Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 8-9
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 8
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful. Beloved friends! In this lesson, we’ll try to understand the matter of rahmat (blessing). For Janâb-i Haqq has created the worlds (ālamin) with rahmat (blessing). Now, this part is important, so please listen carefully. Rahmat, or blessing comes before our servitude. Servitude, as you know, comes before asking for help. As for requesting a duty, it comes before you get that which you deserve. Friends, let us understand this section well. May Janâb-i Haqq overwhelm us within rahmat (blessing). As you know, rahmat (blessing) comes before our servitude. So, ‘servitude’ comes before asking for help and requesting a mission, or a duty comes before gaining what you deserve. I’ll repeat this part due to its importance. Rahmat (blessing) comes before servitude because the worlds (ālamin) and the people are created within that rahmat (blessing) so this is a necessity before anything else. Therefore, rahmat (blessing) comes before servitude and servitude comes before asking for help. In other words, you should do your servitude so that you may have the nerve to ask for help. And asking for a duty comes before getting what you deserve. Now, if you wish to earn the rewards, then you have to be on your duty and you have to perform your duties in the name of Allah, in a proper way. So, it is clear that asking for a duty comes before gaining the rewards. When you fulfill your duties, what you have earned will be given to you. The healthy consciences that hear and live the laws of the Quran form the universal society, or rather the social society. I’ll repeat this part due to its importance. The healthy consciences that hear and live the laws of the Quran form the universal society, or rather the social society. They achieve Rızâ-i İlâhî (consent of Allah), people form a unity with their imams in the 5th verse of al-Fatihah: “iyyāka naʿbudu – You [alone] do we worship”. You see, “iyyāka naʿbudu – You [alone] do we worship”. We, altogether say that we worship to Allah. And we say that we only worship to Allah. The law for national unity is “iyyāka naʿbudu” in other words, national unity comes only with worshipping to Allah. To Allah alone we worship. We only worship to Allah. You see, the national unity is in this verse and this is also a contract with Allah. We agreed with Allah, and we gave Allah a promise in this verse. A praying muslim reads Surah al-Fatihah at least forty times a day therefore he gives at least 40 promises to Allah in a single day and he gives his promise in the name of everyone, because he says ‘we’. Those who abandon the nation (ummah), and turn ‘we’ into ‘I’ are dividing this nation, and they are opposing Surah al-Fatihah! They are doing the opposite of Allah’s command. O, muslim! Run towards Islam. Unite in Islam. Unite in Islam. O, muslim! Never stop running towards Islam. Unite in the soul of Islam. Unite in the soul of Al-Quran Al-Karim. The blessing of success appears in this unity, so beware! You desire the blessing of success, but it only appears in this unity and success and victory are all within this unity.
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If you are preferring to live the lives of those who divide Islam and then abandon it, and if you wish success and victory in that path then your situation is clearly the same with those who are looking for a truth within heresy which they can never find. Surah al-Fatihah al-Sharif (the Glorious Fatihah) summarizes Al-Quran Al-Karim’s contexture. Surah al-Baqarah explains most of the decrees within Al-Quran Al-Karim. So, pay attention! You should discover Surah al-Fatihah al-Sharif well and after that you should properly understand all of the verses and decrees within Al-Quran Al-Karim. Allah’s name incorporates the attribute of ‘Uluhiyyah – Worship. Allah’s name is also attributed with attributes of ‘Rububiyyah – Allah’s Lordship’. The name of Allah (c.c.), is the name of the true entity. The name ‘Rabb – Lord’ has meanings such as owner, tenant and to make better, to chasten, mabud (worshipped, adored), and master. We have tried to convey sufficient information in our previous lessons regarding this topic as well. There are lots of literary arts within the Quran. If you think that we are exaggerating, see what they have said. “Do not think there is a blood bursting with desire for martyrdom. For we have lives, more stink and number than a corpse. These lines summarize the situation of the enemies of Islam. The situation of the witless Muslims is also that. Spit! Onto the shameless face of ahl al-Salib/people of the cross! Spit! Into their never trusted words!” My beloved friends! You must know your friend, and your enemy. Islam, and Muslims are friendly to everyone. It is a shame that you can’t find the same friendship in the opposite side. It is Al-Quran Al-Karim that explains you who is your enemy and who is not, in the best possible way. That is why you can find the greatest literary arts in Al-Quran Al-Karim. Now, we are almost at the Surah al-Baqarah. We have had seven lessons until we arrived at Surah al-Baqarah. Those lessons were all filled to brim with certain tips and notes regarding the contents of Surah al-Fatihah. In other words we summarized it. Insha’Allah our lesson will continue with the exegesis of Surah al-Baqarah. Now, after this brief exegesis of Surah al-Fatihah al-Sharif (the Glorious Fatihah) let us convey its meaning. May Janâb-i Haqq bestow us a place in sirat al-mustaqim (the straight path) and never separate us from that path. “Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm al-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn.” Valuable friends this is the meaning: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (The Most Merciful). All praise belongs to Allah, Rabb (Lord) of all the worlds Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (The Most Merciful) and the Master of the Day of Retribution. It is You [alone] we worship and You [alone] we ask for help. O, Rabb (Lord)! Guide us to the straight path, which is the path of Islam itself. Guide us to Islam itself, and the path Muhammad, and his companions. The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor those who are blissful and happy.
