Turkish English Tafsir Lesson 90-97
Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 90
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
The prequisite of the bliss of all humanity in both worlds is to have a firm iman (belief). That is, to be completely purified of batil (wrong) beliefs, and to stay away from bid’ah. That is to believe in Allah with a real iman, for afterwards you will have solid foundation. As you know, they speak so many lies in the name of religion (din), sharia (law), tasawwuf (sufism). We see that the number of sayings that do not suit the divine and haqq (right) measures are no less.
Now, clearly, we need to benefit from competent people, right sources, haqiqi (real) discoverers, and those who know this practice well. We should always benefit from them for we have to find the truth, and we will not come to the world again. We have one shot, and we need to live with a correct iman (belief). We need to live with Islam, and its sharia (law).
Let’s give ear to Ibn-i Abidin. He was a grand âlim of that grand period. He said, “Tariqah is to take on the way of sharia (law). As for sharia (law), it is a set of commendable canonical laws. Tariqah (school), sharia (law), and haqiqa (reality) are three inseparable concepts. We have to pay attention now! All values are present in the Islamic sharia (law), for the way that lead to Allah Ta’ala (c.c.) has a zahir (exoteric) and bāṭin (esoteric); and our high-âlims have understood and comprehended this haqiqa (reality) via Al-Quran Al-Karim, via sunnah, via ijma, via qiyas. They threaded the steps of Prophet Muhammad, and the sahabah (companions), to understand and comprehend this haqiqa (reality).
The exoteric of it is tariqah and shariah; the esoteric of it is haqiqa (reality). The haqiqa is hidden in tariqah and sharia; this is just like butter is hidden in milk. The butter will not be revealed unless you whip the milk. Our murad (wish) from these concepts is to lead the servants (qul) to perform their duties as expected. That is why all the truths, and all that is right and real are present in the sharia (law) of Islam.
Now, when we take a brief look at the matter at hand, we see that Jibril (a.s.) had asked a question to our Prophet, saying, “What is ihlas (perfection)?”. The hidden cause behind that Jibril (a.s.) asked that question, is to make all humanity learn about ihlas (perfection). He wanted people to hear it from a competent tongue. He wanted all humanity to hear the truth from Prophet Muhammad (asw). That is why our Prophet answered to the question on ihlas (perfection).
Our Master (asw), said the following: “Ihsan (perfection) is to worship Allah (c.c.) as if you are seeing Allah.”
Now, you cannot see Allah Ta’ala, for you cannot afford seeing Allah, but Allah sees you all the time. The fact that Allah sees you is a complete ihsan (perfection) for you. Do not forget that Allah sees you, and know that you are in Allah’s presence, and submit your heart to Allah completely, and then you will worship Allah as if you are seeing Allah. “This is ihsan (perfection),” said our Prophet.
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Now, Al-Sharif al-Jurjani says: “Tasawwuf is to live by knowing the esoteric, exoteric, conduct of discipline, and ordinance of the sharia (law).” So, do not forget! This narrative expresses the core; the essence is expressed here. He says, “Tasawwuf is to live by knowing the esoteric, exoteric, conduct of discipline, and ordinance of the sharia (law).” So, it means that what is essential is to know the sharia (law) and live the sharia (law). The other concepts are for teaching the sharia (law); so that you may live it. They make you study in the ecole of sharia (law), and make you put theory into complete practice.
This will turn ilm into iman, and then iman will turn into good deeds, good morals, a complete justice, a complete love, and thus you will be striving to be a servant (qul) of Allah.
Do not forget this! “Tasawwuf is to live by knowing the esoteric, exoteric, conduct of discipline, and ordinance of the sharia (law).” One should never forget that none of this is possible without there being sharia (law).
Now, what did Junayd of Baghdad say?
“قُدِّسَ سِرُّهُ” – kuddise sirruhü, rahmatullahi alayhim ajmain.
“Our knowledge (ilm) is bounded by the Book of Allah Ta’ala and Rasul-u Akram Prophet Muhammad (asw)’s sunnah.”
This is also quite important! “It is not permissible (jaiz) to follow he who did not read Al-Quran Al-Karim, did not write hadith-i sharif, and did not study fiqh (jurisprudence) before he started his sulūk (spiritual path).”
We see here that Junayd of Baghdad is referring to having a complete knowledge (ilm), and becoming a master of ilm. One cannot guide anyone before he/she becomes a master of ilm, for it would be like sick people following a blind person to hospital. People who do not have knowledge (ilm) should not guide, and people should not take them as guides, for there are great risks and dangers in this.
That said, there are the “evliyacılar” and “enbiyacılar”. The evliyacılar hold the Awliyā superior to the Prophets. These people are ahlul bid’ah, aberrant, and deviants. They do not acknowledge sharia (law), they do not acknowledge measure, and they do not have comprehensive knowledge on Quran and sunnah. That is why say, in the heavens and the earth, no one knows the ghaib (unseen) except Allah Ta’ala.
The boundary between karamat (wonder) and mujizat (miracle) was finely instituted by Islamic sharia (law). We have to pay utmost attention to this matter as well! Let us see what Al-Pazdawi says: “Sharia is haqiqa, and haqiqa is none other than sharia.” These are the words of Al-Pazdawi. Now, we know that sharia (law) is always the haqiqa (reality). We know that all values are present in the sharia (law); we should never forget this. This is why it is important to know Quran, sunnah, ijma, and qiyas. A complete and right ilm will come about when we have complete knowledge of these. We will see an ilm and irfan along with a real iman.
All of these can be studied in the pathway of Ahlus-Sunnah, and one should never deviate to the ways of ahlul bid’ah (deviant innovation). That is why our life-giving lectures will continue. Insha ‘Allah, we will continue our lectures so that everyone may find life. May Allah’s guidance be with us forever, and may it never lessen.
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Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 91
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
[3:84] “qul ʾāmannā bi-llāhi wa-mā ʾunzila ʿalaynā wa-mā ʾunzila ʿalā ʾibrāhīma wa-ʾismāʿīla wa-ʾisḥāqa wa-yaʿqūba wa-l-ʾasbāṭi wa-mā ʾūtiya mūsā wa-ʿīsā wa-n-nabiyyūna min rabbihim lā nufarriqu bayna ʾaḥadin minhum wa-naḥnu lahū muslimūn.”
“Say, ‘We have faith in Allah, and in Quran that has been sent down to us, and what has been sent down to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishak, Ya’qub, and their grandchildren, and that which was given to Musa and Isa, and the Prophets, from their Rabb. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Allah do we submit.’.”
Say this, for this is the iman of Islam. He who disbelieves Islam is he who denies all the Prophets. So, pay close attention to this verse, for we see that Islam incorporates all divine values of the past and the future in itself. Study Quran, find life, and adopt a real iman, and you will start finding life.
[3:85] “wa-man yabtaghi ghayra l-ʾislāmi dīnan fa-lan yuqbala minhu wa-huwa fī l-ʾākhirati mina l-khāsirīn.”
