Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 59-61
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 59
We shall continue with our 59th lesson. We are currently in our 59th lecture. We have discovered the verses below in our previous lesson, and now we will recite them and give their core meanings, then we will move onto our next lesson.
Astaizu billah, Janâb-i Haqq said: [2:282] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū ʾidhā tadāyantum bi-daynin ʾilā ʾajalin musamman fa-ktubūhu wa-l-yaktub baynakum kātibun bi-l-ʿadli wa-lā yaʾba kātibun ʾan yaktuba ka-mā ʿallamahu llāhu fa-l-yaktub wa-l-yumlili lladhī ʿalayhi l-ḥaqqu wa-l-yattaqi llāha rabbahū wa-lā yabkhas minhu shayʾan fa-ʾin kāna lladhī ʿalayhi l-ḥaqqu safīhan ʾaw ḍaʿīfan ʾaw lā yastaṭīʿu ʾan yumilla huwa fa-l-yumlil waliyyuhū bi-l-ʿadli,” the verse continues.
Janâb-i Haqq, said the following in this long verse: [2:282] “O believers! When you take or give money for a specified term, write it down. And a person who is known with righteousness who knows how to write it down,”. That is, a clerk or a notary. “And a person who knows how to write should avoid writing it as Allah taught him, so let him write. And let the one upon whom the liability (to pay) falls dictate, and have it written down. And each of them should fear Allah and leave nothing out of it, and write it as it is. If the debtor is weak-minded, or a child, or someone who cannot dictate, then let his guardian dictate justly. And bring two witnesses out of your men who are present. If there are not two men present, then take one man and two women out of the witnesses to whose righteousness you trust, so that if one forgets the other will remind. The witnesses should not refuse when they are summoned. And you writers, do not disdain from writing it down, be it small or big, along with the fixed term, for that is more just in the sight of Allah, and more suitable as evidence, and more convenient for you not to have doubt. And if the trade between you is one that both parties will deliver on the spot, then there is no sin on you if you do not write it. And have a witness when you do commerce. Do not let the writer or a witness suffer a harm, if you harm them, then there is surely a sin that shall affect you. And fear Allah. Allah teaches you in detail, and Allah is All-Knowing,”.
You see, dearest friends! The following verse is the 283rd verse of Surah al-Baqarah.
Astaizu Billah: [2:283] “wa-ʾin kuntum ʿalā safarin wa-lam tajidū kātiban fa-rihānun maqbūḍatun fa-ʾin ʾamina baʿḍukum baʿḍan fa-l-yuʾaddi lladhī ʾtumina ʾamānatahū wa-l-yattaqi llāha rabbahū wa-lā taktumū sh-shahādata wa-man yaktumhā fa-ʾinnahū ʾāthimun qalbuhū wa-llāhu bi-mā taʿmalūna ʿalīm,”.
If you are on a journey, and you cannot find a writer, then something given over as retained pledge substitutes document,”. The retained pledge given here is the document.
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“Or if you trust one another, the trustee should fear Allah who is his Rabb (Lord), and pay back his deposit, and do not betray to the deposit.”
If someone has trusted you, then you cannot betray his trust. A Muslim is a revered figure who trusts and is trusted. Muslims trust other Muslims. Muslims reassure other Muslims, and they cannot ever betray the trust.
“And do not deny your witnessing, and conceal the testimony,” this is not good either. “Whoever conceals it, his/her heart is surely in sin, his/her heart is indeed sinful. Allah knows whatever you do,”. Amenna ve saddaqna.
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– The End –
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 60
In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
We continue with our 60th lesson. The number of our current lecture is 60.
[2:284] “li-llāhi mā fī s-samāwāti wa-mā fī l-ʾarḍi wa-ʾin tubdū mā fī ʾanfusikum ʾaw tukhfūhu yuḥāsibkum bihi llāhu fa-yaghfiru li-man yashāʾu wa-yuʿadhdhibu man yashāʾu wa-llāhu ʿalā kulli shayʾin qadīr,”.
Let us see what Janâb-i Haqq said in this verse of Quran. “Whatever there is in the heavens and in the earth, all belongs to Allah (c.c.). Amenna wa saddaqna, they all belong to Allah. Whether you disclose what is in you, or keep it concealed, Allah will bring you to account with it, there is no doubt in this. Then, Allah will forgive whomever Allah wishes, and punish whomever Allah wishes. Allah is al-Qadir (All-Powerful).”
After these verses were sent down, the following verses were sent to further disclose them and to relieve the Muhammad’s ummah (nation). Moreover, there is a rivayat (narration) that says these verses were revealed (wahy) in miʿraj (the night journey). You all know these verses more or less, so let us begin. Astaizu billah.
[2:285] “ʾāmana r-rasūlu bi-mā ʾunzila ʾilayhi min rabbihī wa-l-muʾminūna kullun ʾāmana bi-llāhi wa-malāʾikatihī wa-kutubihī wa-rusulihī lā nufarriqu bayna ʾaḥadin min rusulihī wa-qālū samiʿnā wa-ʾaṭaʿnā ghufrānaka rabbanā wa-ʾilayka l-maṣīr,”.
[2:286] “lā yukallifu llāhu nafsan ʾillā wusʿahā lahā mā kasabat wa-ʿalayhā mā ktasabat rabbanā lā tuʾākhidhnā ʾin nasīnā ʾaw ʾakhṭaʾnā rabbanā wa-lā taḥmil ʿalaynā ʾiṣran ka-mā ḥamaltahū ʿalā lladhīna min qablinā rabbanā wa-lā tuḥammilnā mā lā ṭāqata lanā bihī wa-ʿfu ʿannā wa-ghfir lanā wa-rḥamnā ʾanta mawlānā fa-nṣurnā ʿalā l-qawmi l-kāfirīn,”.
[2:285] “The Prophet (asw) believed in whatever has been sent down to him from his Rabb (Lord). And all believers (mu’minun) believed in Allah, the angels, the books, and the prophets. We do not make distinction between the prophets of Allah. “We have heard, and obeyed,” they said. “O, our Rabb! We wish your grace, and our return is only to you,” they say.
[2:286] “Allah does not task anyone beyond their capacity. Whatever they earn good is for them, and the loss of all the evil they do is to them. O, our Rabb! If we have forgotten or mistaken, do not bring us to the account. O, our Rabb! Do not lay a heavy burden on us like that which you laid upon those before us. O, our Rabb! Do not burden us with what we cannot bear. Pardon us, forgive us, and have rahmat (mercy) on us. You are our Mevlâ (protector), and help us against the disbelieving (kafir) people. O, Rabb of all the worlds, make us triumph over the deniers,”.
You see, there are meanings that we shall convey to you that are about the discovery of these verses. Insha ‘Allah, we will make these verses more understandable by discovering them, and we shall convey you notes from our Prophet, and firm sources, and rivayat and dirayat. We shall continue to convey you true (haqq) information, and life-giving notes.
You will not be brought to the account for involuntary things that come inside you such as involuntary thoughts and intentions. However, the free-will will be brought to the account for everything it disclosed or concealed. Both punishment and forgiveness are justice, ikhsan (favor), and inayat (bounty). These two happen by the meşiet-i ilahi (Divine Will).
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If only the anfusi (spiritual) worlds of people could be set aright. The inner or spiritual worlds of all things is called alam al-anfus (inner world). If you only knew what could be fixed by fixing the spiritual worlds. The joy of tecrid-i bent. In other words, joy will occur where tecrid-i bent occurs.
As for ijma (consensus), it is to comprehend the summary of the law, and fulfil it by taking responsibility and commitment. The responsibility is to fulfil the divine laws. Take responsibility, and be in a contest with others, and run toward Allah. So, how should you run? That is by performing your duty, and embracing the commandments of Allah. [51:50] “fa-firrū ʾilā llāhi,”. “Flee towards Allah,”. [3:103] “wa-ʿtaṣimū bi-ḥabli llāhi,”. “Hold fast to Allah, altogether,”. [2:256] “fa-man yakfur bi-ṭ-ṭāghūt,”. “Deny the taghuts (false gods), and believe firmly to Allah,”. Love Prophet Muhammad, the beloved of Allah. Subject to him, and the sharīʿah (law) he brought. You see, the way that lead to Allah is the way of the Prophet. You shall be subjected to the decrees (hukm) of Islam that is Sharīʿah-i Garra-i Ahmediyye that he brought. You may go to Allah by subjecting to Muhammad and his sharīʿah (law). Janâb-i Haqq clearly tells us to be subjected to Muhammad. Allah says, “Who loves me should be subject to Muhammad,”.
[3:31] “qul ʾin kuntum tuḥibbūna llāha fa-ttabiʿūnī yuḥbibkumu llāhu wa-yaghfir lakum dhunūbakum wa-llāhu ghafūrun raḥīm,” says Allah.
So, dearest friends! You should pay attention to this advice. Fix your anfusi (inner) world. In other words, fix your spiritual world, and your heart. Your mind should become centred to Islam, that way you can have the most enlightened heart, soul, and mind. That is why in a hadith-i sharif narrated (rivayat) by Ibn-i Mesud in Muslim: “An angel came to our Master from the sky and said, “Two nūr (light) was given to you that were never given to any prophet,”. So, what are they?
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They were not given to any other prophet, so what are they? They are the Surah al-Fatihah, and the verses of Surah al-Baqarah that I have recited; the last verses of Surah al-Baqarah. “Even if you recite a single word from them you will surely get its return,” but who said this? An angel came from the sky, and gave this glad tiding to our Master. And who narrated this? This was narrated in Sahih-i Muslim, on the authority of Ibn Masud (r.a.). And who is Ibn-i Mesud? He is one of the greatest âlims and faqihs (fiqh expert) of the sahabah (companions).
Now, let us see how Allah connected the 285th and 286th verses of Surah al-Baqarah, which are the last two verses, to the beginning of the surah. Allah connected the end of the verse to the beginning of the verse.
Now, in the first five verses of Baqarah, an answer to the inner world is given by making contact with Surah al-Fatihah. The necessary answers are given to alam al-anfus (inner world) of people. Itaat (obedience) destroys apprehension and waswas (satanic whispers). That is, obedience to Allah. That which shall fix your anfusi (inner) world is obedience to Allah. Belief (iman) and obedience has a condition. That is to obtain all haqq (true) knowledge from Quran, Prophet Muhammad, and Islam correctly. It is important to understand the life-giving lesson that is Quran correctly. If you do, then you will find life, and be blissful for the eternity. You will start an unending blissful journey, and continue your way of freedom. Otherwise, the life-styles other than Islam are not approved or wanted by Allah. If other life-styles were valid, then Janâb-i Haqq would have given us two religions. The only model of religion has been Islam since the creation of humankind. Janâb-i Haqq perfected it with Prophet Muhammad. Allah informs us about this with the following verse: [5:3] “ʾakmaltu lakum dīnakum,”.
