siphon off the banks, and we will see mafias appearing suddenly. In that order the rights of the nation are violated. The fraternity of the nation will grow stronger if a just distribution is established, if rights and freedoms are given sufficiently, and if everyone gets their fair share in a just manner. Only then the fraternity of the nation will grow stronger, and the commitment and love among the people will grow stronger. Thereafter, national unity and integrity will show itself. Yet as long as hyenas rule the nation, and as long as vampires suck the blood of the population, you will not be able to establish balance and national integrity. You see, you have to protect the morals, religion (din), and belief (iman) of the people, you have to shield their inner worlds; and at the same time, you will ensure the prosperity of the nation. In the order of Allah there is a complete justice both in the physical world and the spiritual worlds.
So, it is clear that usury hinders farz-i kâsem, in other words helping one another. Now, what does farz-i kâsem mean? Farz-i kâsem is to lend to one another. What will happen if these are hindered? Enmity and rage will replace them, which is not good for the public.
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Besides, usury is a certain divine prohibition. In other words, Allah strictly prohibited usury. Those who do not abide by the of the Real (al-Haqq) are condemned to depression. They will never be able to recover from depression and crisis’ which are like epilepsy and Tourette’s. You see, those who devour interest are struck by the Shaitan (Devil), and it is said that they rise up like a person who is experiencing epileptic attack. So, who said that? That would be Al-Quran Al-Karim. It is clear that they will not be able to recover from epilepsy. [2:275] “alladhīna yaʾkulūna r-ribā lā yaqūmūna ʾillā ka-mā yaqūmu lladhī yatakhabbaṭuhu sh-shayṭānu mina l-massi,”.
You see, this is what this verse is about, they shall rise from where they were lying as if they are struck by Shaitan (Devil). This goes for both disbelievers (kāfirs) and venial sinners (fasiq). In the 281st verse of Surah Al-Baqarah, a war is declared on the disbelievers (kāfirs), venial sinners (fasiq), and the believers (mu’minun) who insisted on usury. A war is declared on the disbelievers (kāfirs), venial sinners (fasiq), and believers (mu’min) who insisted on usury. They are either murtadd (who turns back), rebellious, or bâgī (who exceeds the limit). If a Muslim insists on being rebellious, then he/she is both a rebel and bâgī (who exceeds the limit). If they deny Quran, and the verses of Quran then they are murtadd (who turns back). If they had never believed in Quran the first place, they are outside of Islam. “In a world of disbelief (non-Islamic state), the haramness of riba/interest is nullified between Muslims and non-Muslims.” “In a world of disbelief (non-Islamic state), the haramness of riba/interest is nullified between Muslims and non-Muslims,” said Hanafites. Elmalılı’s Tafsir, volume II, page 252, and verse 275 of Surah al-Baqarah. “It is hikmat (hidden cause) that riba/interest was not declared unless Muslims are on the verge of war,”. Look, “It is hikmat (hidden cause) that riba/interest was not declared unless Muslims are on the verge of war,”.
We should pay attention to this as well. “Allah cursed the one who devoured riba/interest and those who paid it,”. This is a hadith-i sharif that is present in Bukhari al-Sharif and Kutub al-Sittah. “Cursed the one who devoured riba/interest, and who paid it,” but who cursed them? The religion of Islam cursed them. And the curse in Islam, to whom does it belong? That would be Allah and the Rasul (Messenger). They cursed those who consumed riba/interest.
Some people wanted to use riba/interest. Our Prophet (asw) sent this verse to the governor (wali) of Mecca, who was Attab ibn Esîd at that time. Our Prophet instructed him to declare war on them if they do not accept. This is a narration (rivayat) of al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Kathīr.
In Mecca, some people wanted to continue taking riba/interest. This was back in The Age of Bliss, in our Prophet’s time. At that time Attab bin Esîd was the governor of Mecca. Our Prophet wrote the verse about riba/interest, and sent him with a note: “Declare war on them if they do not accept it,”.