The entire world should pay close attention to this verse! People and jinns should pay utmost attention to this verse!
Now, Janâb-i Haqq says, “wa-man yabtaghi ghayra l-ʾislāmi dīnan.”
“Should anyone seek a religion (din) other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him, and he will be among the losers in the ākhira.”
They will always be in frustration in the ākhira.
Allah says, “fa-lan yuqbala minhu wa-huwa fī l-ʾākhirati mina l-khāsirīn.”
The world should pull themselves together. There is one Allah, and there is one religion (din) which is Islam. There is no need to deceive the humanity. What do people who deceive humanity do to people? They are inflicting the greatest harm in both worlds. They work so that people may stay in frustration. It is only Allah who calls all the humanity to what is right, with Al-Quran Al-Karim and its life-giving holy verses.
Now, let us see what Janâb-i Haqq says.
[3:86] “kayfa yahdī llāhu qawman kafarū baʿda ʾīmānihim wa-shahidū ʾanna r-rasūla ḥaqqun wa-jāʾahumu l-bayyinātu wa-llāhu lā yahdī l-qawma ẓ-ẓālimīn.”
After having believed, having witnessed that the Messenger was a right one, and having received manifest proofs, how will Allah guide a people who lapsed into disbelief? Allah does not guide the zalimun (wrong-doing) lot to the right way.”
[3:87] “ʾulāʾika jazāʾuhum ʾanna ʿalayhim laʿnata llāhi wa-l-malāʾikati wa-n-nāsi ʾajmaʿīn.”
Just pay close attention!
“It is their punishment that the curse of Allah, and all of the angels, and of all men are upon them.
[3:88] “khālidīna fīhā lā yukhaffafu ʿanhumu l-ʿadhābu wa-lā hum yunẓarūn.”
They will remain in this curse forever, and this punishment will neither be lightened, nor will they be reprieved.
[3:89] “ʾillā lladhīna tābū min baʿdi dhālika wa-ʾaṣlaḥū fa-ʾinna llāha ghafūrun raḥīm.”
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“But those who repent after that and straighten themselves are different. For surely, Allah is most forgiving and most merciful.”
This is the gate of salvation; this is the chance for those who lost the eternal bliss to earn it again. Al-Quran Al-Karim opened the gateway of salvation and hope. Janâb-i Haqq says, “Come to iman (belief), repent, and enter Islam.”
That said, Janâb-i Mevlâ said the following.
[3:90] “ʾinna lladhīna kafarū baʿda ʾīmānihim thumma zdādū kufran lan tuqbala tawbatuhum wa-ʾulāʾika humu ḍ-ḍāllūn.”
“Verily, the repentances of those who disbelieved after they have believed, and then increased their disbelief (kufr), will never be accepted. They themselves are the ones astray.”
[3:91] “ʾinna lladhīna kafarū wa-mātū wa-hum kuffārun fa-lan yuqbala min ʾaḥadihim milʾu l-ʾarḍi dhahaban wa-lawi ftadā bihī ʾulāʾika lahum ʿadhābun ʾalīmun wa-mā lahum min nāṣirīn.”
“Surely, those who deny and then die while they are kāfirs, it will never be accepted from them even if they offer an earth-full of gold as random. For them there is an unbearable punishment, and they will have no helpers.”
O, the humanity! You should live with iman, and die with iman. Don’t you ever stay without iman and Islam. Don’t you ever take a single breath without having iman and Islam. You should not even waste a breath, and spend each and every breath in the way of Allah; and take each breath with iman. Each and every breath you take should be with iman. Live your life with iman. Spend your life in the way of Allah with Islam.
That said, let us continue our life-giving lectures with the verses of Surah Ali Imran of our Almighty Rabb.
Now, Janâb-i Haqq says the following in the 92nd verse:
“lan tanālū l-birra ḥattā tunfiqū mimmā tuḥibbūna wa-mā tunfiqū min shayʾin fa-ʾinna llāha bihī ʿalīm.”
“Unless you spend in the way of Allah out of what you cherish, you will never be able to attain al-birr (righteousness). Besides, what you spend is fully known by Allah.”
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Al-Quran Al-Karim Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 92
I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan. In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most Merciful.
[3:93] “kullu ṭ-ṭaʿāmi kāna ḥillan li-banī ʾisrāʾīla ʾillā mā ḥarrama ʾisrāʾīlu ʿalā nafsihī min qabli ʾan tunazzala t-tawrātu qul fa-ʾtū bi-t-tawrāti fa-tlūhā ʾin kuntum ṣādiqīn.”
[3:94] “fa-mani ftarā ʿalā llāhi l-kadhiba min baʿdi dhālika fa-ʾulāʾika humu ẓ-ẓālimūn.”
[3:95] “qul ṣadaqa llāhu fa-ttabiʿū millata ʾibrāhīma ḥanīfan wa-mā kāna mina l-mushrikīn.”
“Before Torah was sent down, except what Israel (Ya’qub) had made haram for himself, all food was lawful to Children of Israel. Say, ‘If you are truthful, bring the Torah and recite it.’.”
“So, whoever fabricates a lie against Allah after that — they are the zalimun (wrongdoers) themselves.”
“Say, ‘Allah has spoken the truth. So, follow the monotheistic religion (din) of Ibrahim, a hanīf, he was not among al-mushrikun (polytheists).”
You see, this is the religion (din) of Ibrahim, and all the Prophets. This is the real Islamic sharia (law), the creed, and the monotheistic belief that Muhammad brought forth. All the Prophets have believed in monotheism, and so was Ibrahim. We see here that Janâb-i Haqq invites all the Jews to monotheism; Allah invites them to tawhid. This tawhid iman is the monotheism of Islam. The iman of all the Prophets is a tawhid iman. That is, Allah’s oneness. These verses of Quran invite the Jews to Islam. Janâb-i Haqq says, “Come to Islam,” to them.
That said, Janâb-i Haqq said the following.
[3:96] “ʾinna ʾawwala baytin wuḍiʿa li-n-nāsi la-lladhī bi-bakkata mubārakan wa-hudan li-l-ʿālamīn.”
[3:97] “fīhi ʾāyātun bayyinātun maqāmu ʾibrāhīma wa-man dakhalahū kāna ʾāminan wa-li-llāhi ʿalā n-nāsi ḥijju l-bayti mani staṭāʿa ʾilayhi sabīlan wa-man kafara fa-ʾinna llāha ghaniyyun ʿani l-ʿālamīn.”
“Surely, the first house of worship set up for humanity is the House that is in Mecca, which is most mubarak, and a source of guidance upon all the worlds; that is, Kaaba Shareef (Baitullah).”
“There are manifest proofs in it, Maqām of Ibrahim. Whoever enters it finds safety. It is a right of Allah upon people that those who can find a way to it should perform Hajj of the House.” Any Muslim who can afford should perform Hajj of the Kaaba,” they should perform their Hajj, and visit it, “Whoever denies; surely Allah is mustaghni (does not need anything, all things are in need of Allah) from the worlds.”