So, it means that there is an answer for what comes in the inner world, so what is it? Do you want to fix your inner world, your heart, and your spirit? Then obey Allah.
So, what are the contents of obedience? Obedience is implementing the laws and rules of Allah, for doing that gives life. Islam gives life as it is lived by people, and it will take you under protection. You see, all kinds of protection are available in Islam. Then again, obedience destroys apprehension and waswas (satanic whispers). Obedience to Allah will take that apprehension and replace it with tranquillity if there are concerns and anxieties in your inner world. The following is a narration (rivayat) from Hasan, Mucahit, Ibn-i Sirin, and Ibn-i Abbas. The 285th and 285th verses were revealed to our Prophet in miʿraj (the night journey). So, it is narrated that these verses were given in miʿraj (the night journey). So, who narrated this? This was narrated on the authority of Hasan, Mucahit, Ibn-i Sirin, and Ibn-i Abbas. There is another narration (rivayat) that says they were sent down to our Prophet in Madinah by Jibril (a.s.). Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (asw), our Master, is the excellent Prophet. He is the leader of the belief (iman), Islam, and the humankind. He is the most glorious Prophet. He is the excellent Prophet. The excellent ummah (nation). Those who follow him are the excellent ummah (nation). Muhammad’s ummah (nation) is the perfect ummah (nation), but we are only talking about those who follow his way.
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The believers obey the Real (al-Haqq). There is a complete supplication to Janâb-i Haqq in the 285th verse of Surah al-Baqarah that the believers say, “wa-ʾaṭaʿnā ghufrānaka rabbanā wa-ʾilayka l-maṣīr,”. “Our Rabb! Forgive us, our return is toward You,”. We have lots of imperfections. There is no salvation from wrong feelings, and we shall come to You with our burden of sins, and we shall answer to You, and we take refuge in You. O, our Rabb! Forgive us!
[2:286] “lā yukallifu llāhu nafsan ʾillā wusʿahā,”. “Allah does not task any soul beyond its capacity,” says Allah. This is Janâb-i Haqq’s answer. “Whatever is offered in Islam gives life to you, and they are tasks you can afford,” says Allah. [2:185] “yurīdu bikumu l-ʿusra,”. “Allah wishes ease upon you, and does not wish hardship for you. Islam is the religion of bliss and safety, not hardships. The offers of Islam make your life easier, and ensures a blissful life. Islam removes all hardships, and removes the possibility of a bad life. We are talking about a happy life with Islam. Allah offered us the life that Allah likes.
Now, there are the concepts of kudrah-i mukakkinah, and kudrah-i muyassirah. They mean easy, and easier. You see, the first one, mukakkinah, means easy. And there is also muyassirah.
Now, mukakkinah means what is possible, and muyassirah means what is easier. That is, in terms of affording, or having the sufficient power to do something. Allah has made this life easier with Islam. Everything in life is easier and better with Islam. Islam also augments the power of the person, and enhances his/her strength.
Islam and its principles give strength and power to people, and makes the life easier, and increases the strength. This power will constantly come to you from your belief (iman) and Islam, and you will be constantly reinforced by Janâb-i Haqq.
There is also irada-i cûziye which means -to endeavour. So, you have power of will, and what are you using it for? You are using it for “mā kasabat – good”, and “mā ktasabat – evil”.
Now, that power is given to you. A power and strength are given to you. You are able to use it for good or evil. Then come, and pay attention to this irada-i cûziye that is given to you, and use your power and strength for good, and never use it for evil. This is what Janâb-i Haqq announces you here in this verse.
There is also kasb, which means -to want, -to earn, -to acquire, it is a concept in close relation with hikmat. There is also iktisap which means earning by working hard. It denotes working hard without a purpose, and working for yourself in a random manner. It also means working for your desires. You should always choose what is well-directed, correct, and what has hikmat. This is one of the imperative decrees (hukm) of Islam. As for what is wrong, they are the things that Allah prohibited.
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This is from the 46th verse of Surah al-Fussilat: “man ʿamila ṣāliḥan fa-li-nafsihī wa-man ʾasāʾa fa-ʿalayhā,”. “Whoever does good deeds, it is for him/her, and whoever does evil is to his/her detriment,”. The commandments are beneficial, and leaving them is harmful. So, what are the commandments? These are the beneficial things that Janâb-i Haqq told us to do. It is harmful to abandon the commandments. Let us say you did not perform namāz (prayer), but Allah told you to do it. You would be fulfilling your duty as a servant (qul) and a fard (obligation) when you do it, but when you abandon it you become rebellious, and you cause loss to yourself. This goes for other commandments as well. The prohibited things are harmful, and abandoning them is beneficial. This is important. The commandments are beneficial, and abandoning them is harmful; the prohibited things are harmful, and abandoning them is beneficial. That is, you will benefit if you abstain from the things that Allah told you to stay away. These are the nehy (prohibitions). Therefore, we should explore the verses of Al-Quran Al-Karim. We should make their exegesis (tafsir) correctly, and bring out the rivayat (precision) and dirayat (comprehension) in exegesis, and we should be able to explain Al-Quran Al-Karim to people correctly. You would find life, have others find life, and live the real life by doing that. [39:71] “wa-sīqa lladhīna kafarū ʾilā jahannama zumaran,”. What did Janâb-i Haqq say in the 71st and 72nd verses of Surah az-Zumar? Allah says, “Allah drives people to Jahannam in groups.” You see, those who deserve Jahannam are driven to Jahannam in groups, regiments, armies, and divisions. [39:72] “qīla dkhulū ʾabwāba jahannama khālidīna fīhā,”. Allah said: “It is said to them, “Enter the gates of Jahannam to abide there forever,” and they were sent to Jahannam. So, who are they? Now, why did Allah give irada-i cûziye (free-will) to people? Why did Allah give power and strength? Did Allah give them so that you may use it for evil, for disbelief (kufr), for denying Islam, for denying Allah, and for denying Quran and its verses? Did Allah give them to you so that you may deny the Prophet? Did Allah give them to you so that you may deny the Islamic order and sharīʿah (law). Why did Allah give you free-will, intellect (aql), power, and all other abilities? Those who are driven to Jahannam have used their free-will, power, and strength for evil.
Now, what is a blessing (nimet)? A balance of burdens, and a balance of blessing (nimet) has been established. Janâb-i Haqq created both burdens and blessings in a balanced manner, and placed the humankind into the test field. This worldly life is nothing but a test field. This is to test whether people will use their will, irada-i cûziye (free will), power and strength for good or for evil. Allah sent us a Prophet, and a Book. Allah placed the haqiqa (reality) before our intellect (aql). Janâb-i Haqq told us what we should do and do not do. Allah established the order, and given you power and strength, and created this world for you. Allah prepared such a universe for you. So, after all these warnings, do you think you should leave Allah, the Prophet, the Book, and use your intellect (aql) and abilities in the way of the Shaitan (Devil) and evil? Do you think you should use them for taghuts (false gods), denial, polytheism (shirk), and disbelief (kufr)? Let me ask you, is this a wise thing to do? Let us contemplate together my friend, is this a wise thing to do? A faithful person would not do that. So, let us beg to Allah day and night.
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O, my Allah! Guide me! Have me use my mind, idea, heart, dhikr (remembrance), soul, and all my power and strength in your way. My Allah! So, put your forehead to sajdah, and beg to Allah! Let us beg together, and be saved together. We are all servants (qul) of Allah. Let us have mercy on one another, and help one another. Let us explain the life-giving Quran to one another in a correct manner. You cannot narrate Quran by being under the influence of others. You may narrate Quran by siding with Allah, and siding with haqq and haqiqa (right and reality). You cannot narrate Quran, religion, or belief (iman) while you are living under the rulership of others, for you cannot be a Muslim therein. It is our obligation and duty to narrate it correctly while living under the rulership of Allah. We should narrate it because it is true, and we should do that for the riza (approval) of Allah. If some of us are doing wrong, then we should treat them with the rights, which is another obligation that falls on us. That is why Janâb-i Haqq established a balance between burden (kulfat) and blessing (nimet). There are fards (musts), wajibs (obligations), sunnahs (customs), mustehaps and mendups (adorned acts/deeds), mubahs (permissible), harams (sins), makruh (abominable acts/deeds), and mufsits (noxious acts/deeds). These are earnings of the obligant. These are works of the obligant. So, who is the obligant? We are the obligants as men and women. We are all responsible from all of these when we come of age. These concepts are grades or ranks. We are responsible for the fards (musts) in its degree. We are all responsible for wajibs (obligations) in its degree. We are responsible for the sunnahs (customs) in its degree. And we are responsible for mendups (adorned acts/deeds) in its degree. We are responsible for harams (sins) and mekruhs (abominable acts /deeds). We shall fulfil the fards (musts), wajibs (obligations), sunnahs (customs), and mendups (adorned acts/deeds). We shall abstain from harams (sins) and mekruhs (abominable acts /deeds). That is an obligation that falls on us. That is the condition and necessity of obedience to Allah. It is Allah who brought forth these rules, and offered them to us. We are the obligants, and these are our duties as servants (qul). The real life and happiness are here! The life of Janna (Paradise), and a life in ease is also here! There are no hardships or burdens here. So, what is available here? There are blessings (nimet). There are burdens (kulfat) before the blessings (nimet). There is peace and happiness here. However, there are burdens (kulfat) before these. So, what are they? That is the test, which we shall pass. Let’s say you put the most delicious fruit in your mouth, you cannot swallow it whole, you need to chew it first. So, aren’t we supposed to bear the burden (kulfat) of these blessings (nimets)? It is us who devour the blessings (nimet), and we shall enter the eternal Janna (Paradise). We shall attain the endless blessings (nimet) of Allah. Now, should we not bear the burdens (kulfat) in return of all these blessings (nimet)? Should we not enter the test saloon? We are in the test field right now. We have to pass the test, for passing the test is a condition for our eternally blissful lives. Allah has created the original capital as an act of rahmat (mercy), without consulting us, and placed us in it. Allah told us to win the Janna (Paradise) using the original capital here. Allah says, “I have bestowed my eternal blessing on you, and just like that, there is an immortal rahmat and blessing (nimet) which is Janna (Paradise), and Jamal (Beauty), and attaining them is up to your success in the test,”.