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The religion (din) of Islam does not exploit its citizens. Islam does not feed pigs and leave its nation hungry. Islam does not turn its country into a fragile state. Islam does not let anyone distort the justice. Islam does not give permit to haram. Islam does not let anyone oppress the poor. Islam does not drive its nation into depressions and crisis’.
Our Prophet obtained a promise from the Christians hem that they will not consume riba/interest. Our Prophet (asw) also told them to get ready for war if they do not accept. These were present in Bible and Torah as well. This was not a cer-i affair.
The Najranians came.
The dhimmis who lived under the protection of Islam were not obliged to ibadat (worship) but muamalat. The non-Muslims or dhimmis may do their ibadat (worship) or not, but they are obliged to abide by muamalat. This is because muamalat concerns the society. Islam does not let anyone exploit the society, whether the victims are non-Muslims, Christians, or Jews. Islam does not let anyone oppress them when they live under its protection. Islam wants peace and prosperity for all people.
That is why Jabir (r.a.) said, “Allah and the Rasul (Messenger) of Allah cursed who takes riba/interest, who gives it, who writes it, who witnesses it, and the its clerk,”
This is a rivayat (narration) that comes from Abu Hurairah: “Allah has forgiven the one who saw his debtor in financial hardship and forgive the loan,”. So, let us say that you gave a loan to someone, but the debtor cannot afford to pay it back, and you forgive the loan. It is said that Allah has forgiven the one who forgiven the loan. Everyone needs forgiveness, right? Everyone needs rahmat (mercy), and sawāb (good). We are all in eternal need of these. We always need Allah. That is why we should always be generous. We should always be on the side of mercy, sawāb (good). We should always be the giving hand. We should be the giving hand, not the receiving hand. We should not be the ones who receive aid, but the ones who give aid. Being on the receiving end is an expression of helplessness. Muslims must be powerful.
Now, let us talk about the verses that were sent down last. The 176th verse of Surah al-Nisa is the verse of “kalālah – the siblings of a deceased person without a first-degree heir” verse. There is also the 3rd verse of Surah al-Maidah that says: “l-yawma ʾakmaltu lakum dīnakum wa-ʾatmamtu ʿalaykum niʿmatī wa-raḍītu lakumu l-ʾislāma dīnan,”. What does Janâb-i Haqq say here? “Today, I have completed your religion for you,” said Allah.
Ladies and gentlemen, this religion (din) of Islam is a complete religion. Every man and woman, lady and gentleman should know that Islam is a complete religion (din), and it has no flaws or imperfections. But how? Allah Ta’ala said, “l-yawma ʾakmaltu lakum dīnakum,”. “I have completed your religion for you,” said Allah. Today your religion is completed. “wa-ʾatmamtu ʿalaykum niʿmatī,”. “I have completed my blessing upon you,”. The religion became perfected, and the blessing (nimet) is completed, and I have chosen Islam for you,” said Allah. Allah says, “I am pleased with Islam as religion (din),”. Allah says, “I will not accept from those who seek a religion (din) other than Islam,” said Allah. You see, these are written in the glorious Quran.
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[3:85] “wa-man yabtaghi ghayra l-ʾislāmi dīnan fa-lan yuqbala minhu wa-huwa fī l-ʾākhirati mina l-khāsirīn,” – “Should anyone seek a religion (din) other than Islam, it shall never be accepted from him, and he will be among the losers in the afterlife,”. This is yet another verse.
“I have completed My blessing (nimet), and chosen Islam as religion (din) upon you; and I have perfected your religion,” said Allah.
The beginning of the 281nd verse of Surah al-Baqarah, and the end of the 281th verse until “fīhi ʾilā llāhi,” are said to be the verses that were sent down last. That is why Muslims should know that the verses about riba/interest are among the verses that came last. The verses about riba/interest are the following: “The 130th verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran, the 275th verse of Surah al-Baqarah, and the 276, 278, and 279th verses of Surah al-Baqarah,” these are verses that are about riba/interest.