One should bear this in mind, and obey Allah.
Then again, Janâb-i Haqq said the following.
[3:98] “qul yā-ʾahla l-kitābi li-ma takfurūna bi-ʾāyāti llāhi wa-llāhu shahīdun ʿalā mā taʿmalūn.”
“Say, ‘O People of the Book!’.” That is, Allah addresses the Christians and the Jews first, and then all people. “Why do you deny the ayat (sings/verses) of Allah, while Allah sees what you do?”
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Look, denying Quran, or denying Prophet Muhammad, actually means denying all the Prophets, and all the Holy Books. That is why, foremost the Jews and the Christians are in a great illusion here, they are in a complete fallacy. So, in this verse Janâb-i Haqq says: “Why do you deny the ayat (sings/verses) of Allah.”.
[3:99] “qul yā-ʾahla l-kitābi li-ma taṣuddūna ʿan sabīli llāhi man ʾāmana tabghūnahā ʿiwajan wa-ʾantum shuhadāʾu wa-mā llāhu bi-ghāfilin ʿammā taʿmalūn.”
“Say, ‘O People of the Book! Why do you try to avert believers from Allah’s way by seeking to make it appear crooked, while you see and know the truth? Allah is not oblivious of what you do.” O, the world! O, the realm of humanity! Look at what they have done; just take a brief look at the activities of the Zionists and the missionaries. What do they want to do in the world?
Their endeavours and activities in the world should not have been anything other than being Muslims and converting the world to Islam. But, where do they turn the world from the way of Quran, the way of Islam, and the right and reality? They are turn the humanity to their own front of denial; to where they deny Quran and Muhammad. There cannot be iman where there is denial; there cannot be right or reality. Janâb-i Haqq announces all these to the humanity with Quran.
[3:100] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū ʾin tuṭīʿū farīqan mina lladhīna ʾūtū l-kitāba yaruddūkum baʿda ʾīmānikum kāfirīn.”
[3:101] “wa-kayfa takfurūna wa-ʾantum tutlā ʿalaykum ʾāyātu llāhi wa-fīkum rasūluhū wa-man yaʿtaṣim bi-llāhi fa-qad hudiya ʾilā ṣirāṭin mustaqīm.”
Janâb-i Haqq says, “O, you who have believed! If you obey any group of those who were given the Book, they will turn you after you have believed, and make you a kafir (disbeliever).”
This is Allah’s warning for Muslims. Allah says that if you obey those who were given the Book, which are the Jews and the Christians; if you obey any of party of them: O, Muslims! Get your minds together! They will turn you after you have believed, and make you a kafir.
“How can you deviate to disbelief, while the ayat (sings/verses) are being recited to you, and while Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah is amongst you? Whoever holds fast to Allah has surely been guided to the right way.”
So, we see here that Muslims should hold fast to Islam and Allah. They should never obey others, or be deceived by them.
Janâb-i Haqq says the following.
[3:102] “yā-ʾayyuhā lladhīna ʾāmanū ttaqū llāha ḥaqqa tuqātihī wa-lā tamūtunna ʾillā wa-ʾantum muslimūn.”
Almighty Allah gives a warning here: “Be wary of Allah with the wariness due to Allah and do not die except as Muslims.”
So, “Live with belief, live with Islam; die with belief, die with Islam,” says Janâb-i Haqq. And adds, “Do not die except as Muslims.”
That is, you will be burned if you die else way; we are will be burned, and all humanity will be burned.
[3:103] “wa-ʿtaṣimū bi-ḥabli llāhi jamīʿan wa-lā tafarraqū wa-dhkurū niʿmata llāhi ʿalaykum ʾidh kuntum ʾaʿdāʾan fa-ʾallafa bayna qulūbikum fa-ʾaṣbaḥtum bi-niʿmatihī ʾikhwānan wa-kuntum ʿalā shafā ḥufratin mina n-nāri fa-ʾanqadhakum minhā ka-dhālika yubayyinu llāhu lakum ʾāyātihī laʿallakum tahtadūn.”
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“Hold fast, altogether, to Allah’s cord.” That is, hold fast to Quran, and do not deviate from the path of Muhammad; this cord that you shall hold fast is all the laws of Islam that Allah extended towards us from the ninth heaven (arsh-i âlâ) and al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Sacred Tablet), this is that firm cord that does not break, this is Islam, this is Quran, and this is all the laws and rules of Islam that Muhammad brought.
Janâb-i Haqq says, “Hold fast, altogether, to Allah’s cord. Do not fall apart. Do not be divided. And hold fast to it altogether. Think about blessing of Allah upon you, remember, and do not forget, ever. Remember when you were enemies, and Allah brought your hearts together. By this blessing of Allah, you had become brothers. Then again, Allah had saved you when you were at the brink of a pit of Fire. Thus, does Allah make clear to you the ayat (sings/verses) that you may be guided to the right way.
[3:103] “laʿallakum tahtadūn,” says Allah.
O, Muslims! O, the realm of humanity! Do you wish to find endless life? Do you wish to be happy? Do you wish to attain the riza (approval) of Allah? Do you wish to earn Janna and Jamal? Do you wish to reach vuslat (ultimate union)? Then give your heart to Al-Quran Al-Karim. So, give ear and understand well. Listen well, find life, be happy; the lectures of the life-giving and glorious Quran continue. We are doing these lectures so that we may find life altogether.
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Al-Quran Al-Kareem – Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 93
Now, let us dwell on the discovery of these verses for a little bit. Let us give you discovery notes, that way we can further explain and disclose the truths. The goal of our lecture is to make discovery of these holy treasures, and to give you discovery notes, and to disclose them. These are everlasting treasures; these are eternal values that shall give-life to people. So, please listen carefully.
Now, Al-Bukhari conveyed the following in a hadith-i sharif. Our Prophet (asw), said the following in a hadith reported by Al-Bukhari. “In the mahshar, an unredeemed person is asked, ‘Had all the wealth in the world belonged to you, would you have given it today for your salvation from Jahannam?’, and he says, ‘Yes’. Then Allah Ta’ala says, “I had wanted less from you. You had promised that you would not assign partners to Allah (i.e. polytheism). You had promised back when you were in your father’s loins, but then you have not accepted anything other than polytheism (shirk),’ said Janâb-i Haqq.”
If only they did their obligations on Earth. Islam is the religion (din) of life-giving measures. [2:286] “Allah does not task any soul beyond its capacity.” And in mahshar, they are ready to give all of it to be saved from Jahannam had they had all the wealth in the world. Would it not have been better had you believed while you were in the world, and lived by the real (haqq) measures?