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Allah did not tell you to deny, rather Allah proved Allah’s existence. The existence of Allah is clearer than this universe, but for Allah is unrivalled and almighty being, and for we are powerless beings, we can see the works of Allah, we can see the creatures, we can see the blessings (nimet), but we do not have the necessary power to see the Dhāt (essence) of Allah. However, Allah’s existence is clearer than all things. You see, we have a soul but can we see it in our body? So, we are clearly cannot afford seeing our own souls, therefore we cannot see the a’zamat (infinite grandness), and qudrah (infinite power) of Allah. Do we have the eyes that are able to see the Almighty Power? Allah is Almighty and has a’zamat (infinite grandness). There are veils of kibriyā (grandeur) with Allah. Allah has veil of kibriyā (grandeur), for all grandeur is with Allah, but we are powerless beings. We can see and understand the works of Allah via our intellect (aql) and the abilities that were bestowed upon us, we can see the creatures, the Book and the Prophet, and we can understand this realm because we were born in it. Now, can we start denying this universe? Should we deny ourselves? Should we say that this universe was not created by Allah, but it created itself? No one has the power to create. Therefore, it is clear that we are all makhluq (creatures), and clearly al-Khalq (Creator) exists. There were only al-Khalq (Creator) before the makhluq (creatures). This universe is created. May Allah guide us to become servants (qul) who are filled to brim with belief (iman) inside and outside, for all things call to belief (iman). You cannot find a real evidence or even a small hint that shall call you do to denial. Everything calls you to belief (iman) and Allah. A sound resonates in the entire universe, what does it say? It says, “Allah”. It calls to Allah. The earth and the heavens and all things praise Allah. Islam itself is based on bidding that is beneficial, and expelling what is harmful.
There are obtained khayr (good), and ungettable khayr (good). You see, there are good things that you may get, and there are good things you cannot get. So, what is the ungettable one? That is Janna (Paradise) which Janâb-i Haqq shall give to us. However, Allah tells us to come before Allah with belief (iman) and good deeds (amel-i salih), not with denial, disbelief (kufr), polytheism (shirk), and rebellion. Allah strictly forbids the latter concepts. In these verses there is a manifestation of munacat (beseech) with the beloved and the ummah (nation). This is important. In these verses there is a manifestation of munacat (beseech) with the beloved and the ummah (nation), and there is an answer to the munacat (beseech). You are actually begging Allah while reciting the 286th verse of Baqarah. You are beseeching until the end of it, you are begging to the Real (al-Haqq), and Allah answers your faithful beseeching. I do not know if you know this or not, but this is the truth. The truth is that he/she who recites the 286th verse consciously is beseeching Allah. He/she is in a complete munacat (beseech), and the Real (al-Haqq) gives answer. That is why the answer to their beseech is given to those who recite Quran, and those who listen it. They are actually in conversation with Allah, and those who are in the presence of Allah with this grand blessing, and those who feel face-to-face with Allah will make wishes, and attain this honor. Those who say, “We have heard, and obeyed Your command,” actually demonstrate the virtue and honor of visal maqam (the heart’s repentance) in each word.
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In a hadith-i qudsi narrated (rivayat) by Ahmad ibn Hanbali, Allah says: “lâ yezâlü abdil müminin yetegarrabu ileyye binnevâfili,”. This is a hadith-i qudsi. “My faithful servant (qul),” says Janâb-i Haqq, “keeps drawing near Me with nafls (supererogatory) non-stop,”. Do not waste your time, and be in the contest of drawing near Allah. Now, let us see what Janâb-i Haqq said: “My faithful servant (qul) keeps drawing near Me with nafls (supererogatory) non-stop,”. So, fulfil the fards (musts) properly, and fulfil the wajibs (obligations) and sunnahs (customs) properly. Then, keep drawing near Allah with mustehaps (adorned acts/deeds), for the religion (din) is fulfilled with ibadat (worship) and mustehaps (adorned acts/deeds). You may fulfil the religion (din) once you abandon all harams and makruhs (sins and abominable acts), and the things you doubt. That is why you should pay close attention to this matter. I am actually warning myself here, but we are sharing these together so that we may all find life in these life-giving lessons, and we should share because these are divine commandments. May Janâb-i Haqq make us to find life, and bestow eternal bliss. There is a parenthetical sentence here. This is a beseech for the ummah (nation). And the word “mistake” is mentioned in the verse. So, what does it mean? There are excusable and inexcusable mistakes. Some mistakes may be excused, but some mistakes cannot be excused. For example, let’s see you saw excrement, and you did not wash it away, then you forgot about it. This is inexcusable, for you needed to wash it away when you saw it. If you did not see it, then this is excusable. You see, we need to pay attention to these matters. If one did not see it, then he is excusable for he did not see it. However, if he saw it and neglected it, and then forgot about it, then this is not excusable. This goes for all mistakes; they have excusable and inexcusable aspects. People will be brought to the account for the inexcusable mistakes, and they deserve the punishment, but that is if they are not forgiven. A person who shot a bullet to game without checking his surroundings is inexcusable. For example, let us say that person did not check his surrounding, and pulled the trigger and shot the game, but he shot an innocent man instead. In that case he is inexcusable, and he is guilty. He should have pulled the trigger after checking his surroundings carefully, and he should have taken the necessary precautions before pulling the trigger. However, he pulled the trigger as soon as he saw game, and he did not check his surroundings, nor did he take any precautions. That is why that is his own mistake, and he is guilty, and he is inexcusable. Another example would be a person who does not endeavour to learn the religious commandments. Allah had sent the first commandment by saying, “read”, but that person refuses to read. He should learn the religious commandments, but he does not. Is this a valid excuse now? No, it is not. It is a straight-up crime. If he does not endeavour to learn the religious commandments, and does not observe them over and over again in order to not forget it, and then he forgets them, then he is straight-up guilty and his mistake is inexcusable. A friend should always tell the truth. Do you think it will not harm you if you swallow a potion of poison by mistake?
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Let us say someone swallowed poison by mistake, can you say it will not harm him? I am asking you; can you say it will not harm you if you drink poison by mistake? You cannot say that, and these matters are just like that. If you do not learn what you should learn and do not take precautions or if you do not endeavour when you should, then you are straight-up guilty. Thus, not every mistake is excusable. Everyone is responsible to elude and stay away from harams (sinful things), sins, loss, and dangers. He who kills a man by mistake is still obliged to compensate for the loss. He will compensate for the loss. As for the excusable things, our Prophet says the following in the hadith-i sharifs narrated (rivayat) in Kashf-ul-Hafā by Ibn Majah: “rufia an ümmetil hatau vennisyânu,”. “The responsibilities that occur from mistakes and forgetfulness have been lifted from my ummah (nation),”. Not holding responsible from these is a favor. So, what is said in the verse? “O our Rabb (Lord)! Do not hold us responsible for these with your favor and generosity,”. However, this is valid when there is a real excuse. Allah forgives them. As for those who do not have valid excuses, we have tried to explain them with examples. The word isr (اصر) is present in the 286th verse. It means, a heavy burden that does not let you move, which is like being in thrall. It has the following meanings: heavy burden, a heavy duty that trample you, being in thrall, cuff. So, in that part of the verse the servants (qul) beseech Allah, saying, “Do not burn us like the nations you have turned into pigs, monkeys, and mice under harsh laws,”. The servants (qul) say, “ʾiṣran ka-mā ḥamaltahū,” here. Let us see what they said: “O, Rabb (Lord)! Do not lay a burden upon us like the nations you turned into pigs, monkeys, and mice under harsh laws. Save us from thrallment, do not place us in thrall. Do not lay upon us heavy burdens that shall crush us, and shield us from cuffs. There is such a beseech in the 286th verse. For example, the Jews were obliged to 50 times of namāz (prayer). They had to give one-fourth of their wealth to tax. They had to cut off the part of the cloth that got dirty. They were driven out of their homelands. They were put to death due to many reasons. They had to commit suicide to repent. The punishment for any crime was given immediately. There were heavy burdens upon them such as prohibition of what is halal in return of a mistake. The heavy burdens upon the Jews got heavier as they commit crimes. That is the following is said in the 286th verse, “Do not lay heavy burdens like you placed on those who were before us,”. You may look into the 5th book of Torah, there are so many heavy burdens there. Harsh decrees (hukm) were laid upon the Jews in Torah. Then again, in the 157th verse of Surah al-A’raf, it is said that the Prophet whom they find written in Torah and Bible is Prophet Muhammad (asw). “Those who believe in the Quran are the ones who attain the grand salvation,” says Allah. But what did they refuse to do? They did not believe in Prophet Muhammad even though he was written in Torah and Bible. They did not believe in Quran.
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What did they rather do? They bought much bigger troubles, both in the world and in the other world. The divine bidding of the sharīʿah (law) are the laws of Allah Ta’ala. They did the contrary of the divine bidding. So, what was done to tarbiya (educate) those who did the contrary of the divine bidding of the Islamic sharīʿah (law)?
It is possible for pharaohs to descent upon them. The pharaohs will come to power in a nation that do not listen to the word of Allah, and as a matter of fact, the pharaohs took the helm in Israel. Rulers like Buhtnassar and Titos came to power, wreaking havoc, burning the cities, slaying and hanging people. Thus, they became miserable, but why? Had they believed in the decrees (hukm) of Torah properly, and had they believed in prophets like Musa (a.s.) and Isa (a.s.)… They murdered Zakariya (a.s.), they martyred him. They wanted to crucify Isa (a.s.). Allah saved him, and Allah inflicted pharaohs and tyrants upon them. There is a lesson here, if the Muslims are in trouble, then they have to re-embrace Al-Quran Al-Karim and Islam. A few people are living in the realm of the lords, and the others are in agony. This is not happiness. What does this situation resemble? It is like predators tearing antelopes apart alive.