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Not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. Amin.” Valuable friends! That was a quick summary of the meaning within Surah al-Fatihah al-Sharif (the Glorious Fatihah). In the previous lessons we have tried to summarize the exegesis of the verses. Now, we’ll continue this lesson with Surah al-Baqarah. I assume you know the word ‘Baqarah’, it is the name of a sacrificial cattle. A part of it was used to strike a dead man whose killer is unknown. It is the pedestal surah. The grand “a-l-m (ʾalif lām mīm).” This surah is the light in the summit of Al-Quran Al-Karim. This surah is a barakat (blessing). “Those who don’t recite it regret.” In Sahih Muslim this is a reported saying of our Beloved Prophet (saw). Moreover, this surah has names such as senâm (light) or zehrâ (ornament) of Al-Quran Al-Karim. It has 286 verses. It is a medinian surah, in other words it was revealed in Madīnah. The following was conveyed by our Prophet (saw). An angel came to our Prophet and said: , ‘two lights, which are never given to any other prophet, are given to you’ ‘those two lights are al-Fatihah and the last section of al-Baqarah,’ the angel said. Surah al-Baqarah and Al-Quran Al-Karim was an answer for ‘ihdinā – Guide us’. The actual answer to ‘ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭa l-mustaqīm – Guide us on the straight path’ was given with the revelation of Surah al-Baqarah, and Al-Quran Al-Karim. The path was described there, and the answer is given here. The answer is Surah al-Baqarah, and the entire Al-Quran Al-Karim. The answer to all of the questions within Surah al-Fatihah are in Al-Quran Al-Karim. In one day the French government have resorted to tyranny of altering the order of the surahs under the name of ‘translation’. They have moved Surah al-Baqarah to the end of the Quran. That is like changing the place of a person’s organs. They have tried to alter the physiology of the Quran, in a sense. They have done that because Al-Quran Al-Karim explained the origins of the theories of sin within Judaism and Christianism. It also illustrated the proofs of their heresy and rage. Surah al-Baqarah explains the fundamentals such as jihad (struggle), notary, witnessing, and mir’aj (the night journey). Surah al-Baqarah explains the other decrees regarding the mir’aj along with the other fundamentals. Surah al-Baqarah ends with the mir’aj (the night journey). In other words, the last verses of the surah are about the mir’aj (the night journey). You see, that is why no one can touch even a single dot within Al-Quran Al-Karim. Those who tried have gotten their punishment and they will continue to suffer. This is the first verse of Surah al-Baqarah: “a-l-m (ʾalif lām mīm).” It means ‘the unknown, and the known’ or ‘al-malumul machul (known, but cannot be known in full measure)’. The key to its full measure is hidden, these secrets are proofs of our helplessness, for these we have to say ‘Allah knows best’. Behold, Al-Quran Al-Karim prepares you for your servitude to your Rabb (Lord) in the best possible way.