Then again, let us see what Allah said in 279th verse: “fa-ʾin lam tafʿalū fa-ʾdhanū bi-ḥarbin mina llāhi,”. “If you do not do (what is required about riba/interest) then know that you are in war with Allah and the Messenger.
Riba/interest is war against Allah and the Prophet. This is because Allah and the Rasul (Messenger) does not want anyone to exploit or oppressed the nation ever. Allah wants the servants (qul) to live in justice. Therefore, there cannot be a huge gap between the rich and poor. This does not suit the justice and mercy of Allah on no account. That is why those who do not leave riba/usury should be informed that they are fighting with Allah and the Prophet. So, pay close attention to the 282nd and 283rd verses of Surah al-Baqarah.
Then again, there is the matter of debt. Writing a debt contract down is a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah) upon writers. That is why if someone is employed for writing, his duty becomes an individual obligation (fard al-ayn). For example, notary and clerkship are two of these. So, think of a clerk, who is employed as a clerk; it is an individual obligation (fard al-ayn) upon him to perform his duty, just like a notary. These people are responsible, and performing their duty is a individual obligation (fard al-ayn) upon them.
The debtor should make the debt contract. This is important, the debt contract should be made by the debtor. While committing the debt contract to paper, the debtor should not miss any information. It is Almighty Allah who said that. Allah said this in the glorious Quran, whose verses we shall read. Allah says that if the debtor is unable to dictate, his/her guardian should dictate faultlessly. Allah does not want anyone to lose their rights. Take two witnesses from you, the believers (mu’minun), and trustworthy people; take two men or one man and two women as witness. It is important not to forget, says Allah.
Janâb-i Haqq eased the burden on women here by ordering people to take two women as witness so that one may remember if the other forgets.
Allah also says “divorce people in the presence of two witnesses,”. Take them as witness in a just manner for Allah (c.c.). “While divorcing people, divorce them in the presence of two witnesses,”.
[65:2] “wa-man yattaqi llāha yajʿal lahū makhraja,” Let us see what is said in this verse of Quran: “If there is no remedy left other than divorce, then divorce without hesitation,”.
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“Whoever is wary of Allah, fears Allah, does not abandon taqwa (piety), follows the way of taqwa (piety) and becomes an al-Muttaqi (pious), then Allah will create a way out for him,”. [65:3] “wa-yarzuqhu min ḥaythu lā yaḥtasib – “and provide (rizq) for him from where he did not hope,”.
Ilm (knowledge) is nūr (light). Allah’s nūr (light) is not given to the rebellious. True ilm (knowledge) does not reside in the rebellious. Their ilm (knowledge) similar to the knowledge of parrots. They cannot go beyond imitation. You see a lot of people labelled as âlims (scholars). If they are venial sinners (fasiqs) then know that their ilm (knowledge) is not nūr (light). Theirs is like the ilm (knowledge) of parrots, which does not benefit them. It does not benefit others either.
Ilm (knowledge) is nūr (light). Allah’s nūr (light), which is real knowledge (ilm) is not given to the rebellious. Vekiye and Shafiye said.
Ilm (knowledge) can be acquired in two ways, vehbi (given as blessing of Allah) and kesbi (earned). There are two sources for acquiring knowledge. One of these is kesbi (earned), which is acquired by education, by learning, by going to school, by reading, and by attending lectures, and by studying. This type of knowledge or science is acquired by learning them. The schools all around the world have been established for these kesbi ilms (attainable knowledge).
There are also vehbi ilms (innate knowledge). Vehbi ilm is the knowledge that is sent by Allah Ta’ala to the heart as an inspiration. The source of both type of ilm (knowledge) is Al-Quran Al-Karim. Al-Quran Al-Karim should be studied in vehbi (innate), iktisabi (acquired), and kesbi (earned) ways, in the best possible way, and with those who know it best.