O, Rabb of all the worlds! Do not lay unbearable and intolerable burdens, riots and coups upon us. There is a beseech in the 286th verse of Surah al-Baqarah that says, “O, Rabb! Do not lay upon us unbearable things as test or as punishment,”. The laws are in effect in the universe. The way of the believer (mu’min) is mustaqim (straight), which is due to the rahmat (mercy). As for the way of the denier (munkir), it is crooked, due to justice and wrath of Allah. If Janâb-i Haqq has bestowed ikhsan (favor) upon the believer (mu’min), then this is a manifestation of the rahmat (mercy), which is due to the obedience and belief (iman) of the servant (qul). As for the denier (munkir) the path he/she follows is wrong, that is why Allah gave them what they asked for, or what they deserve, via the justice and wrath. These are divine burdens. Whatever people deserve, or earn, is laid upon them by Allah in the world, in the grave, and in the great gathering (mahshar). Allah gives what they earn, or deserve. Allah knows which decree (hukm) should be imposed upon whom. Allah knows which burden a person deserves, and then lays it upon him/her. What is given to the believer (mu’min) is not just for the disbeliever (kafir), and vice versa, but why? The return of belief (iman) and disbelief (kufr) are different. What is given to the believer (mu’min) is not given to the disbeliever (kafir). What is given to the disbeliever (kafir) is not given to the believer (mu’min). But why? This is because the return of belief (iman) and the return of disbelief (kufr) are different. What a faithful person earns, and what a disbelieving (kafir) person earns is different, for one earns reward and the other earns punishment. Being deserving or not is hidden in the souls and hearts of the nation. This is important, so prepare your heart for Allah, and prepare it well. You have to be worthy of the rewards, and that is in the heart and soul of the ummah (nation). “The hearts are between two fingers of ar-Rahman (Most Gracious), al-Zuljalal (The Owner),”.
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The word “finger” is used as a metaphor so that people may understand. Allah’s qudrah (infinite power) is sufficient for everything. We are talking about a hand or a finger of qudrah (infinite power), otherwise, we are not talking about a physical hand or a finger like the one that humans have, because Allah is unlike anything. “The hearts are between two fingers of ar-Rahman (Most Gracious), al-Zuljalal (The Owner),”. Allah sees the hearts of everyone.
“O, our Rabb! Do not lay upon us any burden that we cannot bear,”. There is a beseech here in the 286th verse. We are not free and away from imperfections and sin. There is a beseech that goes, “wa-ʿfu ʿannā,”.
“Forgive us, and remove the sins from us,” is said in the verse.
“We could not be thankful enough for the countless blessings. We could not be thankful enough for even one of them. We cannot count the blessings (nimet) You bestowed upon us. Our wishes are not for we have deserved something,” this is said in the verse.
“It is not because we have deserved, we are making these wishes,”. “We wish your favor and rahmat (mercy), and we say, ‘forgive us’,”.
[2:286] “wa-ghfir lanā,” – “Forgive us. Forgive us, and conceal our faults in your divine ilm (knowledge). There is a beseech that says, “do not humiliate us,”.
[2:286] “wa-rḥamnā,” – “treat us with Your rahmat (mercy). Have mercy on us, and favor us with Your rahmat (mercy). Your rahmat (mercy) has encompassed everything,”.
[2:286] “ʾanta mawlānā,” – “You are our Mevlâ (Master). You are our Owner, our Possessor, and our Supporter. It is You who create our works.”
[2:257] “allāhu waliyyu lladhīna ʾāmanū,” – “Allah is the guardian of the faithful,” says Allah.
[2:286] “fa-nṣurnā,” – “Help us against all disbelievers (kāfirs). Bestow Your help upon us. Help us achieve victories to make Your almighty name, and the haqq (truth) superior. O, Rabb! Grant us victory!
It is present in the rivayat (narration) of the Muslim, and Tirmidhi that when our Prophet (asw) prayed by reciting this verse, Allah Ta’ala answered him and said, “Sure, I did,”. So, what does Janâb-i Haqq say in response to this beseech? Allah gives an answer, but what does Allah say? “Sure, I did. I have accepted your dua (prayer), and I have given the response,”.
O, dearest and most venerable friend! Beseech Allah wholeheartedly, and recite Quran wholeheartedly. Love Allah wholeheartedly. And beseech Allah with every fibre of your being, in the sincerest way.
Now, Surah Ali ‘Imran is a response to these dua (prayers). From now on, we shall continue with Surah Ali ‘Imran. And we will see responses to these dua (prayers) one by one in Surah Ali ‘Imran.
Quran is explained by Quran. A verse is explained by another verse. A verse can be explained by hadith-i sharifs. In other words, Allah may explain, and the Prophet may explain. Also, the ilms (sciences) of the sharīʿah (law) may be explained by the âlims, or rather Islamic scholars who know them well.
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It is necessary to know Arabic language and literature while making exegesis of Quran. So, four things are taken into account at minimum while making exegesis of Al-Quran Al-Karim. The first thing is that Quran is explained by Quran, and a verse is explained by a verse, a surah is explained by a surah, and it is important to know how the Prophet explained the verses of Quran Al-Karim, and how did he receive the verses from Allah. It is important to preserve these, both rivayat (precision) and dirayat (comprehension) is required here, and one should know the Arabic language and literature and comprehend it thoroughly.
Not every Arab knows Quran well, because their comprehension of the language is not sufficient. As for Turks, they do not know Turkish comprehensively. So, many terms they did not know in their own language were transferred from Islam to the Turkish language. Islamic literature enriched Turkish. Islam placed its own words into Turkish. However, you need to explain those terms to a Turk. You need to explain Turkish again, otherwise many Turks will not understand what you say. And what did our Prophet do with the Arabs? He explained Quran in Arabic. Quran is in Arabic, but the Arabic of an Arab is not enough for understanding it. Therefore, everyone needs the Prophet in order to understand Quran correctly. You see, this way of dirayat (comprehension) has been preserved by all of our mujtahid âlims. They kept it preserved, and put it in record. All madhabs (schools) are schools of Islam, and many mujtahids have been raised in them. They have preserved the Islam that our Prophet understood and explained. Thus, this is the way of Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah. It is the ecole (school) that taught Islam to us correctly. It is the right school of Islam. Islam can be studied in the ecole (school) of Ahlus-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah. As for ahlul bid’ah (deviant innovators), and dalalet ecoles (deviant school) we should be careful about them. They have rights and wrong. The rights are always ours. As for the wrongs, we respond to them with the rights, and it is up to people to accept the rights.
Then again, in a hadith-i sharif that is present in Kutub al-Sittah, and narrated by Ibn Mesud (r.a.), our Prophet said: “Whoever recites these verses at night, with belief (iman) and Islam, then it is sufficient for him/her,”. “Allah Ta’ala gave these to me from a treasure under the ʿArsh (the Throne). Learn, and teach these to your women, sons, and daughters, for these are salāt, dua, and Quran,” he said. It is narrated (rivayat) by Ahmad ibn Hanbali, Al-Darimi, and it is present in Fedâilu’l-Kur’ân. Ali “kerremallahu veche” (r.a.) says: “All smart people would recite these, and they would not sleep before reciting them,”. So, he clearly says that if a person says he is smart, then he should not go to bed before reciting these verses.
Now, in another verse, “Allah created every living creature from water,”. [24:45] wa-llāhu khalaqa kulla dābbatin min māʾin,”. So, what does it mean? The following is said in the 45th verse of Surah al-Nur, “Allah created every living creature from water,”. Then again, this is a narration by Al-Darimi, Fedâilu’l-Kur’ân, and Ebu Meysere, “Jibril (a.s.) said, ‘Say Āmīn to these,’. May Janâb-i Haqq destine us to be among the servants (qul) who hear these, understand these, who do what is necessary, who take big shares from the success (fayiz), and who attain grand bestowments. Āmīn, Āmīn, Āmīn.
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The truths are announced also in the 28th verse of Surah al-Naba. He is a rasul (messenger) in terms of being an envoy of Allah, and he is a nabi (prophet) in terms of announcing the divine commandment to all people. This is important, so what does rasul mean, and what does nabi mean? Prophet Muhammad is a rasul (messenger) in terms of being an envoy of Allah. He was sent down as a prophet. So, he is a nabi (prophet) in terms of announcing the divine commandment to all people. In other words, Prophet Muhammad is both rasul (messenger) and nabi (prophet). He has renewed all past sharīʿah (law), and brought forth a brand-new sharīʿah (law). It does not go out of date, and encompasses all times, and all nations. The Islamic sharīʿah (law) does not go out of date and it is always brand-new. Janâb-i Haqq renewed the past laws using Prophet Muhammad. In this respect, he is a rasul (messenger), and he is also a nabi (prophet) because he announced the commandments properly. Now, the duty of the previous nabis (prophets) were to implement the sharīʿah (law) brought by the rasuls (messengers). Janâb-i Haqq would bring forth new sharīʿah (law) via new rasuls (messengers), and renew the sharīʿah (law). As for the nabis (prophets), they would support the rasuls (messengers). That is why Prophet Muhammad himself is both a rasul (messenger), and a nabi (prophet). Now, in the 148th, 158th, and 159th verse of Surah al-A’raf, Janâb-i Haqq announces many haqiqats (realities) to the servants (qul).
Now, insha ‘Allah Ta’ala, we shall continue our lectures with the verses of Surah Ali ‘Imran from now on. Insha ‘Allah, we shall explore Al-Quran Al-Karim entirely, and continue to try to present you the life-giving nūr (light). May Janâb-i Haqq make all of us servants (qul) who have found life, and become blissful.
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– The End –
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 61
We are currently in our 61st lecture. We continue to give our life-giving lessons of the life-giving Holy Quran. Janâb-i Haqq has bestowed upon us the Nūr (lightful) Islam via Al-Quran Al-Karim. Janâb-i Haqq brought forth the most exalted values, and Prophet Muhammad showed us the right path. May Allah make us amongst the blissful servants (qul) who have found life in both worlds via the unrivalled order of Allah.
Our current lesson is about Surah Ali Imran. We shall continue discovering the holy verses of Surah Ali Imran in our lecture. We shall seek its nūr (light), and the holy values in it. We shall try to find life with the abundance (fayiz) in this verse, and we shall try to find happiness, and guidance to the right path. The entirety of Al-Quran Al-Karim is an incorporation of life-giving holy verses.
[3:1] “Alif, Lām, Mīm,”.
[3:2] “allāhu lā ʾilāha ʾillā huwa l-ḥayyu l-qayyūm,”.
[3:3] “nazzala ʿalayka l-kitāba bi-l-ḥaqqi muṣaddiqan li-mā bayna yadayhi wa-ʾanzala t-tawrāta wa-l-ʾinjīl,”.