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In a way that suits you. In a way, it prepares you in a way that suits you most. For that reason you should try to understand Al-Quran Al-Karim well. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq has said that ‘a-l-m (ʾalif lām mīm)’ is the summary of the book. Prophet Ali has said, “these are names of Allah. “Ain, Sin, Qaf,” these are separate verses in the Quran. ‘Qāf, Hā, Yā, ʿAin, Sad’ these are also like them. ‘Ha-mim’ is also like them. This statement is such a statement that it is among the ambiguous verses (mutashabihat). It incorporates the concepts of truth (haqiqa), metaphor and explicit, allusion, representation, enquiry, apparent, and cryptic. The beginning of ‚ilm (knowledge) is astonishment. The goal of Quran is ‚ilm (knowledge) and hidayat (guidance). The sublime sounds, that revealed the verses of the Quran into Prophet Muhammad’s heart are the verses of the Quran that resound throughout the universe. This is the 2nd verse of Surah al-Baqarah: “dhālika l-kitābu – this is the [complete] Book.” It is the absolute proof of the truth and the decrees. It was sent with its text and its meaning. “lā rayba fīhi – there is no doubt it [regarding its authenticity or consistency].” It is the book of Allah regarding which there is no doubt. Those who are suspicious are hypocrites (munafiqs). They are ignorant people who lost their perception. The word ‘rayb’ means doubt, and suspicion, it is a disease of the heart, and morals. The sophist people fall under this as well. The cure for this is ilm (knowledge), and īmān (belief). Ilm (science) and marifat (spiritual knowledge) are the theory of knowledge. The word ‘hudan’ means guidance it is the guidance given to the muttaqi (pious) people. In order to be a muttaqi (pious) person one must be a traveler of sirat al-mustaqim (the straight path). This book, the Quran is an absolute hidayat (guidance) for the muttaqi (pious) people. It is an embodiment of hidayat (guidance). It is Hidayat al-Rabbaniyyah, which means ‘the guidance that comes from Allah’. If a person wishes to be saved from heresy and incurring Allah’s wrath then he has to earn success through the laws, proofs, and documents. Allah’s servants take the right course through Al-Quran Al-Karim. The Quran ‘is a cure and mercy’ just like it is mentioned in the 82nd verse of Surah al-Isra. The verse doesn’t say that he was sent to the Arabs or Persians. It says that he was sent to the entire mankind and the djinn as a rahmat (blessing). The djinn are also included, Islam is hidayat (guidance) for them too. The Qur’an was sent for hidayat (guidance) to all of us. We must seek for refuge; we must be among muttaqi (pious) people. If you don’t become a muttaqi (pious) person then you’ll stay out of this rahmat (blessing), and hidayat (guidance). You would be doing biggest evil to yourself, your nation, and the mankind. Come to rahmat (blessing) come to hidayat (guidance) become a muttaqi (pious), and come. Invite the humanity, come and bring them as well. Everyone should come to this rahmat (blessing) in other words, everyone become muttaqi (pious). My beloved friends! Prophet Muhammad (saw) was sent down upon all the worlds (ālamin) and all realms. He wasn’t sent to the Arabs, Persians. He was sent as a rahmat (blessing) upon all nations. He was sent as the prophet of the entire humankind.
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This is from the 28th verse of Surah Saba: “wa-mā ʾarsalnāka ʾillā kāffatan li-n-nāsi… “We did not send you (O prophet,) but to the entire mankind as a bearer of good news and as a warner, but most people do not know.” That is what Janâb-i Haqq said. Yet most people do not know that Prophet Muhammad was sent as the prophet of all people. O, mankind, come to your senses! Do not separate people! Allah al-Ta’ala has sent Prophet Muhammad as a messenger to all creation and the entire humanity without making a distinction. The religion of the entire mankind is Islam. The book of the entire mankind is Al-Quran Al-Karim. Come to your senses, do the humankind a favor and come to this rahmat (blessing), come to hidayat (guidance). Islam consists completely of rahmat (blessing). Al-Quran Al-Karim is consists completely of hidayat (guidance). It is the book of rahmat (blessing). Our Prophet is a Prophet of Blessing. A Muslim should become a muttaqi (pious) person, and he has to utilize ‘ittiga‘. Now, the word ittiga means having piety and seeking refuge in Allah. That is the protection of Allah. You see, Islam’s commands are all protective measures. Do you seek shelter? Do you seek refuge in Allah? If so, then come to Islam, Islam’s commands are protective measures. Islam consists of Allah’s commands, and it takes you under its protection with Islam. That can only happen through staying away from sins and embracing goodness and benevolence. However, in this case we need ‘tahliye’ and ‘tahalli’. Now, these