Now, after disclosing the afore hadith, let us continue. Nabī, or the Messenger only calls to the One who sent him. To whom a Nabī, or a Messenger call people to? He only invites people to the One who sent him. So, who sends the Nabīs? It is Allah who sends them. So, if someone denies even one of the Messengers, then he is in complete denial. That is, denying Allah. Do not ever forget that Islam does not deny any of the Prophets. They are all in the amantu (fundamentals) of every Muslim. Islam confirms the prophethood of all the Prophets. Islamic iman confirms all holy books. Islam confirms that they are indeed holy books. A Muslim knows that they were all renewed with Quran, and that the brand-new sharia (law) is Islam and Al-Quran Al-Karim. A Muslim knows that what Muhammad brought is a clear way that is perfected, and that it shall continue until Qiyamah. A Muslim believes and abides by all the laws and rules of Islam. So, he who believes in Islam and abides by it will have confirmed all of the values of the past, for they are all present in his amantu (fundamentals). The iman of the one who rejects Islam cannot be a real one. The repentances of those who say they repented when death approaches are not accepted. There is no repentance for those who die as kāfirs.
Moreover, “No religion other than Islam is accepted.”
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Al-Quran Al-Karim Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 3
Yes, dearest friends! We continue with our lectures.
Almighty Rabb created all the worlds with Rahmat al-Rahman for Allah wanted all the servants (qul) to be blissful; and that is why Allah wrote the recipe, which is the recipe of bliss that is Quran and Islam, and the one who implemented the recipe is Prophet Muhammad.
All the principles with regards to life are present in this Islam.
Now, Ibn-i Mesud has a narration from our Prophet. Let us give ear to his narration:
“If I live long enough there will come such a time that there are many preaching (waiz) and speaking (hatip) people, but there are less scholars (âlims), there are many beggars but few givers; knowledge has been enslaved by the self (nafs). The fatāwā (legal opinions) are not given according to knowledge (ilm) but according to the desires of the self (nafs). People do not act according to knowledge (ilm).”
Now, let us think about this in regards to the situation today, everyone should think about this. Do you see the people who seek unearned income; they live under the command of others. They flatter others for unearned income; do you see them? Then, do you see those who speak in the name of knowledge (ilm) and belief (iman)? Do you see the words of those who side themselves with Allah? Do you see those who sell their honor for unearned income? Our Prophet (asw) had informed us of these dangers fourteen centuries ago.
They asked him, “O, Rasulullah, when is this?”. He replied: “At a time when there are few worshippers, or none; and at time when they take riba (interest/usury).” “At a time when religious principles are sacrificed for a small price,” he said.
“Help! Help! Help us on that day!”
You see, the revered figure who reported the above hadith from our Prophet (asw) is Ibn-i Mesud (r.a.). Now, you may ask who Ibn-i Mesud is; he is amongst the greatest Islamic scholars (âlims) of the companions (sahabah).
“The religion (din) is a saviour for both the individual and the state.”
Now, let us talk about fearing Allah.
[6:81] “Do you not fear ascribing to Allah as partners the things about which Allah has not sent down any proof? Then how should I fear that which you ascribe to Allah as partners?” This is what Ibrahim (a.s.) said. He said this to those who do not fear Allah: “You do not fear Allah, so how should I fear your idols? How should I fear your taghuts (false gods)?”
O, Muslims, know how to love Allah. You should know how to fear no one but Allah, and how to be Godwary. Do not fear anyone else. Love all of the creatures that are to be loved through love of Allah and fear of Allah, and do good to all people who need it.
Now, what is the outcome of love and fear? The outcome is being merciful to all the creatures. That is, to love what Allah loves, and to dislike what Allah dislikes; and to do this for Allah. “The tyrants (zalimun) would not have found the courage for tyranny (zulm) if not for the flattery of the scholars (âlims) in the world.” You see, Ebu’l Fattah of Dagestan reminded us this quote. This is a reality that is in close relation with the hadith-i sharif that we have mentioned.
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My dearest friends!
The word, “al-birr (الْبِرُّ)” means perfect goodness.
Now, the most common goodness, or rather the real goodness, is to have belief, knowledge, good deeds, and to spend in the way of Allah. What is more, it is better if you spend from among the things you love most.
That is, to spend in the way of Allah is important. But you should spend from among what is most precious for you, and from among that which you like most; and to be able to do that is al-birr (الْبِرُّ) – perfect goodness. That is the kāmil khayr (perfect goodness). So, what is the perfect and utmost goodness?
Now, first of all, you need a complete iman, then your ilm should be perfect, and you need good deeds. That said, all of it should be in the way of Allah, and you should be able to spend all your wealth and the things you love most in the way of Allah with pleasure. It is that much better if you spend from among the things you love most.
If you spend in the way of Allah that which you do not like, and that which is of no use, then you will get the same in return. You should read the following verses of Surah al-Baqarah that are about this matter: 3rd, 44th, 177th, 189th, 215th, 219th, 261st, 264th, 267th, 270th, 272nd, 273rd, and 274th verses. You will find many life-giving and holy advices along with many divine commandments. When you read these verses, you will see the holy values that can renovate a person’s life.
How is a life renovated, and how can one attain the utmost goodnesses? One needs iman, namāz and infāq (sadaqa) for it. Muslims need iman, namāz, and they should spend in the way of Allah, which is called infāq (sadaqa).
There will always be people who bid goodness, but they should not forget about themselves. They should first and foremost give advice to themselves, and then announce it to the others.
You see, the word “al-birr (الْبِرُّ)” is ittiqa, which means “to be Godwary”. It is a complete obedience to Allah; and to spend. You may give your excess wealth to your parents, relatives, orphans, poor people, and travellers. What I mean by excess wealth is that which is left after you have ensured the basic necessities that you and your family need. You should be able to spend the rest in the way of Allah.
[2:286] “The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is that of a grain which grows seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains.” We see here that Allah gives 1 to 700. The endeavours and charities of the hypocrites are void. Hypocrisy will not get a person anything. You should spend only for Allah with pure love. You should not give rotten or ill-conditioned things as sadaqa.
You should not assist the wrongdoers, rather you should try to dissuade them from their zulm. This is because the only way to help them is to dissuade them from zulm. The only way to help them is to stand against their zulm, not assisting them. Besides, you will become one of them if you assist them.
That said, you should always observe the approval of Allah with each breath. You should always observe the approval, or rather the riza of Allah in everything you do.
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You should not have any other goal. You should give to the mujāhidīn, and the âlims; you should give priority to them. Choose the mujāhidīn, and those who spread ilm to the world; because the mujāhidīn and people of ilm are unable to spare time for trade.
[2:274] – There is no fear for those who spend secretly and openly, nor shall they grieve. This is a favor of Allah, and a glad tiding. As you know, what it is halal is mubarak and brings barakat. There is always abundant goodness in what is halal. That is why we need to move in concert with that which is halal.
That said, Janâb-i Haqq says, in order to attain goodness and divine sawāb (reward), we need pure love, abundant goodness, and perfection; which make a complete goodness and a complete benefit that is al-birr (الْبِرُّ). So, in order to attain al-birr (الْبِرُّ), which is complete goodness, we need to attain divine sawāb (reward). We need to become completely benevolent. We need to reach the daraja (rank/degree) of pure love (ihsan).