[3:4] “min qablu hudan li-n-nāsi wa-ʾanzala l-furqāna ʾinna lladhīna kafarū bi-ʾāyāti llāhi lahum ʿadhābun shadīdun wa-llāhu ʿazīzun dhū ntiqām,”.
[3:5] “ʾinna llāha lā yakhfā ʿalayhi shayʾun fī l-ʾarḍi wa-lā fī s-samā,”.
[3:6] “huwa lladhī yuṣawwirukum fī l-ʾarḥāmi kayfa yashāʾu lā ʾilāha ʾillā huwa l-ʿazīzu l-ḥakīm,”.
[3:7] “huwa lladhī ʾanzala ʿalayka l-kitāba minhu ʾāyātun muḥkamātun hunna ʾummu l-kitābi wa-ʾukharu mutashābihātun fa-ʾammā lladhīna fī qulūbihim zayghun fa-yattabiʿūna mā tashābaha minhu btighāʾa l-fitnati wa-btighāʾa taʾwīlihī wa-mā yaʿlamu taʾwīlahū ʾillā llāhu wa-r-rāsikhūna fī l-ʿilmi yaqūlūna ʾāmannā bihī kullun min ʿindi rabbinā wa-mā yadhdhakkaru ʾillā ʾulū l-ʾalbāb,”.
[3:8] “rabbanā lā tuzigh qulūbanā baʿda ʾidh hadaytanā wa-hab lanā min ladunka raḥmatan ʾinnaka ʾanta l-wahhāb,”.
[3:9] “rabbanā ʾinnaka jāmiʿu n-nāsi li-yawmin lā rayba fīhi ʾinna llāha lā yukhlifu l-mīʿād,”.
[3:10] “ʾinna lladhīna kafarū lan tughniya ʿanhum ʾamwāluhum wa-lā ʾawlāduhum mina llāhi shayʾan wa-ʾulāʾika hum waqūdu n-nār,”.
[3:11] “ka-daʾbi ʾāli firʿawna wa-lladhīna min qablihim kadhdhabū bi-ʾāyātinā fa-ʾakhadhahumu llāhu bi-dhunūbihim wa-llāhu shadīdu l-ʿiqāb,”.
Sadaqa Allaah al-‚Azeem.
Our dearest listeners, at first, we will give you the core meanings of these verses, and then we will move onto their exegesis. We will explore what kind of a life The Glorious Quran gives to the universe via our preliminary notes. We will see how Quran removes the wrongs. We will see how it established the predominance of the truths, we will also see how it removed the wrong (bātil), and how it ensured the sovereignty of the truth (haqq). We will see all of that together in Quran. Let us try to observe so that we may live the right and reality (haqq and haqiqa) altogether. Let us be saved from all of the wrongs (bātil).
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You see, Al-Quran Al-Karim brings forth the straight-up truth, and the best things. Al-Quran Al-Karim came to remove all that is wrong. Islam came to save the entire humanity. Janâb-i Haqq says, “Alif, Lām, Mīm,”. Allah-ul-Alem (Allah knows best). Allah is the God, other than whom there is no other god. There is no other deity except Allah. Allah is, “l-ḥayyu l-qayyūm – The Living, The Sustainer,”. Now, what does Hay and Qayyūm mean? We will try to discover their meanings together.
Editor’s note: The following are the core meanings (meâl) of the aforementioned verses.
Allah sent down to you the Book which confirms what came before it, with the truth. It was also Allah who sent down Torah and Bible to people as guidance. Yes, this Furqan (criterion) that is Al-Quran Al-Karim was sent down by Allah as well. The truth is, there is a severe punishment for those who deny the verses of Allah. Allah is Almighty, al-ʿAzīz, and takes retribution. It is also certain that nothing in the heavens and the earth is hidden from Allah. It is Allah who shapes you in the wombs as Allah pleases. It is Allah other than whom there is no other deity. To Allah belongs glory, honor, and hikmat (wisdom).
It is Allah who sent down this Book to you. O, Muhammad (asw)! O, the glorious Prophet! O, Muhammad Mustafa! Sent down to all worlds as a rahmat (mercy). It is Almighty Allah who sent down to you this Book that is Al-Quran Al-Karim.
Some verses of it are muhkam (clear), they are the mother (essence) of the Book. And some of them are mutashabih (unclear) verses. Those with crookedness in their hearts go after the mutashabih (unclear) ones in order to cause fitnah (distress), and to make tawil (interpretation) according to their sweet will. Whereas their tawil (interpretation) is unknown to anyone other than Allah. Those who are experts in ilm (knowledge) say, “We have believed in it, it is all from our Rabb. None contemplate (on the admonition) other than people of high intellect.
O, our Rabb! Do not let us our hearts deviate from the truth (haqq) after the guidance (hidayat) you bestowed upon us. Grand us a rahmat (mercy) from Your own. Indeed, you have abundance in bestowment.
O, our Rabb! Indeed, you will gather all people together on a day that shall come without a doubt. Indeed, Allah does not go back from a promise, ever.
The truth is, neither their possessions nor their children may block a loss that shall come from Allah. It is they who shall be fuel of the Fire. A path like that of the dynasty of Pharaoh and those before them. They had denied Our verses, then Allah seized them due to the sins they committed. Allah is severe in punishment.
Allah gave them the punishment they deserved. The return of denial is to be destroyed by the wrath and power of Allah, and to be thrown in Jahannam (Hell).
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That said, let us talk about the exegesis of these verses of Quran. In other words, let us try to explain them further so that we may understand them clearer. So, let us make the discovery, exegesis, and interpretation of these verses by means of riwayat (mere narrations) and dirayat (their comprehension). Insha ‘Allah we will try to study the life-giving lessons of the life-giving Quran altogether. May Janâb-i Haqq enlighten the entire humanity with the nūr (light) of Quran. That is our sole purpose. We endeavour for the goal of Al-Quran Al-Karim. We endeavour for the same goal that Prophet Muhammad had. We only seek the riza (approval) of Allah Ta’ala. We seek what Allah wills. We do not have any other purpose other than attaining the riza (approval), and attaining the salvation, for Al-Quran Al-Karim is the witness of the past, and all documents and evidence of the future, and the eternity, are present in Al-Quran Al-Karim. You see, Al-Quran Al-Karim is witness of the real Bible, the real Torah, and all prophets. The truths are within Al-Quran Al-Karim. It does not let anyone speak ill about any prophet. It protects the real Bible, real Torah, the Psalm, and the Scriptures. It incorporates all things that are divine into its structure. The criterion between the false and fabricated Bible and the real Bible is Al-Quran Al-Karim, for Allah’s Books incorporate the past into the its structure, and bear witness to the past. You see, Al-Quran Al-Karim is mu’min (believer), muheymin (guardian), and musadiq (acknowledger of the truth). It is mu’min. It bids belief (iman) to all values of the past. It is muheymin (guardian), protects the values of the past. It is musadiq, it affirms all divine books, all prophets, and all types of divine commandments of the past. So, how should one do his deeds according to it? You see, it is Islam, the sharīʿah (law) of Prophet Muhammad that renewed the entirety of these values. Islamic sharīʿah (law) is the last sharīʿah (law). It is the sharīʿah (law) of Al-Quran Al-Karim. It was brought forth by Prophet Muhammad. People do their deeds according to the Islamic sharīʿah (law) that were sent down by Allah, until Qiyamah, for all values of the past were renewed by it. Islam does not let anyone speak ill of Isa (Jesus). Some people say improper things about Isa (Jesus). The Jews slander him. The Christians also slander him. The former slanders him due to their enmity, and the former divinized him. They say Isa, son of Maryam, is son of Allah. They say that this prophet is a deity. They are divinising a servant (qul). Allah is One, but they say three. These are slanders against the rights and realities. The entirety of all truths is in Al-Quran Al-Karim.
Now, Surah Ali Imran consists of two hundred verses, and when you list the surahs of Al-Quran Al-Karim you will see that it is the third verse. It is a medinian surah. That is, it is a holy surah that was sent down, or revealed in Madinah.
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Zahrawayn is a name that encompasses this verse, and it means ‘two roses’. This surah is also referred to with names such as “An’âm, Kenz, Emân, Mâniyye, struggle, repentance, and Tayyibe. As you see, the surah has various other names. So, who is Imran? He is the father of Maryam. The father of our mother Maryam is Imran. By the name of this surah, we see how Al-Quran Al-Karim protects our mother Maryam. The Christians and the Jews are separately insulting and slandering our mother Maryam. As for Al-Quran Al-Karim, it shields our mother Maryam against these slanders, and protects her. It tells the truth, and narrates the real Maryam. Imran is the father of Maryam. Quran arbitrated by rejecting the ifrat and tafrit (overdoing and underdoing) of ahlul kitab (people of the book), and called them to peace. What does Al-Quran Al-Karim say against the ifrat and tafrit (overdoing and underdoing) of the Jews and Christians who consider themselves ahlul kitab (people of the book)? It rejected them and arbitrated between them. That is, Al-Quran Al-Karim. The real arbitrator is Al-Quran Al-Karim. It told Jews to cease slandering Maryam, and says the following to the Christians: “Maryam, she is son of Imran, and mother of Isa (Jesus). She is a servant (qul) of Allah, just like all other women. She is also among the chaste, honourable, and faithful women. Thus, Al-Quran Al-Karim gives the best response to the entire humanity. The duty of arbitration has been given to the fair and indifferent nation. In other words, Muhammad’s ummah (nation) is the arbitrator. Muhammad’s ummah (nation) arbitrates, and places the truths before all the wrongs in the past. But they do this with Al-Quran Al-Karim, and Prophet Muhammad. You see, Prophet Muhammad is the greatest Prophet of Allah. As for Al-Quran Al-Karim, it is the greatest and the last Book. It renewed the entirety of the past. Allah’s Book that is Al-Quran Al-Karim came forth with a brand-new sharīʿah (law). It has told all of the truths, that is why Muhammad’s ummah (nation) abides by the truths of Quran, and brings forth the truths of our Prophet, and arbitrate. Prophet Muhammad, and all of the prophets told nothing other than what is true. There cannot be anything wrong in the Books of Allah. The wrongs are inside the minds of people themselves. There cannot be falsehoods in what is divine. People can be wrong if they fail to understand it correctly. They may interpret it wrong, and choose a wrong approach. That fault belongs to him/her. Allah sent the prophets so that the message may be understood correctly. Allah explained Quran to Prophet Muhammad, and made the exegesis (tafsir) of it. Then, Muhammad conveyed it to people the way he received it from Allah, and then explained it. That is why Muhammad’s ummah (nation) is the arbitrator of the past with all rights and truths. Al-Quran Al-Karim is clear. They all have been distorted. There is only Al-Quran Al-Karim that has not been distorted. That is why Muhammad’s ummah should overcome the distortion by being the tongue and soul of Torah and Bible, and renew or fix the beliefs (iman) of the humanity.