concepts mean that you need to cleanse yourself from evil attributes, and sins, and bad morals. Then you need to emulate good morals and adorn yourself with good morals. Behold, the hidayat (guidance) and rahmat (blessing) of Islam is the manifestation of Allah’s protection. When you became a good muslim then know that Allah’s protection has manifested itself in you. These only appear through a manifestation of Allah’s protection. But how? This is possible through staying away from sins, and embracing goodness in other words ‘tahliye’ and ‘tahalli’. This is possible through hating the sinful things, and worshipping fondly. Now, naturally utilizing ‘ittiga’ and becoming a muttaqi (pious) person means that you are among the tahl al-taqwa (the pious people). The taqwa (piety) has ranks and degrees. Dearest friends! The ranks in taqwa (piety) start with salvation from shirk (polytheism) and having true īmān (belief). You should know what shirk (polytheism) is. There were never any peers, partners, equals, nor similars of Allah Ta’ala. Allah will never have any peers, partners, equals, nor similars. Allah is One in Person (zat). Allah is One in attributes, actions, and everything related with Allah. Allah is both Al-Wahid (The Absolute One), and Ahad (the sole One) and Samad (Everlasting, Without Equal), and wajib al-wūjūd (necessary existent). This is from the 26th verse of Surah al-Fath: “wa-ʾalzamahum kalimata t-taqwā. And [Allah] made them stick to the word of piety [taqwa].” You see, when you acknowledge Allah’s Unity, Allah’s qudrah (omnipotence) and Allah’s Oneness, and that Allah is the sole owner of all worlds (ālamin) and when you enter into Allah’s service, then it means that you are saved from shirk (polytheism).
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For you have acknowledged Allah with Allah’s personal (zati) and inherent (subuti) attributes and when you learn Allah though the Quran. You fall into polytheism (shirk) when you divinize a creature. There are no creators except Allah. The creatures have no chance of being a divine entity. It doesn’t matter how wise or how brave he or she is, whosoever it is even a prophet or an angel, no one is a divine entity. Those we counted are the noble servants of Allah. However, when you exalt a noble servant of Allah or another one of Allah’s creations to a divine place then that is clearly polytheism (shirk). The belief in the Oneness of Allah, or rather tawhid iman must be dominant in your heart. Moreover, in the 26th verse of Surah al-Fath Janâb-i Haqq said that Allah made them stick to the word of piety [taqwa]. So, it means that the servants of Allah whom were saved from polytheism (shirk) became attached to the word of taqwa [piety]. One must beware of major sins after obtaining the belief in the Oneness of Allah. He must beware of the major sins, and not insist on the minor ones and he must perform the obligations (fards). Now, please pay attention to the 96th verse of Surah al-A’raf! One must stay away of all things that would occupy the secrets of his heart more than Allah. In other words, you need to occupy your heart and the hidden treasures within your heart with Allah. You should never occupy your heart and the secrets within your heart with no one except Allah. You have to avoid being occupied with anything else. The secrets within your heart must travel in an eternal path along with your belief in the Oneness of Allah (tawhid). You must retreat towards Allah Ta’ala, with every fiber of your being and with your monotheistic belief (tawhid iman) and stay away from everything else. You heart must never forget about Allah. “Haqqa tuqātihī – fear Allah, as He should be feared,” this is from the 102th verse of Surah Ali Imran. As we can understand from this verse a proper affection towards Allah requires fear of Allah. That rank (of having fear of Allah) is a vast and deep rank. Now, we continue with the levels of piety (taqwa). The following quote is from the 96th verse of Surah al-A’raf: “wa-law ʾanna ʾahla l-qurā ʾāmanū wa-ttaqaw… The verse continues. If only the people of the cities had believed and feared Allah.” Now, please pay attention to this verse. In the 96th verse of Surah al-A’raf Janâb-i Haqq wants belief (iman) and piety (taqwa). These ranks are the ranks attained by prophets and the greatest muslim saints (wali). The interactions of the prophets and the muslim saints (wali) with the physical realm never hindered their ascent towards the realm of spirits. Their endeavors in assisting the people had never hindered their endeavors in the affairs of Allah. This is a work of the special rahmat (blessing) of Almighty Allah. If you are indeed sincere then Janâb-i Haqq will certainly grant you so many blessings. I’ll repeat this part due to its importance, let us understand well. The levels of piety (taqwa) are degrees attained by the benevolent actions of the prophets and the muslim saints (wali).