So, al-birr (الْبِرُّ) is abundant goodness, and the perfection of goodness. This al-birr (الْبِرُّ) is the complete goodness, which is possible with iman (belief). That is, a complete iman (belief). That is a complete jihad (struggle) in the way of Allah. So, this is where spending in the way of Allah leads.
The antonyms of the word al-birr (الْبِرُّ) are rebellion, greed, and sin. These are among the antonyms of al-birr (الْبِرُّ). Khayr is complete goodness, and its antonym is evil. That is why we need to live a real life. We need to live our lives with faith, good deeds, moral values, and jihad (struggle). We need to live the Islam as a complete life-style.
Therefore, the way to attain the real al-birr (الْبِرُّ), the perfection of goodness, is to live Islam as a whole. As for living Islam as a whole, it is within the scope of a Muslim’s power. So, if a Muslim is living Islam as best as he can, this means he/she will receive full sawāb (reward) as if he/she has lived it completely.
[82:13] “ʾinna l-ʾabrāra la-fī naʿīm,” says Allah in the 13th verse of Surah al-Infitār. That is, the righteous, will be in bliss. They in the Janna, and endless and boundless bounties (nimat). The righteous are those who use their wealth, rank/position, knowledge, wisdom, and all their material and non-material means in the way of Allah.
[3:9] “Allah does not break His (Allah’s) promise.” Pay close attention to this verse! So, to give a promise to Allah is to be entitled to the divine promise, and the basis of this is iman (belief).
It is a goal. That is, al-birr (الْبِرُّ) is a goal. As for the religion, it encompasses iman (belief) and al-birr (الْبِرُّ). So, when it comes to religion (din), if there is iman (belief) and if there is also al-birr (الْبِرُّ) which is the perfection of goodness in a person then there is religion (din) in them. Then it is fair to say they are pious, and mutadayyin (devout).
Muqaddimah means prologue, and one should this work by reciting kalimat al-tawheed. Then, he/she will continue towards his/her perfection (kamāl), and will keep ascending towards the summit.
[3:168] “kulū mimmā fī l-ʾarḍi ḥalālan ṭayyiban.”
What does Janâb-i Haqq say here? Allah says, “Eat of what is halal and pure in the earth.” This way, Allah tells us to eat from among that which is halal and pure.
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Because there is remedy, health, divine approval (riza) in it. The life-giving reality, and true remedy is in it. You can find life in it. The Jews started by denying abrogation (naskh), and then they wanted to deny Islamic decrees (hukm). They say, “What is haram for us come from the period of Nūh and Ibrahim,” whereas it is not the case. Each holy book that came has abrogated the decree of the previous holy book, and renewed it. This is called naskh. Quran has abrogated.
That said, in the 146th verse of Surah al-Ana’m: “We made animals with claws, and fat of oxen and sheep haram to the Jews,” says Janâb-i Haqq. “We punished them this way for their transgressions (zulm). The more people rebel, the more bounties (nimat) they will lose. The reason that they lost these bounties (nimat) one by one is the transgressions and zulm. This is a punishment for their rebelliousness.
They plotted, cheated, murdered, devoured usury, and oppressed and exploited the poor. They have many transgressions and zulm similar to the aforementioned. Just take a look at the world, and see the doings of the Imperialists and the Zionists! They are still doing wrong, and they are still harming the humanity, they are still setting up plots. They are cheating, murdering, eating usury, and considering halal as haram. Similar to those above, their many transgressions, rebelliousness, and zulm still continue. Their rebelliousness still continues.
Now, about the things Ya’qub (a.s.) forbade himself. Ya’qub (a.s.) had a sickness, and he made an oath that if he gets over it, he will not eat that which he likes most. The things Ya’qub (a.s.) liked most was camel meat and camel milk. It is narrated that he made an oath due to the pain he was suffering, his zuhd and taqwa, and a medical advice.
You see, for the first-time camel meat and camel milk was forbidden to the Jews, but Ya’qub (a.s.) had forbade them to himself. And later, they themselves changed it. Then, due to their transgressions more prohibitions had come. The meaning of zuhd is to detach from pleasures and give yourself to worship, in it is no prohibition on the halal pleasures, but haram ones are forbidden, however one must follow the measure and be careful to not go over the limit in the halals. Zuhd-ul Taqwa is the name for abandoning pleasures and giving yourself to worship.
Kaaba Shareef comes before Al-Masjid-ul-Aqsā. That is, the first masjid built in the world is Al-Masjid-ul-Harām. That is, Kaaba Shareef. It was built before Al-Masjid-ul-Aqsā. The word “Becca” it is another name of Mecca. Mecca is Al-Masjid-ul-Harām.
The word, “is’tatā” in the 97th verse means obedience, request, intent. As for “qudrah” means -to be able to afford doing something financially and physically. So, when these two are present one may perform Hajj. So, what does one need to perform Hajj of Kaaba?
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One should have power (qudrah), and should be able to afford it both financially and physically. Obedience, request, and intent; these concepts make the is’tatā, which means ableness. Imam al-Malik considers physical power, Imam al-Shafi’i considers the financial power, and Al-Imam Al-Azam considers both financial and physical power. They considered these were necessary for Hajj to become a fard (obligation), and the following verse explains this:
[3:97] “wa-li-llāhi ʿalā n-nāsi ḥijju l-bayti mani staṭāʿa ʾilayhi sabīlan.”
Janâb-i Haqq says: “It is the duty of the servants (qul) toward Allah to make pilgrimage (hajj) to the Kaaba – for those who can afford the journey to it.”
That said, abandoning the obligations (fards) suit only the kāfirs, for abandoning the obligations (fards) is a complete rebellion against Almighty Allah, and that is why Muslims should not abandon any of the obligations (fards), and if they did, then they should repent and ask for forgiveness, and compensate (qada) them.
Now, let’s talk about Semmas bin Kays who was Jewish. He was filled with disbelief (kufr), rage, and envy. Back then, he was a fierce enemy of Islam and Muslims. He had wanted to cause hostility between Aws and Khazraj tribes.
Now, we are talking about Banu Aws and Banu Khazraj here, which were two of the most important tribes of Medina during the time of our Prophet. So, this man called Semmas wanted to cause hostility between these two tribes. He wanted them to destroy each other, and that is why wanted to set one of them against the other.
Semmas was a man who was trying to demolish the Islamic union. Now, pay close attention to the people who object to the Islamic union, who are they? There are so many people like this Semmas in the age we live in.
The last of the wars between the two tribes is Yevm-i Buas, but until that they had fought for 120 years. The tribes of Aws and Khazraj had spent 120 years in hostility. These two tribes had fought each other for 120 years, but this was before Islam. They called the day when Aws prevailed over Khazraj as Yevm-i Buas. Now, bear this in mind!
Semmas wanted to remind them of those times in order to turn their Islamic brotherhood into hostility. Then, our Master (asw) Prophet Muhammad had heard about this and intervened immediately, and prevented a hostility. Our Master (asw) was saying, “Allah, Allah!”. He said, “Are you going to go back to the age of ignorance, and back to disbelief (kufr), after you have been guided, and while I am amid you uttering the name of Allah.” He gave them advice by saying that, and then they dropped their weapons, started sobbing, and started embracing each other, they forgave each other, and this way the fire of fitnah was put out.