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Clearly, Al-Quran Al-Karim renews and fixes the belief (iman) of the humanity. People have deviated to a polytheism all around, they do not know Allah correctly. They are introducing Isa and Musa wrongly. They are introducing Maryam wrongly. Some people started exalting the Awliya and above the Prophet. Other types of deviations also derived. Various wrong (batil) beliefs like atheism, naturism, and animism derived. It is Al-Quran Al-Karim and Prophet Muhammad that brought forth the real belief (iman) that renews the belief (iman) of the entire humanity by completely removing all wrongs (batil). Muhammad’s ummah (nation) has been endeavouring in this way. Islam came to renew the beliefs (iman) of the entire humanity. Muhammad’s sharīʿah (law) is Islam. Islamic sharīʿah (law) has renewed the past, and incorporated all times into its structure, and emerged as the religion (din) of all nations, all times, and all ages. It came to renew the beliefs (iman), break the idols, and remove polytheism. It came to announce that Allah is One, and that Allah is the sole, unrivalled, and All-Able ruler of all of the worlds. Islam came to narrate this truth to the humanity. Muhammad’s ummah have been endeavouring in this way. Islam came to renew the belief (iman) of the entire humanity. It is Islam and Al-Quran Al-Karim that saves the belief (iman) of the humanity. Is it not necessary to bring forth the truth in order to make the humanity be in possession of a correct belief (iman)? Then, what is the situation of those who divinize worms, bugs, rocks, trees, people, or creatures? Theirs’s is polytheism (shirk). Is it possible to divinize a person? People are honourable servants (qul) created by Allah. As for the prophets, they are also servants (qul) of Allah. The awliya are also servants (qul), just like heroes, rulers, and wise people. The title does not matter here, all people are servants (qul) of Allah. Allah does not have partners, equals, or rivals. That is why what is essential is to renew and fix the belief (iman) of the humanity, but with what? You may do this with the Nūr (lightful) Islam and Quran that Prophet Muhammad brought. Surah al-Baqarah and Surah Ali ‘Imran are like Torah and Bible. That is, the relationship between Surah al-Baqarah and Surah Ali ‘Imran are like that of Torah and Bible. They are like two lights, like a mother and her daughter.
Now, let us talk about the reason that it was revealed. Let me summarise some of the reasons as to why Surah Ali Imran was sent down. The Jews had grudge and enmity against Isa. They were slandering Isa. That was due to their denial of the Bible. Now, please pay close attention to this section. The Jews showed grudge and enmity towards Isa. They slandered Isa, and then they denied the Bible whereas Isa was the Prophet of Bani Isra’il (Sons of Israel), but they still denied. They also denied the Bible. Furthermore, they did not stop at denial, but wanted to crucify Isa. We see that Al-Quran Al-Karim defends Isa, Maryam, and the Bible. Quran says that Isa is a real (haqq) Prophet. He was the Prophet of his period. He abrogated certain decrees (hukm) of Torah, and brought forth a new sharīʿah (law). Torah had also renewed (nesih) the sharīʿah laws before it. As for Al-Quran Al-Karim, it renewed all. It renewed the Bible, and the Torah. Thus, Al-Quran Al-Karim protects Isa against the Jews who deny the Bible. Al-Quran Al-Karim defends all values of the past. It defends Musa (Moses), and Torah as well.
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The real Musa is also a servant (qul) of Allah, and he is a real (haqq) Prophet. Torah is also Book of Allah, except the distorted and fabricated books that are labelled as Torah and Bible. You see, Al-Quran Al-Karim is the criterion that distinguish between right and wrong, and that is why Quran and Muhammad’s ummah are the arbitrators. Al-Quran Al-Karim incorporated the real Bible and the real Torah into its structure, for it is divine, and for it is the Book of Allah. They depicted what did not exist in Torah as if it was written in it. They denied what was clearly present in Torah. It is clear that Muhammad was present in Torah, but they denied. Musa (Moses) had heralded the coming of Muhammad, and said that he will spread Islam to the world, and told them to believe in him. But they denied him. One of the reasons this surah was sent down is the grudge and enmity of the Jews against Isa. They had slandered Isa. Al-Quran Al-Karim says stop to the Jews due to their denial of Isa and the Bible. Quran says, “Give up this grudge, stop your enmity, and stop slandering Isa. Quran says he is not walad zinā (a child born out of wedlock). Quran says Maryam is not a bad woman. Quran says that Maryam is a chaste and pure woman who worships and obeys Allah, and that she is a Batūl (virgin) woman. You see, “Allah who created Adam without a father and mother has created Isa (Jesus) via Maryam without there being a father,” says Quran, and calls the Jews to the truth, telling them to not slander the Bible. Quran tells them Bible was a real (haqq) Book sent down to Isa by Allah in his time, and that they denied it. That is why we see that Al-Quran Al-Karim brings forth the complete truth.
The second reason is about Najran and the Christians. We are referring to a city in Yemen that is called Najran. The Christians in the city of Najran in Yemen came to Madinah, to our Prophet, Muhammad with sixty horsemen. Fourteen of them were notable figures of the Najrani nation and state. You see, fourteen of the sixty horsemen were notable figures, and three of them were of the highest ranks. El-Akip and Abdulmassih were their leaders. As for Sayyid and el-Eyhem, they were the viziers and commanders. Uskup was their commander. The bishop of Skopje was Abu’l Harise ibn Alkame. The Bishop of Skopje was Abu’l Harise ibn Alkame, and he was with them. This Abu’l Harise ibn Alkame who was the bishop had become famous due to his knowledge. He had become a famous figure and he was a well-versed person. In other words, he had knowledge of Bible and Torah. He had seen Prophet Muhammad in Bible and Torah. He had read the verses of Bible and Torah that said that the last Prophet will come at the end times. He knew Muhammad, the way Almighty Allah introduced him in Bible. He also knew that he would emerge in Mecca, and spread Islam from Madinah. However, knowing or reading is not enough, you have to declare faith (iman).
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He was given wealth and property by the Byzantium rulers. As you know, the rulers of Byzantium were Christians. The brother of the bishop, Kurz ibn Alkame were also present in this group. They came to our Prophet. They came into the presence of Prophet Muhammad with clerical clothing and adorned uniforms. They were dressed in adorned uniforms. Our Master, Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (asw), told his entourage to let them perform their prayer in the masjid by facing east. Then, they performed their namāz (prayer) in their own way by facing east. They stayed in Madinah for a few days, and talked with our Master (asw). They would address Isa (a.s.) as god. They sometimes address him as “son of Allah”, or “salisû selâse” which means the third. They believed in trinity, and said that Isa (a.s.) was the third of the trinity. Never, never in ever! They said that he could resurrect the dead, cure the sick, and convey news from the unseen (ghaib). They were presenting such justifications while divinising Isa (a.s.). They said he would whiff on a bird made out of clay and it would come to life. They said that Allah (c.c.) says “We and Our” and Allah would say “Me” if Allah was One.
Our Master (asw) listened them, and said, “Eslimu” – “Become Muslims” to all of them. “Your justifications are not valid, and they all stink of polytheism (shirk) and idolatry,”. “You speak of things that destroy the belief (iman). Convert to Islam, and become Muslims,” he said. Upon that they said, “We have entered Islam before you,” to our Prophet. Those who are on the wrong path always defend themselves with such wrongs, and they look right. Our Master (asw), Prophet Muhammad said, “You lied. How will your Islam be accepted by ascribing unto Allah a son?”. They said, “Then who is his father?”. Our Master (asw), “Allah is the Living, and the Immortal,”. He asked them, “Does non-existence and death affect Isa?”. They said, “Yes, Isa dies,”. “Then how can one who is born be Allah?” said our Prophet. “Every son looks like the father,” said our Master. They said, “Yes,”. Our Master said, “Our Rabb (Lord) is Qayyūm, does not have equals or rivals. Allah protects, and gives sustenance (rizq), and it is Allah who observes and manages all things,”. Does Isa (a.s.) possess these?” asked our Prophet. They said, “No,”. Then our Master, Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (asw) asked, “Nothing in the heavens or the earth is concealed from Allah. As for Isa, can he know anything other than what Allah disclosed?”. They said, “No, he cannot,”. Then our Master (asw) asked them, “Our Rabb (Lord) shaped Isa in his mother’s womb as Allah pleased, and delineated him like all people, do you know?”. They said “Yes,”. Then our Master (asw) said, “Our Rabb (Lord) does not eat or drink, and is free from impurity,” They said “Yes,”. Our Master (asw) said, “Isa’s mother got pregnant and gave birth. Isa suckled, he was fed, he used to eat and drink, and soil himself, and wet himself, do you know?” They said “Yes,”. “So, how can Isa be a deity?” said our Master, Prophet Muhammad to them. “How can he be like what you assume?” he said. They all retreated into silence, and they could not answer, yet they insisted on their obstinacy.
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Eighty verses were sent down. These were muhkam (clear) and mutashabih (unclear) verses. Those with a crocked hearth were invited to mulaane (see 3:61) by our Master. That is, calling down Allah’s curse upon the liar. You see, they had left the muhkam (clear) verses, and went after the mutashabih (unclear) verses. And they were, of course, afraid of mulaane (see 3:61). The 61st verse of Surah Ali ‘Imran is the verse of mulaane. They feared mulaane, or calling down Allah’s curse upon the liar. Then they made peace deal, they wanted an arbitrator, then they assigned Abu Ubayda ibn Cerrah as arbitrator, and departed. Thus, they entered the Islamic allegiance. They did not become Muslims, but they accepted the sovereignty of Islam, and entered under Islam’s rulership. The brother of the bishop, Kurz Ibn-i Alkame became a Muslim. As for the bishop, he said that the kings will take back the treasures they gifted, otherwise he stated that Muhammad is the real (haqq) Prophet that they were waiting for in the Bible, yet he could not become a Muslim. But why did he not become a Muslim? You see, the kings gifted tremendous treasures to the bishop, they gave him a fortune. The bishop did not become a Muslim for fear of losing his wealth, even though he knew the truth. On the other hand, his brother Kurz became a Muslim.