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The prophets and the muslim saints (wali) had united and their relationship with the physical realm hadn’t hindered their ascension to the realm of spirits. Their endeavors in helping the people had never hindered their studies regarding the affairs of Allah. This is a work of the special rahmat (blessing) of Allah the Almighty. Now, please have a look into the 93rd verse of Surah al-Ma’idah and the 90th verse of Surah al-Nahl. O, valuable friends! Indeed, Janâb-i Haqq orders us benevolence and helping our relatives but forbids heinous deeds, evil acts, and depravedness. Allah gives you advice so that you may contemplate on them. Allah gives you counsel via Al-Quran Al-Karim, which is a divine revelation. Al-Quran Al-Karim incorporates hidayat (guidance), taqwa (piety) all civilizations, and all high and sublime ranks and degrees into its contexture. I’ll repeat this part, do not ever forget this. Al-Quran Al-Karim incorporates hidayat (guidance), taqwa (piety) .all civilizations, and all high and sublime ranks and degrees into its contexture. The humanity could not altogether enter into Allah’s protection. The social depression and crisis continues because the humanity couldn’t establish the Islamic order of life and they couldn’t attain the rank of abstention from sins. Allah’s protection can be attained when the humanity embraces Islam and becomes Muslims. You see, that is Allah’s protection. Do you think that you can earn Allah’s protection while revolting against Allah, Allah’s laws and while escaping from Allah’s order which is Islam? Or, are you going towards incurring Allah’s wrath? Allah’s wrath is too severe, so don’t be struck by Allah. What is outside Islam is Allah’s wrath, and Allah’s severe punishment. However, Islam is the embodiment of Allah’s protection. Islam is the house of rahmat (blessing) mercy eternal serenity, salvation, hidayat (guidance), and taqwa (piety). ‘a-l-m (ʾalif lām mīm)’ – these names manifest the ageless and perpetual prestige of Al-Quran Al-Karim. Al-Quran Al-Karim is such a perpetual, timeless, and sublime book. The everlasting divine values all reside in Al-Quran Al-Karim. The, ‘dhālika‘ in the 2nd verse of Surah al-Baqarah means ‘that’. In other words, the verse of says that this book contains explicit and genuine truths and that it is a guide for those mindful of Allah. The phrase, ‘lā rayba fīhi’ demonstrates the ethicalness of ‚ilm (knowledge). In other words, the verse says that there is no doubt in the Quran. . Therefore the Quran is an embodiment of true ‚ilm (knowledge) and that it incorporates all of the divine and ethical features of knowledge into its structure. The ‘hudan’ in the transliteration of the same verse explains the wisdom/knowledge (hikmat) of the revelation of the Quran. So, why was Al-Quran Al-Karim sent down upon the earth and placed into the heart of Prophet Muhammad (asw)? Through Muhammad’s heart Al-Quran Al-Karim shined throughout the universe. You see, ‘hudan or hidayat (guidance)’ explains the wisdom/knowledge (hikmat) of revelation. This word reflects the practical objective. So, what is the wisdom/knowledge (hikmat) of revelation? It is hidayat (guidance). So, what is hidayat (guidance)? Well, we have tried to explain that in the exegesis of Surah al-Fatihah.