O, my brother! Pay close attention to Semmas’ of this age. Why are the Muslims in today’s word divided? This is because there are people like Semmas amid them. Had the humanity looked at the world through the perspective of Al-Quran Al-Karim and Prophet Muhammad, and had they looked to the universe through the perspective of their guidance (irshad), there would not have been any segregation, or division. Bombs would not have rained down upon the world if there was no segregation. Allah has been shaking the land, and people have been raining down bombs from the skies, but why? We have been experiencing various disasters, and there is no tranquillity in the world, why?
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You see, Muslims and the humanity have neglected Islam that bring real life, social justice, wisdom, and knowledge. They have neglected Islam that infuse love into all the hearts. This is why the world is in trouble now. If you leave Islam, which is a centre that incorporates into its structure all the consciences of humanity, and if you become hostile towards it, and if you divide and segregate Muslims, then o woe to the world; because it is condemned to suffer.
Some may live in their ivory towers, but there is no peace in their inner worlds. They exploit the world; and do they think they will find peace? Peace can be achieved by earning the approval (riza) of Allah. Peace is in belief (iman), and in Quran. Peace is in the sovereignty of Islam and Quran that give life to all the souls, for they are the sustenance of the spirit. Peace is in the sovereignty of Islam and Quran. So, the humanity should acknowledge the rulership of Allah, and this is why we continue our life-giving lectures. May Janâb-i Haqq make us among the servants who find life.
Now, let us say a few words about piety (taqwā). Piety (taqwā) is the most perfect of all positions. It means obedience without rebellion. So, obedience toward Almighty Allah without there being rebellion is called piety (taqwā).
“The real piety (taqwā) is to pass every moment with dhikr, by remembering Allah, without forgetting Allah. The real piety (taqwā) is to pass every moment being devoid of disbelief (kufr). The real piety (taqwā) is to be thankful at all times. This is the real piety (taqwā) that suits the divine glory and grandeur.”
The above narration is narrated on the authority of Ibn-i Mesud. Janâb-i Haqq says these in Quran as well.
Our Prophet said: “O, my Rabb, known by all the creatures! We could not know You enough. O, my Allah, only You are deserving of worship. We could not serve You enough!”
Ultimately, piety (taqwā) is described to us both in Quran and in Sunna. Now, what did our Prophet say? He said, “We could not know You enough.” “O, our Almighty Rabb! We could not serve you enough,” he said.
The elders always confess this. As for the ignorant lot, they do not even know of this confession. They do not do their duty as servants (qul), and they continue being rebellious. They will not confess this properly.
Do you know about the selfless people (ashabi kiram) whose feet were swollen and the skin on their forehead were peeled for they used to worship too much? Just have a look at the 16th verse of Surah at-Taghābun.
[64:16] “fa-ttaqū llāha mā staṭaʿtum.”
So, Janâb-i Haqq said: “So be wary of Allah, as far as you can.” Allah does not bid you what you cannot afford. So, what does Allah say to those who worship too much? “Worship as far as you can, but do not exceed your limit.” So, one should worship as far as one is able, but one should not fear someone will judge them. Now, bear this in mind! He who side himself with the Real (al-Haqq) and Allah cannot ever fear someone may judge him. He should not fear at all.
Ultimately, one should observe justice and righteousness without fearing someone may judge him/her. We are referring to a complete justice and complete righteousness, for having these traits is necessary. One needs to be firm in belief. That is to hold fast to the cord of Allah altogether. That is to adopt monotheism altogether. That is to not divide people, and unite in prayer (namāz), congregation (jama’ah), pilgrimage (hajj), and others.
So, the greatest principle of the true religion is the union of the hearts and the union of the actions, and this is the part the realm of Islam has forgotten.
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We are not talking about those who do not forget, so let me repeat this part. Now, what is prayer (namāz), congregation (jama’ah), and pilgrimage (hajj)? These are to hold fast, altogether, to the cord of Allah, and to unite in monotheism (tawhid), and to not be divided. This is absolute Islamic union. This is absolute union of the nation (ummah). This is the way of becoming a single heart and a single fist, which is the main commandment of Quran.
This commandment can be fulfilled by uniting in monotheism (tawhid), and holding fast to the cord of Allah altogether, and not being divided. This can be fulfilled by uniting in prayer, congregation, and pilgrimage, which unite the hearts, and unite the actions. This is the greatest principle amongst the principles of the true religion. You cannot achieve success by disbanding the union, for there is strength in union.
“Allah’s helping hand is with the congregation (jama’ah) – “yedullahi meal cemaati”.
The aforementioned hadith-i sharif is narrated from our Prophet on the authority of Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasā’ī. Besides, Allah says, “Hold fast to Allah’s cord altogether, and do not be divided,” in the 103rd verse of Surah Ali Imran. We see the same narrative in a verse and in a hadith-i sharif. Allah’s omnipotence (qudrah) is with the society, and Allah’s aid is with the society and the union of the nation. Those who go astray from the society surely become miserable.
[3:52] “man ʾanṣārī ʾilā llāhi.”
Isa (a.s.) said, “Who will be my helpers toward Allah?” in the 52nd verse of Surah Ali Imran. Now, all the believers should pay close attention to this verse.
Unless all believers unify their actions in monotheism (tawhid), they will never be able to find Godwariness (ittiqa). They cannot find Godwariness (ittiqa) otherwise. They will not be able to meet Allah.
The only word is monotheism (tawhid), and people need to unify their actions within monotheism (tawhid); and we’re not talking about a union of words but a complete collaboration, and union of action. So, unless believers ensure this, they will never be able to attain Godwariness. Thus, they will never attain piety (taqwā). They will not have feared Allah. They will not be able to meet Allah either, for one cannot attain piety (taqwā) or the approval (riza) of Allah by tearing Islam to pieces and dividing the Muslims.
Now, what does “hablillāh” mean? Please bear this word in mind! It means Allah’s cord. This cord is the manifest proofs that lead to Allah, and these are Al-Quran Al-Karim, all the commandments of Islam, and Prophet Muhammad. So, at first, people need to fulfil the commands of Al-Quran Al-Karim, but not only by speaking because people may say they have believed in the Book. So, the cord or rather hablillāh can be described as fulfilling the commands of the Book, forming congregation (jama’ah), having pure love (ihlas), having Islam, and keeping the promise given to Allah. So, hablillāh is an incorporation of all divine commandments. This is Allah’s cord that does not break. This is the cord that is extended to us from al-Lawh al-Mahfuz and the ninth heaven (arsh-i âlâ), and it will ascend us to Janna. Almighty Allah holds one end of this cord, and we hold the other end.