In the verses of Surah Ali ‘Imran such as the 10th, 14th, and 19th, Janâb-i Haqq says, “The real (haqq) religion is Islam,”. And from now on, there is no possibility or chance of denying Islam. He/she who denied has ruined himself/herself. As for the munkir (deniers), they are the fuel of the Fire. Those who are taken in by the meta of the world throw themselves to Jahannam forever. They are the ones who are devoid of the Janna and Jamal, that is filled to brim with the eternal blessings (nimet) and favor of Allah.
Then again, one day Kurz, the brother of the bishop, had spoken ill about our Prophet, but this was before he became a Muslim. He had said, “tagsen lil eb adi,”. Which roughly means, “be stranded,”. In other words, he had said “be destroyed” to our Prophet. He was standing next to the bishop, and upon saying that the bishop said, “May your mother be destroyed,” to his brother.
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Upon that Kurz said, “Why?”. Now, please pay attention for the bishop said, “He is the Prophet we have been waiting for, this Muhammad is the Prophet mentioned in Bible. It was prescribed that he would emerge in Mecca. It was prescribed that he would spread Islam from Madinah,”. As you see, the bishop said that he is the Prophet who has been waited. Upon that Kurz asked him, “Then why will you not declare belief (iman), and become a Muslim if he is that Prophet?” You see, he gave an interesting response, so pay close attention. O, the world! Hear this!
He said, “The kings gifted me many things, they will take it all back,”. This made Kurz feel regretful, and Kurz became a Muslim in the end. However, the bishop did not, but why? His wealth had become an idol which settled into his heart firmly. You see, “the world drives the afterlife out once it enters the heart,”. This quote is from all awliya people. The heart is abode of belief (iman), and it belongs to Allah. The heart, with its every fibre, shall believe in Allah. It shall love Allah with all its power. It shall surrender to the command of Allah, and implement the laws and commandments of Quran one by one. It shall live the divine sharīʿah (law) of Islam, and find life. The immortal life is here, along with eternal beauties. Prosperity and bliss if here! As for the troubles, suffering, sorrow, and sickness, they abide in anger and doubt.
What is the abode of belief (iman), bliss, peace, and eternal safety? They would be yaqeen (certainty) and riza (approval). So, what does yaqeen mean? Yaqeen is to believe in Quran and Islam completely. That is, straightforward belief in Allah Ta’ala the way Quran and Islam says, and to know Allah correctly. Yaqeen is believing the Islamic sharīʿah (law) as a whole, and to be pleased (riza) with the decrees (hukm) of Allah. They say eternal bliss is in yaqeen (certainty) and riza (approval). It is said that while the worlds are being created, peace, joy, and bliss were placed into these two. So, what are they? I am telling this so that you may not forget, so do not forget that they were placed in yaqeen (certainty) and riza (approval). Yaqeen (certainty) is a complete and real belief (iman). That is, faith in Islam. As for riza (approval), it is to be pleased with Islam entirely. It is to be able to say, “My Rabb (Lord)! This Islam is such a beautiful religion, and each commandment of you is so good. As for your prohibitions, they are for saving us from loss and harm. Your commandments bid what is beneficial, and your prohibitions expel that which is harmful to us. That is why you ordered them. This Islam is such a good religion. It is the Janna (Paradise) of the world,”. You being pleased with the divine rules and commandments is riza. When you have riza (assent), Allah will be pleased with you, and you will be pleased with Allah. You see, radeyallahu anhum wa radu anh. Jannah-i Ala (The Grand Paradise). Allah’s Jamal (Beauty). Radeyallahu anhum – Allah is pleased with them. Radu anh – They are pleased with Allah. That is Islam. This Islam is the divine order Allah brought forth with laws and rules. Riza occurs when you accept this divine order with pleasure. And yaqeen occurs when you firmly and completely believe in it, which makes real belief (iman), and it means yaqeen iman (certain belief). This is the name of the belief (iman) that is certain and real. To believe in Allah as if you are seeing Allah. That is to believe as if you see the afterlife, the sirat, the mizan (scale), Janna (Paradise) and Jahannam (Hell). That is to believe as if you see Azrail, and death itself. You believe in all of them firmly, and you believe that you will be resurrected, and brought to the account. However, you have no doubt, and you believe firmly and certainly. Now, that is yaqeen iman (certain belief).
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That is why dearest friends! Every truth gives life to a person, and every wrong take life from them and makes them miserable. Every sawāb (good) gives bliss, and every sin brings misery. Let us speak the truth about our spiritual and physical worlds. We shall find life altogether if we speak the truth. Yet we will lose so many things if we dwell in wrongs. Let us speak the truth, and be beneficial, and find life. Islam gives life. Islam calls every one of us to Allah, the sovereignty of Allah, and the order and law of Allah. Others call to themselves, to their own circles, philosophies, and ideologies. Those others are also servants (qul) of Allah, but not one of them is al-Khalq (Creator). Rather, they are makhluq (created) servants of Allah. Should we leave Allah and seek other ways? Should we start serving the servants? What difference will we have from the others if we do that? What would happen to Islam then? What about the Quran, the Book of Allah? What about Prophet Muhammad, the last and the greatest Prophet, and the divine laws he brought? What about the rulership of Allah? If we take others as lords, then what would happen to the religion (din) and belief (iman)? Allah has no partners or equals. Allah is the sole Creator of this universe, and its administrator. The soul (ruh) and body that we have are given by Allah. Allah is the originator of all blessings (nimet). Surely, serving Allah is the necessity of our creation, and there are no other creators either.
Now, our current topic is that the bishop did not became a Muslim. However, Kurz, his brother, became a Muslim. Kurz and the bishop were brothers, and on top of that the bishop knew of the Bible and Torah. He had read about Prophet Muhamad in Bible and Torah. He knew that the last prophet mentioned in them is Muhammad. However, he loved his worldly possessions. He loved his rank and position. He could not become a Muslim for fear of losing all that. You see, this is a mindset of those who lost everything. Why do you think Almighty Allah is showing these to us in Al-Quran Al-Karim as object lessons? Al-Quran Al-Karim is warning the entire world so that people may not fall into such wrongs, deviations, and frustrations. Al-Quran Al-Karim brings forth these lessons in order save people from wrongs, and to establish the predominance of the Real (al-Haqq), and the haqq and haqiqa (right and reality). That is why, these Najrani Christians, who consisted of sixty people, and their situation is a lesson for us. You see, had that bishop spread the truths in the Bible, and the truths in Torah, then not only that sixty people but the entire world would have become Muslims. The world would have united in Islam. The entire world consists of the servants (qul) of Allah, does it not? Aren’t all humans and djinn servants (qul) of Allah? Isn’t deceiving the servants (qul) of Allah is the greatest treachery against the humanity? Then why are they deceiving people? Why do they not speak the truths? Isa, Musa, and Muhammad, these are prophets, and they are closer than brothers. These are revered figures who love one another to the utmost. Aleyhimüsselâm.
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This goes for all other prophets as well, for they are all prophets to whom Allah assigned duties. Allah assigned a duty to Musa (a.s.) before Isa (a.s.), and when he finished his duty Allah assigned another duty to Isa (a.s.), and after he finished his duty Allah sent Prophet Muhammad as the Last Prophet until the Last Day (Qiyamah), and his time still continues. All times and all ummahs (nations), from the moment Prophet Muhammad came, are counted as Muhammad’s age. Muhammad’s age started the day he came, and will continue until he Last Day (Qiyamah). This goes for all times and ummahs (nations). The ages of time are considered Muhammad’s age. These ages are all considered Muhammad’s age starting from the day he came until the Last Day (Qiyamah). You see, the times before his arrival were of Isa (a.s.), and those before him were of Musa (a.s.), and before him there were other prophets such as Ibrahim (Abraham), Nuh (Noah), and this goes all the way back to Adam. Aleyhimüsselâm. May Allah’s peace be upon all of them. They were dutiful in their own periods. The religion (din) is one, and it is Islam. So, why do they divide people and drive them apart? It is clear that there are no two religions on earth. Allah is One, and the haqq and haqiqa (right and reality) is also One. [3:19] “ʾinna d-dīna ʿinda llāhi l-ʾislām,”. “Only religion (din) with Allah is Islam,” says Allah. If Allah gave respite to ahlul kitab (people of the book) that is for laying the foundations for them to convert to Islam. Allah gave them time to contemplate to become Muslims. As for Al-Quran Al-Karim, it calls to belief (iman), and bids Islam to people non-stop. It calls the entire humanity, and all of the jinn. “The religion (din) with Allah Ta’ala is Islam, so come to Islam” it says, and calls the entire world to Islam.
Come, and let’s decide together, and let us speak the truth, but let us first designate the truth. The truth is the truths of Allah, which are in Al-Quran Al-Karim and with Prophet Muhammad. The address of truth is Quran and Muhammad (asw). The rights of the past, and the rights of the future are in these two.
That is why the situation of Najrani Christians, and the Jews is explained by Janâb-i Haqq here. Moreover, Allah protects Isa (a.s.) and gives him immunity. Al-Quran Al-Karim defends him. Islam defends Isa, Musa, and Maryam. These verses are arbitrator verses. In other words, they remove the wrongs in the past, and brings forth the rights.
The divine justice is manifested. Christianism spread from that place. In other words, it was spread from Najran for the first time. Uhdud wanted to suppress them in the past. You see, the Christians of Najran. And Surah al-Burūj. Surah al-Burūj protected the Christians there. They are called Christians but at that time they were subjected to Isa’s religion (din) which is Islam. That is why Uhdud tyrannised them, and wanted to destroy them. This is what Surah al-Burūj in Al-Quran Al-Karim narrates. The religion brought by all prophets of all ages is Islam, and the Muslims of those times are our brothers just like today’s Muslims. As long as they believe in the prophet of Allah, and the sharīʿah (law) he brought, and never deny any of it. Islam does not let anyone deny the values of the past, nor does it let anyone deny the values of the future. Islam has incorporated all values of past and future into the belief (iman) and creed (amantu). The creed (amantu) is inclusive of all of it. You may try to tell a Muslim to deny Isa (a.s.), they cannot deny him. They cannot deny the Bible, the Torah, Musa, Ibrahim, Nuh, or Adam. Even if you asked them to deny them, they will not be able to deny.