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Hidayat (guidance) conveys you to the way of Allah and overwhelms you with the limitless bounties of Allah. The verses in the Quran sequentially explain one another. The answer to ‘ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭa l-mustaqīm – guide us on the straight path’ is given with the revelation of the Quran. Thus, those who wished for hidayat (guidance) have gotten it. You see, Janâb-i Haqq says that Al-Quran Al-Karim is hidayat (guidance). Al-Quran Al-Karim is an embodiment of guidance (hidayat). 3rd verse of Surah al-Baqarah: “alladhīna yuʾminūna bi-l-ghaybi.” Those muttaqi (devoted) people, the ahl al-taqwa (pious people) they believe in the unseen (ghaib). This belief starts with the soul, the heart, and the intellect. We believe in ‘He who sees without being seen’ and ‘He who holds everything without being held’. We believe in Allah who is independent from time and space. Allah, who organizes all matter in the universe, and brings order to the space. That is Allah, to whom you should believe. You have to believe in that Almighty Qudrah (Omnipotence). You have to believe in that Divine Entity. “Those muttaqi (devoted) people believe in the unseen.” This belief starts with the soul, the heart, and the intellect. “He who sees without being seen.” Now, you can’t see what is in our heart and your soul, but your heart and soul can know Allah. “He who holds everything without being held.” Can anyone [but Allah] hold your soul? No, they can’t. Therefore, if you can’t see your own soul but know that your soul and what is in your heart exists then you have to also believe in the unseen (ghaib) or rather the infinite power and the omnipotence of Allah. Allah is free from time and space. Allah moves around the matters within the universe. It is Allah who brings order to the chaos in the universe. You see, the first prequisite of piety (taqwā) is believing in this Almighty Qudrah (Omnipotence). You need to truly believe in this Almighty Qudrah (Omnipotence) and the Unseen. The entities are divided into two as ‘meşhut’ and ‘non-meşhut’ which mean seen and unseen. The realms in which they reside in are the spiritual realm and the physical realm, and the unseen realm etc. The physical realms can be perceived through 5 receptors. These help us sense light, sound, smell, taste, and the temperature. We can observe these through our senses. We can observe other things with these senses. However, these are incidents consist solely of manifestation, or rather appearance. For example, light. The light is not present without us seeing it, it is just a vibration. It is a vibration of unseen atoms. The light is an image that only takes place when that vibration touches our eyes. Imam al-Ghazali is a grand Islamic âlim (scholar) that grand personality who has conveyed that light is not an external object that jumps from the sun and comes to us. It is obvious that light is an occurrence that is created through the divine power in the moment when our eyes meet the sun. As you see, Imam al-Ghazali is a discoverer. He is a person of discovery.
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That goes for the sound as well. Sound consists solely of a special vibration in the air. The sounds we hear take place when those vibrations make contact with our hears. The heat is also a vibration of the atoms through which temperature rises or drops. The smell, and taste are also vibrations. The smell, and taste are also vibrations. As we know from electricity heat transforms into light, and light transforms into heat. These five factors are actually special appearances that occur through motion they are manifestations, or appearances of the unseen truth. The truth lies within that which cannot be seen. O, my valuable friend, please understand this well! The truth lies within that which cannot be seen. The seen things are the manifestations and reflections, images, and shadows of the unknown. The truth (haqiqa) lies within the ghaib (the unseen). The nature is an image of the manifestation of motion. If you need an example, your actually entity is your soul but you can’t see your soul. You have intellect, you have a heart (spiritually) however you can’t see your spiritual heart and intellect. You have willpower, you have burdens, grief, joy, and happiness but can you see them? So, it seems that the Power of the Divine is a reality that can be felt and understood by the helpless (people) but their power is not enough to actually see. Indeed Allah is the unseen truth. Allah is an entity who truly exists. That is why it is not possible for to see Allah’s Might with our helplessness and our incapable eyes which can only see matter. However, Allah shows Allah’s beauty (jamal) due to Allah’s favor and generosity whenever Allah wishes. The truth (haqiqa) can be seen through intellect and foresight, and the eye of the heart. Now, pay attention to that. The truth (haqiqa) can be seen through intellect and foresight, and the eye of the heart. Therefore, if you seek to see the truth, then Islam, and the values of the Quran and the Quran itself are the embodiments of the truth. They contain the ma’rifat (spiritual knowledge) and the sharīʿah (canonical law), and the divine laws. The creed of ahlul sunnah says the divine truth is not ‘absolutely the unseen’. Allah is the origin of the seen and the unseen. Now, please listen to this part carefully! The divine truth is not ‘absolutely the unseen’. Allah is the origin of the seen and the unseen. Allah is the One who comprises all things. In the afterlife (ākhira) Allah is seen without being in this or that direction. Therefore Allah is free from space. That is within the divine Jamal (Face); the Jamal-i Ilahi (the Face of the Divine). A type of ‘the unseen (ghaib)’ has proofs, just like the reports of Al-Quran Al-Karim. Now, let’s see the 3rd verse of Surah al-Baqarah. There is another form of ‘the unseen (ghaib)’ these are known only to Allah. You can see those with proofs in the Quran but those without proofs are known only to Allah. Now, please pay attention to the 59th verse of Surah al-An’am!