Embrace Islam, and climb toward Islam, toward the ninth heaven (arsh-i âlâ), toward Janna, toward the beauty (jamal) of Allah. So, this hablillāh is Islam and Quran as we know. This is the way toward Allah’s approval (riza), Allah’s paradise (Janna), and Allah’s beauty (jamal). Do not ever forget this! Society and science are amongst the commandments along with sociology. So, congregation (jama’ah), aggregativeness (Ijtima’iat), society, science, and sociology are commandments.
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It is important for the congregation (jama’ah) to hold fast to hablillāh. The entire ummah shall hold fast to hablillāh, which means Allah’s cord, which is Islam. So, this is actually really important. Allah’s cord is hablillāh, which is the proof and means that make one meet Allah. Allah’s cord represents fulfilling the commands of Al-Quran Al-Karim, congregation (jama’ah), pure love (ihlas), Islam, the covenant given to Allah, and all the divine commandments. As for congregation (jama’ah), society, science, and sociology, these are amongst the commandments. Thus, it is really important that congregation (jama’ah) should hold fast to hablillāh. Now, who makes the congregation (jama’ah)? The entirety of Muhammad’s ummah makes the congregation (jama’ah). That is why we say these realities are described in the hadith-i sharifs narrated by Al-Tirmidhi and Muslim.
Now, the following hadith-i sharif has been reported by Saʽid al-Khudri: “Kitabullahi huve hablullahil memdudu minessemai minel ardi.”
What did he say? Our Prophet (asw) said, “Allah’s cord is Al-Quran Al-Karim. It has been extended from the heavens to the earth. It is the only remedy of those who fall into danger. This is the precaution for not falling into danger. The human society, the humanity, should hold fast to it.”
The entire humanity should hold fast to it, and Muhammad’s ummah has to hold fast to it before all others. The aggregative (Ijtima’iat) committee, and social committee is the Islamic congregation (jama’ah) who ascend as they hold fast to Quran, and what does Allah say about this?
Allah says, [3:104] “wa-l-takun minkum ʾummatun yadʿūna ʾilā l-khayri wa-yaʾmurūna bi-l-maʿrūfi wa-yanhawna ʿani l-munkari wa-ʾulāʾika humu l-mufliḥūn.”
“There has to be a community among you summoning to the good, bidding what is right, and forbidding what is wrong.”
You see my dearest friends, there has to be enough able communities who call people to Islam, and who convey Islam correctly. Besides, we need to call humanity by using all the imams of the time we live in, but what should we bid people? We should call people to the life-giving and endless nūr (light), which is Islam and Quran. Almighty Allah says that there has to be a community who bid the truth properly. This is told by Almighty Allah in the 104th verse of Surah Ali Imran.
May Janâb-i Mevlâ make the light of monotheism shine in our hearts, and may it not fade forever and ever. Allah said, “It is they who are the felicitous.” Those who will attain everlasting felicity are the ones who call the humanity to Islam, and to the truth. Allah says that the people who know Islam well will find felicity, eternal bliss, and salvation. This glad tiding was given by Almighty Allah.
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Al-Quran Al-Karim Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 95
[3:104] “wa-l-takun minkum ʾummatun yadʿūna ʾilā l-khayri wa-yaʾmurūna bi-l-maʿrūfi wa-yanhawna ʿani l-munkari wa-ʾulāʾika humu l-mufliḥūn.”
“There has to be community amid you, who summon to the good, who bid what is right, and forbid what is wrong. It is them who shall attain salvation,” says our Almighty Rabb.
So, a community who summon to the good; Islam is goodness from a to z. So, there has to be a community among us who call the humanity to Islam, bid what is right, and forbid what is wrong. Now, what do we mean by right? All of the commandments in the glorious sharia (law) are the rights. As for the wrongs, what our Almighty Rabb called wrong, sin, and haram in the glorious sharia (law) are wrong. Including what harms humanity, and what is considered mischievous for a person’s life in both worlds; these are wrong. And all the things that are against science and pure intellect (aql-e-selim) are said to be wrong.
“There has to be community forbidding what is wrong,” said Janâb-i Haqq.
It is them who attain salvation. There has to be a community who call people to what is absolutely right. “There has to be a community who forbid what is wrong.”
That said, Janâb-i Haqq said the following in the next verse:
[3:105] “wa-lā takūnū ka-lladhīna tafarraqū wa-khtalafū min baʿdi mā jāʾahumu l-bayyinātu wa-ʾulāʾika lahum ʿadhābun ʿaẓīm.”
[3:106] “yawma tabyaḍḍu wujūhun wa-taswaddu wujūhun fa-ʾammā lladhīna swaddat wujūhuhum ʾa-kafartum baʿda ʾīmānikum fa-dhūqū l-ʿadhāba bi-mā kuntum takfurūn.”
Almighty Rabb said: “Do not become like those who became divided and fell into disputes after manifest proofs had come to them. For them there is a great punishment.”
Islam came and manifested all the proofs, and afterwards there was no need for segregation. Allah says there is a great punishment if you become divided. Do you see the situation Muhammad’s ummah has fallen into in today’s world? Do you see the current state of the ummah that is being divided and torn apart for approximately one century?
Why did this happen? The ummah is now divided. Islam is a whole, and all of its values are manifest. Not a single point of Islam has vanished, it has not been changed, and it will not be changed. It has not been distorted, and it will not be distorted.
Now, why did the ummah become divided? This is because they did not act in unison with a community who know those divine values. Those who don’t know need to act in unison with those who know, and thus become a whole.
Then again, our Almighty Rabb said: “On that day some faces will turn white, and some faces will turn black. To the ones whose faces turn black (it will be said): ‘Did you deny after your iman? Then taste the punishment for your denial.’.”
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[3:107] “wa-ʾammā lladhīna byaḍḍat wujūhuhum fa-fī raḥmati llāhi hum fīhā khālidūn.”
“As for those whose faces become white, the faces that shine bright, they are within the mercy of Allah. They shall abide therein forever.”
[3:108] “tilka ʾāyātu llāhi natlūhā ʿalayka bi-l-ḥaqqi wa-mā llāhu yurīdu ẓulman li-l-ʿālamīn.”
“These are the ayat (sings/verses) of Allah that we have been reciting to you in truth. Allah does not wish to do no injustice to the worlds (i.e. creatures).”
[3:109] “wa-li-llāhi mā fī s-samāwāti wa-mā fī l-ʾarḍi wa-ʾilā llāhi turjaʿu l-ʾumūr.”
“Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, all belong to Allah. All matters are returned to Allah.”
Clearly, all that is in the heavens and in the earth belong to Allah, for Allah created all the worlds, and thus Allah is the real owner of all property. Allah is the al-Muqtadir (All-Able) ruler. Allah is the Creator. Allah manages the worlds. Then again, Allah’s laws are in effect.
[3:110] “kuntum khayra ʾummatin ʾukhrijat li-n-nāsi taʾmurūna bi-l-maʿrūfi wa-tanhawna ʿani l-munkari wa-tuʾminūna bi-l-llāhi wa-law ʾāmana ʾahlu l-kitābi la-kāna khayran lahum minhumu l-muʾminūna wa-ʾaktharuhumu l-fāsiqūn.”