In the 65th verse of Surah al-Kahf, Khidr (a.s.) who was given rahmat (mercy), and knowledge (ilm) is mentioned. Then again, Musa (a.s.) is also mentioned. It is said that women have sentiment, enthusiasm, and affection which are causes that lead to forgetting. This is not a matter of intellect or memory. In other words, there is a fragility in women. Half or less than half of a burden that man shall bear is offered to women who are fragile in nature. Women have quite important duties of their own. Motherhood is the highest status for example. That is, just like fatherhood, motherhood is quite important. Women are more advanced in esoteric and subjectiveness. As for exoteric works, they are generally men things. That is why exoteric works are hard work. It is cruelty to women when you make women do a manly job such as hard labour. That is not what women deserve. The sense of modesty and shame are stronger in women. Those who lie heavy on mercy may lose their power, because they are too merciful, and they can raise a child in their bosom. They can enfold a child in their arms with their mercy. They are the mothers of the humankind, filled to brim with mercy, and exceptions do not break the rule. Our women, women of Islam, and women of the entire humankind are adorable, and their hearts are filled with mercy. Those who ruin women are those who make them devoid of the values their Rabb (Lord) gave to them. They have ruined women. They try to bleed women white by trying to take everything from them. There are those who wish to ruin women, turning them into something like an inedible and rotten watermelon in every aspect, but women are invaluable creatures.
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When we talk about people, men and women complete each other. These two are the most honourable creatures. Those who bias women against men, along with those who bias men against women, those who speak about women rights but ignore men, and those who ignore women rights but speak but men, these people are not friendly to both men and women. Women are honourable servants (qul) of Allah, and the same goes for men too. When you adorn men and women with divine values you will see a happy family, a happy couple, happy spouses. And happy couples will form happy families which will lead to a happy nation. Our ancestors had established grand states.
Those who wish to take iffat (chastity) away from women, also want to take bravery from men, and they are certainly not working for the benefit of the humankind. They want this nation to collapse in on itself, and they want to corrupt the humanity. O, humanity! Do not stay away from your Rabb (Lord), and acknowledge the rulership of your Rabb (Lord). Understand the laws of Allah and the Book, which is Quran. Be a servant (qul) of your Rabb (Lord), and break the evil plans. Form a great nation, and become a grand empire again so that the humanity may benefit from you. You should be leading the humanity, so walk ahead of ages, for that is your duty. You are men of holy values, you are a remainderman of it. Exaltation of the holy values mean that you will also rise along with the holy values, which is surely your duty. It is Janâb-i Haqq who granted you this grand state, and grand blessing (nimet). Being a human is a great honor. That is why being a witness is a burden, and it may make them uneasy. The innate nature (fitrah) of women are opposite of that of men. Trying to turn women into men is a downfall, and degeneration. Women cannot turn into men, and vice versa. This is because both of them are honourable as they are. Women are quite honourable with their femininity, and their physiology and biology are womanly. As for men, theirs’ is manly. If you try to distort their innate nature (fitrah), then women will stop being women, and men will stop being men. This serves well to the Iblis (Devil). The Iblis is the enemy of Adam, and the offspring of Adam, which is the entire humankind. It is the Iblis who wants to distort the innate nature (fitrah) of sexes. He pushes women to turn into men and vice versa. This is nothing but degeneration. Do not try to masculinize women. Understand this, because otherwise brave men and women with strong personalities will oppose you. They will not let you do this. The witnessing of feminized men is not accepted. This is important because men must be men. As for women who are masculinized, who are half men and half women, their witnessing is also not accepted in Islam. Our discoverers, methodology âlims, and jurist âlims have brought forth an understanding of jurisprudence, so study it. The innate nature (fitrah) of the humanity, and people are under protection at first.
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You cannot distort the human. Human cannot be distorted, and human should be protected in the best possible way. Islam is the protector, and the saviour. Islam itself is preventative medicine, for it cleans you at the beginning. Islam removes microbes from you at the beginning. Islam does not wait for you to get sick to treat you. Islam will try to prevent you from getting sick, and will guarantee your health first, and if you by any chance got sick, it will treat you then. That is why both sexes have lost their natural characteristics, but when? They have lost it when women became masculine, and when men became feminine. This is nothing other than a downfall. Islamic jurisprudence tied the perfection of women and men to separate characteristics. Women are perfect with their womanly characteristics. Men are perfect with their manly characteristics. Women are generally not concerned with exoteric maters, there may be some exceptions though. It would be unjust to compel women to such matters. It is not just to force a single woman to shoulder this burden. Besides, in order to protect the rights of women, and their innate nature (fitrah), and in order to protect the rights of the humanity, women and men should be known with their innate natures (fitrah). Women should be discovered by their womanhood, and men should be discovered by their manhood, and one should act according to these facts.