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They are all present in the creed (amantu) of each and every Muslim. As for Islam, Al-Quan Al-Karim, and Prophet Muhammad, they removed all wrongs and brought forth an iman (belief) with the rights. As for the originator of all of these, that would be Allah (c.c.). As for Jibril (a.s.), he is an envoy.
There was a well-known church that was referred to as Najrani Kabaa, which was famous in Najran. They would call it Najrani Kabaa. In the 10th year of Hijra (migration), this place was conquered in a peaceful way, and all that belonged to Islam from then on. These places were guarded when they were under the rulership of Islam. Muslims did not touch anyone’s church or synagogue. As for the Christians, the Jews, or people of other faiths, or even polytheists (mushrikun), they were protected by the religion (din) of Islam, and freedom of belief were given to all of them. Muslim protected them as their own, provided that they acknowledge the sovereignty of Islam and pay tax. These people are referred as dhimmis. That is, Muslims are responsible for their safety and freedom. They were protected by Muslims. So, what were the dhimmis? They were non-Muslims living under the protection of Islamic state. Their rights and freedoms were under protection. Those who misrepresent the religion (din) of Islam to the world should save themselves from the wrongs first, and they should not give false information to the humanity. The religion (din) of Islam established world domination. Islam did not force the nations whom reside under its rulership make concessions about their freedom. Islam did not force them, rather it set them free. People were free in their synagogues and churches. Besides, Islam has a firm order that states that the following should not be harmed even in warfare: churches, synagogues, places of worship, old people, children, animals, trees, and women. Islam has a strict order that forbids harming the old. Islam came to protect. Islam’s war is only for settling peace and justice, and it is against the imposers.
Islam has to be the defender of the right (haqq) when people refuse to accept right (haqq) and reality (haqiqa), for Islam itself is the truth (haqq). Muslims are also obliged to defend this right (haqq), which is for the benefit of all people.
Moreover, in a rivayat (narration) of Aisha in Muslim Sharif is that our Prophet said, “Be wary of those who abide by mutashabih (unclear) verses,”. The people with crocked hearts leave the muhkam (clear) verses and go after the mutashabih (unclear) ones. The meanings of mutashabih (unclear) verses are known only by Almighty Allah. There is also this, Allah explains mutashabih (unclear) verses by means of muhkam (clear) verses, and none other than the rasih ulama (utmost Islamic scholars) have a say in this regard. If you ask me examples of mutashabih (unclear) verses, the letters at the beginning of Surah Ali ‘Imran, [3:1] “Alif, Lām, Mīm,” is mutashabih (unclear), and these are like encryptions. These are encryptions of the truth (haqq). The muhkam (clear) verses that come after them make their explanation, and if you leave the muhkam (clear) verses, and those who go after the mutashabih (unclear) ones are the ones with crocked hearts if they interpret them according to their sweet will. This is an expression of Al-Quran Al-Karim. It says that only Allah knows their tawil (interpretation). We have recited the verses of Al-Quran Al-Karim in the beginning of this lecture, and gave their core meanings, and now we are exploring them.
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The muhkam (clear) verses are the ones whose tawil (interpretation), meaning, and tafsir (exegesis) are clear. The muhkam (clear) verses are the mother of Quran. As for the mutashabih (unclear) ones, their meanings are unknown. For example, the exact time of Qiyamah. This is also mutashabih (unclear). The coming of Gog and Magog is also among the mutashabih (unclear) things. These are indeed verses but their how/modality or nature are known only by Janâb-i Haqq. The coming of Dajjal is also a verse, it is a hadith, but this is also mutashabih (unclear). Then again, certain verses about Isa (a.s.) are also mutashabih (unclear). The huruf-u mukatta (separate letters) which I talked about just now, “alif lām mīm, ta ha, ya sin” and “Ra, Ta Ha, Ya-Sin, Nun, Kaaf Ha Ya Ain Sad,”. These are also mutashabih (unclear). These are huruf-u mukatta (separate letters). What we convey here is present in the documents of al-Qurtubi, and the other âlims. Then again, in the 1st verse of Surah Hūd, it is said that the texts of the Book are definitive, and the meaning is elaborated. “kitābun ʾuḥkimat ʾāyātuhū,” says Allah. “This is the Book whose signs (verses) have been made definite,” says Allah. Al-Quran Al-Karim, with its ayat (signs, verses) is a firm and intact Book. That is why the rasih ulama (grand âlims) who have belief (iman), and all of the believers (mu’minun) have believed in the mutashabih (unclear) verses. They believe in the Book entirely, including the mutashabih (unclear) verses, but they do deeds according to the muhkam (clear) verses. In the 23rd verse of Surah az-Zumar, Allah says, “its verses are similar in terms of goodness,”. [39:23] “kitāban mutashābihan mathāniya,”. They are compatible with one another, they can be recited over and over again, without being weary of it, you will get enough of it, you will not stop feeling enjoyment. The heart eats and drinks from it, and when you think it is full it will become hungry again, and start eating and drinking from the meanings in Quran. The awliya call this pleasure, they call it ra’y (vote). It is the awliya who says that. That is, they take pleasure over and over again. The heart drinks from it non-stop, and the person becomes happy as his/her heart becomes happy, and the moment it reaches satisfaction it becomes hungry again, and this continues over and over again. It continues to drink, and when it becomes full, it becomes hungry again, and start eating and drinking again. This is such a divine reality (haqiqa) that you cannot have enough of Al-Quran Al-Karim. This is much greater than what I have told you just now, for no matter how hard you try you cannot explain something divine to its utmost. This is not exaggeration either, because this is a most exalted miracle, an unrivalled miracle, and in the face of it everyone is powerless. Let me ask you, can powerless beings narrate this thoroughly no matter how hard they try? They cannot, and we are only conveying what we understood, but it is more divine and more beautiful than that which we convey.
Now, a person came to Ibn Abbas and said the following, and mind you that Ibn Abbas is among the greatest âlims of the sahabah, and he is an âlim who was very advanced in tafsir (exegesis), radeyallahu anhum wa ardahum ajmain.
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May Allah be very pleased with them all, including the entire Ashab-i Gûzin. Peace and greetings upon our Master Muhammad, and upon all other prophets too. Endless and countless thanks and praises to Allah who bestowed upon us Islam. We have lots of imperfections, and we ask for forgiveness of our sins. We ask forgiveness for all of the creatures. May Allah have mercy and forgiveness upon all faithful lots. May the entire humanity believe in Islam, and may Allah make everyone amongst the Muslims of Islam. This is what we endeavour for. Now, what did that man said to Ibn Abbas? He said, “I cannot find any contradiction in Quran,”. You see, he had contradictions in his mind but he thought they originated from Quran, for the ignorant lot do not see their ignorance and seek the imperfection in the evidence. They look for imperfections in the divine things. An ignorant person will look for imperfections in a scholarly person, whereas he should look for them in his own ignorance.
However, Ibn Abbas gave a great answer. You see, the following were included in his question. He found contradictions in the following matters. In the 101th verse of Surah al-Mu’minun, the verse goes, “when the trumpet will be blown, there will be no kinship, and no one will ask about anyone else,”. “But they would want to hold others responsible,” he said. He thought that there was a contradiction here, but he did not know at what stage this was said. Then again, in the 42nd verse of Surah al-Nisa: “On that day the deniers will wish they were reduced to dust,”. Then again, in the 23rd verse of Surah al-A’nam, “On that they the polytheists will deny their polytheism,”. Then again, in Surah Nazi’at and Surah Fussilat, he thought that the earth was created first, and that the heavens were created later. He had thought something similar to that.
[4:96] “wa-kāna llāhu ghafūran raḥīma,”. They thought that verses like these meant that Allah was not like that before, but is now, and they considered these contradictions, for there are certain circles where people find them correct when they convey their opinions about these verses. Now, Ibn Abbas (r.a.) said that at first, when the first trumpet is blown there will be no kinship between them. In other words, relations became disappeared because the trumped has been blown, and the apocalypse came, the stars are coming down, the mountains are being shot down to the sky. At that time no one will ask about one another and there will be no kinship. He said that this is the first trumpet being blown, in other words the first apocalypse began, and Israfil (a.s.) were responsible for the first stage of Qiyamah. He said that there is no kinship between them anymore, because that ceased to exist. The apocalypse began, and the world is coming down. When the trumpet is blown all of them will die, and they will not ask for one another because they are dying. In the second stage, they will start asking about one another, because resurrection began at that stage. Then, when the polytheists wanted to conceal their polytheism, Allah sealed their mouths, and their limbs and bodies start telling what they have done.
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They say, “We wish we had become Muslims,”. Then again, in the 68th verse of Surah az-Zumar, when the trumpet is blown, all will die except whom Allah wished and in the second stage they will all be resurrected. Allah created the earth in two days. Then, Allah created the heavens as seven lays, in two days. Ibn Abbas started telling him that which he could not understand. Then, Allah adorned the earth, placed water, foliage, grass, meadows, mountains, trees, the continents, and all that is between them. Thus, Allah made the world a liveable place. In the 30th verse of Surah Nazi’at, “then Allah adorned the earth. [79:30] “wa-l-ʾarḍa baʿda dhālika daḥāhā,”. Now, the pattern here is that Allah created the earth in two days. Then in two days Allah fashioned the heavens. And then in two days Allah fashioned the earth in two days, which makes six days in total. These six days could have been a moment had Allah wished that way. Allah wanted to create them is six days, and that is what Allah wished, so Allah created them that way. Had Allah wished, Allah is al-Qadir (All-Able) to create them however Allah wanted. This is how Ibn Abbas forthrightly told the truths to that man. What we should understand from this parable is this: There cannot be any contradictions in Al-Quran Al-Karim, rather they are in the minds of those who fail to understand it. Their knowledge (ilm) or wisdom (irfan) may not be enough. Whenever knowledge (ilm) and wisdom (irfan) are attained by them, by Allah’s favor and generosity, they will announce their admiration, and become admired for Al-Quran Al-Karim is the Book of Allah. It is a unique miracle, and until Qiyamah, each and every word in Al-Quran Al-Karim is miraculous because it is divine. As for the sayings in Quran like with past participle, like “Allah was al-Ghafur and al-Rahim,” Ibn Abbas said that this is how Allah described Allah. He said, “Al-Quran Al-Karim as a whole is from Allah,” and gave the answers to the man who said “I am finding contradictions,”.
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– The End –