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The surah says: “And with Allah are the keys of the unseen. None knows them except Allah.” The heart has a secret, which is the unseen (ghaib). Those who see and feel through their hearts know Allah. Allah Ta’ala (c.c.), along with Allah’s attributes the realm of ākhira (the afterlife) and the stages that lead there the angels, the divine books, prophethood are all from the unseen (ghaib) that has proofs. The divine revelations that the prophets had conveyed us are reports from the unseen (ghaib). These reports are a class from the unseen (ghaib) that are authentic. That class is what concerns the humanity most. Ibn Mas’ud had said the following prior to swearing upon his words: The greatest fazilat (virtue) is to believe in the unseen (ghaib). The concept of ‘believing in the unseen (ghaib)‘ is revealed now. True īmān (belief) can’t emerge prior to believing in the unseen (ghaib). Al-Quran Al-Karim gives us reports regarding the unseen (ghaib) concepts with proofs. Therefore, the prophets also gave us reports regarding the unseen (ghaib) concepts with proofs. This is because the unseen (ghaib) concepts without proofs are known only to Allah. You see, iman is becoming (sayrurat), changing form, to assure and to be assured, and being steadfast, being steady and trustworthy. In other words, belief (iman) is an atmosphere of utter confidence. The concepts of ‘to believe’, ‘to assent’ and ‘to be truthful,’ mean acknowledging and admitting that you are happy and in compliance. To believe, to affirm (tasdiq), and being correct, righteousness and acknowledging and testifying the measure of correctitude. These are the measures of the sharīʿah (canonical law) and Islam. Foremost comes having eternal belief (iman) which is the beginning, and purpose of knowledge (ilm). Such belief (iman) extends along the infinity. It is advancement from the known to the unknown. You see, we believe in Allah through all known proofs. We believe in Allah with every fiber of our being. We believe in Allah through all of the proofs introduced by Al-Quran Al-Karim. Those who deny what is beyond their knowledge stay ignorant. This part is important! What do you think you know? Please listen carefully! You should have a look at what you don’t know, and learn about them. Have a look into the unseen (ghaib) through the proofs that validate this unseen (ghaib) concepts that are introduced by Prophet Muhammad, and Al-Quran Al-Karim. You should have a look into the authenticity of the unseen (ghaib). The entirety of all knowledge introduced and conveyed by the Quran with all of their proofs are indeed authentic. It is essential that you believe in the unseen (ghaib) in the light of these authentic and valid proofs. It is an obligation to believe. This is where the authenticity and the truth lies. There are three levels of assent (tasdiq). First one is ‘the assent of the heart’. The heart must be sure. Think of such a heart that truly believed in Allah. If it has truly believed, and affirmed (tasdiq) then that heart is in a safe place, and it is self-assured. The second level is the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue. In other words, one must utter his or her acknowledgement. The third is performed with action.
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This is the utilization of the necessities of affirmation (tasdiq) and acknowledgement (iqrār). Now that the heart has affirmed (tasdiq) the truth and the tongue has declared (iqrār) it then you’ll have to actually do what is necessary. In other words, you need to implement these into your actions. If you don’t show this through your actions then there is no actual affirmation (tasdiq) in you anymore. You would be opening a dangerous door here. The safety of your faith would be in danger for you are not abiding by your beliefs. I can summarize this like this: Kelima shadada (the word of oath/testimony) and kalimat al-tawheed (lit. word of divine unity) are obligations (fard) for the common folk. The meaning of these is to believe in Allah in the way our Prophet wanted from us. By knowing the Quran and the customs (sunnah) of the Prophet. Now, implementing these can be considered as the īmān (faith) of the educated-cultivated class. In other words, the knowledge that is known has advanced and transformed into amel-i salih (good actions/deeds). People need to look for the key to the truth and goodness within their own wishes and desires. Now, please listen to this part carefully. People need to look for the key to the truth and goodness within their own wishes and desires. They need to obtain they directly from Allah, or through an intercessor. They need to obtain the key from Allah. Listen carefully! What will you obtain? One must never deny the intercessor. Now, who is this intercessor? It is the Prophet, and the values the Prophet introduced the ālims (muslim scholars) by the side of our Prophet and the mujtahids, the âlims of ahl-e sunnat wa’l-jamaat. One must not