So, who knows women best? That is, their Creator. So, who created women? Allah created them, and all things. So, which duties did Allah give to women in Islam? And which obligations did Allah give to men? You will see that the heavy duties are given to men, for they are manly tasks. And the duties given to women are womanly, for the Creator knows who will do what best and with ease.
The Creator knows of the creature, that is for sure. In certain situations, witnessing of a single woman is valid, and that is according to the circumstances, such as a bath for women. Witnessing of a single woman is sufficient in such cases, for there is no men in such places.
The birth of a child is witnessed by the tribe of the mother. The decrees (hukm) change as the conditions change. The religion (din) of Islam upgrades the decrees (hukm) according to the changing conditions. This is present in the structure of Islam.
“Imperative situations are evaluated in themselves,”.
Editor’s Note: The above quote states that if there is an imperative situation, certain haram things may become mubah (permissible) without exceeding the limit, and the excess will not be mubah (permissible). For example, a person who is close to hypothermia may take the wood that belong to someone else and burn it. However, he should only take the amount of wood that would save him on the condition that he/she will pay later. But he/she cannot take more because the excess will not be mubah (permissible).
It is nothing but treachery to women to masculinize them, and the same goes for feminizing men too. Both have their own characteristics with which they are perfect. Witnessing is a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah) upon those who are called to witnessing to go and witness. If no one goes to witness, then it becomes a If no one goes to witness, then it becomes a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah), and all of those who did not attend will be sinners, for they all had neglected a fard (religious obligation). If witnessing of a person is strictly required, then it becomes an individual obligation (fard al-ayn) to that person.
Write the debt contract for in detail. Both parties and the witnesses should have a copy of the debt contract. So, both parties should have the debt contract, except the trade that is done with ready cash. If trade is done with ready cash, then there is no need for a debt contract, but if there is an inconvenience in such a trade that would require a contract, you may write the possibilities down. , and all of those who did not attend will be sinners, for they all had neglected a fard (religious obligation). If witnessing of a person is strictly required, then it becomes an individual obligation (fard al-ayn) to that person.
Write the debt contract for in detail. Both parties and the witnesses should have a copy of the debt contract. So, both parties should have the debt contract, except the trade that is done with ready cash. If trade is done with ready cash, then there is no need for a debt contract, but if there is an inconvenience in such a trade that would require a contract, you may write the possibilities down.
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Deed of sale is complete with an offer and acceptance. There is a contract in sales, and that can be completed with offer and acceptance. The offer and acceptance, this is a trade based on mutual approval of both parties. Haggling should be done publicly when there are witnesses, not in secret so that no one may sustain a loss. It is said that these contracts that are done justly are the most appropriate type of deal in terms of taqwa (piety), and these are basic principles. A retained pledge shall suffice if you cannot make a written contract. This is permitted if you cannot make a written contract. We see that Islam has guaranteed everything. The decree (hukm) of retained pledge is placed for situations where a written contract cannot be made.
So, contract, writing, witnessing, and retained pledge are all about taqwa (piety). “If someone among you trusts to another without making a contract, then deliver his trust,” says Janâb-i Haqq. And, “The heart of those who conceal testimony is sinful,” says Allah. It is clear that such people are ill-hearted. Muslims give their testimony in the correct way, and never conceal it, for it is among the greatest sins. Concealing testimony, and giving false testimony are among the greatest sins. Polytheism (shirk), false testimony, and concealing testimony are among the major sins. That is why dearest friends, may Janâb-i Mevlâ make us truthful inside and outside.
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– The End –