offer his servitude to the intercessor or anyone else but Allah alone. You can’t worship or serve an intercessor. The intercessors must be servants of Allah who convey you to Allah. Therefore, the prophets had called everyone to the laws that are introduced by Allah. They invited us to believe Allah and obey Allah’s commands. This is only for the prophets for obeying a prophet means obeying Allah. However, all people or, all ālims (Islamic scholars) only call people to abide by Allah’s commands and laws, except for the prophets. They can’t call you to themselves. Thus, one mustn’t worship the intercessor, for worship is only done for Allah. The Kharijites and the Muʿtazila now the essence of the īmān (faith) is three they the heart, the tongue, and the limbs (actions). If one of them is missing, then you are a kāfir (denier) in the eyes of the Kharijites and you are a fasiq (venial sinner), according to Muʿtazila. Or somewhere between kāfir (denier) and mu’min (believer). That is the opinion of the predecessor âlims and Imam al-Shafi’i, and some of the hadith scholars. So, īmān (faith) means tasdiq (affirmation) with heart and tongue and performing good deeds via the fundamentals of the religion. However, they don’t say that if you abandon the good deeds, you’ll become a kāfir (denier). Who don’t say that? The Salafists don’t say that, Imam al-Shafi’i don’t say that and some hadith scholars are also from this group. The Karramiyya say that imān (faith) consists only of affirmation (tasdiq) with heart and tongue but this Karramiyya group resides out of ahl-e sunnat (the people of sunnah). Now, we aren’t talking about Imam al-Shafi’i. These are out of the contexture of the Salafists and Imam al-Shafi’i and they are out of the ahl-e sunnat (the people of sunnah). The Kharijites are also out of ahl-e sunnat (the people of sunnah) along with the Karramiyya and Muʿtazila for they couldn’t understand Islam correctly.
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Now, some people in Karramiyya have said that the assent (tasdiq) of the heart is a prequisite, not an element. There may have been some people who said that is an element. The Ash’arites have said that the essence of belief (iman) is the assent (tasdiq) of the heart and the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue is a prequisite. Belief (iman) is the total of these actions of the heart, and the tongue. The assent (tasdiq) of the heart does not accept any excuse. However, the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue can accept excuse in the event of a life-threatening situation. When faced with death, the heart does not accept any excuse. But the tongue has a permit for saving the person in a life-threatening event. “Those who abandon the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue without coercion becomes a kāfir (denier).“ Now, please pay attention to this part for there is a great danger here. “Those who abandon the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue without coercion becomes a kāfir (denier).“ The prayers (salah) performed with the community are considered as the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue. However, doing good deeds is not a part of belief (iman) but it is the branches of it, and the coveted result. If we compare belief (iman) to a fruit tree the assent (tasdiq) of the heart becomes its roots and the acknowledgement (iqrār) of the tongue becomes its shadow the good deeds/actions will be the branches, leaves, flowers, and the fruits. If you wish to have a proper belief (iman) and a proper Islam then pay attention to the roots and the branches, flowers, and the fruits of the tree. It is known that the tree dries when its trunk is cut off. Similar to this some people say that have believed but they don’t perform worship. That is similar to a tree with its trunk cut off, most of them dry away. You see, people who don’t pray or worship are under the risk of losing their belief (iman) so there is a great danger of dying without belief (iman). That is the situation of those who abandon acknowledgement (iqrār) without excuse. Their belief (iman) is in danger. The following hadith-i sharif is about the fullness (kamal) of belief (iman): “El îmânı bid un, vesebbune şûbeten ednâhe bimatetül ezâ anittarigi.” This is the meaning of the quote: “Belief (iman) has over seventy branches. The humblest of which is the removal of what is injurious from the path.” The last will of Abu Hanifa regarding belief (iman) is the following: “Iman is acknowledgement (iqrār) with tongue, and assent (tasdiq) with heart.” That is what Al-Imam Al-Azam Abu Hanifa (r.a.) have said. He said, ‘acknowledgement (iqrār) with tongue and affirmation (tasdiq) with heart’ regarding belief (iman). May Allah bestow rahmat (blessing) upon all Al-Imam Al-Azam and all other mujtahids (Islamic scholars) all believers (mu’min), and all Muslims. Insha’Allah we’ll continue our lesson in the next video.
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– The End –