“You are the best ummah ever raised for mankind.”
Janâb-i Haqq announces that Muhammad’s ummah is the best nation out of all the nations in the world.
Allah says, “You are the best ummah ever raised for mankind, you bid what is right, and try to dissuade from wrong, and you believe in Allah. Surely, it would have been better for the People of the Book had they believed as well. Among them there are believers, but most of them deviated from the right way.
We see Al-Quran Al-Karim conveying a right message to mankind.
[3:111] “lan yaḍurrūkum ʾillā ʾadhan wa-ʾin yuqātilūkum yuwallūkumu l-ʾadbāra thumma lā yunṣarūn.”
[3:112] “ḍuribat ʿalayhimu dh-dhillatu ʾayna mā thuqifū ʾillā bi-ḥablin mina llāhi wa-ḥablin mina n-nāsi wa-bāʾū bi-ghaḍabin mina llāhi wa-ḍuribat ʿalayhimu l-maskanatu dhālika bi-ʾannahum kānū yakfurūna bi-ʾāyāti llāhi wa-yaqtulūna l-ʾanbiyāʾa bi-ghayri ḥaqqin dhālika bi-mā ʿaṣaw wa-kānū yaʿtadūn.”
“They cannot do you no harm, except for annoyance. And if they attempt to fight you, they will turn their backs to you and run, then they shall not be helped either.” “Ignominy has been stamped over them wherever they may be. Except when they take refuge in Allah’s cord and the covenant of people (believers).” You see, except when they take refuge in Allah’s cord and the covenant of people (believers).
“They have been visited by the wrath of Allah, and misery has been stamped over them.”
They will either declare faith and be saved, or enter into the protection of the believers, and save themselves by becoming dhimmis. They have lived under the protection of Muslims for fourteen centuries.
“They have been visited by the wrath of Allah, and misery has been stamped over them. This is because they have denied the ayat (sings/verses) of Allah, and that they killed Prophets unjustly. Besides, they rebelled, and transgressed the covenant.”
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Al-Quran Al-Karim Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 96
[3:113] “laysū sawāʾan min ʾahli l-kitābi ʾummatun qāʾimatun yatlūna ʾāyāti llāhi ʾānāʾa l-layli wa-hum yasjudūn.”
[3:114] “yuʾminūna bi-llāhi wa-l-yawmi l-ʾākhiri wa-yaʾmurūna bi-l-maʿrūfi wa-yanhawna ʿani l-munkari wa-yusāriʿūna fī l-khayrāti wa-ʾulāʾika mina ṣ-ṣāliḥīn.”
[3:115] “wa-mā yafʿalū min khayrin fa-lan yukfarūhu wa-llāhu ʿalīmun bi-l-muttaqīn.”
Janâb-i Haqq says they are not all alike. Janâb-i Haqq says there is an ummah, a community among the People of the Book who recite the ayat (signs/verses) of Allah in the watches of the night by prostrating themselves in worship.
They believe in Allah and in the Last Day, they bid what is right, and try to dissuade from evil, and hasten to excel each other in doing good. These are among the good people.
These are revered figures within the People of the Book who accepted Islam, and this is why Janâb-i Haqq praises them. May Janâb-i Mevlâ make us among the servants who are praised. The whole point is to be able to earn Allah’s praise, for there is no salvation in both worlds without earning the praise of Allah, and without pleasing Allah.
Now, let us give certain discovery notes on these verses, but know that these are life notes. They give life to people’s hearts and their spiritual realm, for people find life when the rights obviate the wrongs. Adorning yourself with the rights is of utmost importance, and Islam is an embodiment of all that is rights.
Now, what does ummah mean?
Ummah is the leading community that aggregate human communities, it is the community that people follow. The ummahs have an imam/leader leading them. As for congregation (jama’ah), it is the image of a uniform social order. So, forming a community that shall summon to the good, bid what is right, and forbid what is wrong, and appointing an imam/leader is the second obligation (fard) of all the Muslims after faith.
That is, the Muslims need to establish a state and a nation. It is of utmost importance that Muslims have a ruler as head of state. Allah says that those who fulfil this obligation are, “wa-ʾulāʾika humu l-mufliḥūn” – “who find complete salvation.”
Now, it is clear that this community needs an imam/leader, and appointing a leader is the second religious obligation of the Muslims after faith. So, there must be a ruler of their state. Those who fulfil this obligation are “wa-ʾulāʾika humu l-mufliḥūn” – “who find complete salvation.”
Otherwise, it is hardly possible to find salvation. It is impossible to find salvation or facility otherwise. Now, let us repeat the last part due to its importance. What is an ummah? An ummah is a leading community that aggregate human communities; it is the community that is followed, and this is Muhammad’s ummah, or rather the Islamic community.
They all have their leaders. As for congregation (jama’ah), it is an image of uniform social order. So, forming a community that shall summon to the good, bid what is right, and forbid what is wrong, and appoint an imam/leader is the second obligation (fard) for all the Muslims, after faith. And Allah says that those who fulfil this obligation are, “wa-ʾulāʾika humu l-mufliḥūn” – “who find complete salvation.”
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Al-Quran Al-Karim Tafsir (Exegesis) Lesson 97
To fulfil the divine promise in full; and to call people to what is good. Now, this is actually very important. To fulfil the divine promise in full, to call people to what is good, to bid what is right, and to dissuade from evil are collective obligation (fard al-kifayah) on Muslims.
If they do not fulfil this obligation, then they have abandoned a religious obligation (fard), and all people will answer for it because these are obligations of the community.
The word, “minkum – مِّنكُمْ” means “among you”, bear this in mind. Allah said, “among you”. Now, if “min – مِنْ” here is used as abstractive, then all the Muslims are under obligation. On the other hand, if “min – مِنْ” is used as “among”, then it means “to make a special community from among them who will carry out this type of work”. Then, the believers have to assist them and follow them to fulfil the command. And after they are appointed, to bid what is right and to dissuade from what is wrong become a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah) on all people.
Now, let us say that the officials did not perform their duty. That is, the people who were appointed did not do their work well. Now, if the people who were appointed for this, or rather the officials do not perform their duties, then they are be responsible for it, but everyone else is responsible too.
So, once the monotheistic order is corrupted, troubles will not only visit the wrongdoers but they will also visit everyone else.
Now, summoning to the good encompasses religion and worldly righteousness, and this is a pedestal of unity and Islam. Bear this in mind. Summoning to the good incorporates religion and worldly goodness and this is a pedestal of unity and Islam.
The word maʿrūf means the right.
Achieving obedience to Allah is another necessity of Islam. So, maʿrūf is a complete righteousness, and achieving obedience to Allah is an absolute necessity of Islam.
There is both maʿrūf (right) and khayr (good) in this verse, so bear them in mind. As for munkar it means wrong, which is to forbid those who object to Allah. So, what should they do for they do not abide by the requirements of Islam? They need to warn them in a suitable manner, and dissuade them from standing against Allah. The fine measure here is hablillāh. So, what is the measure here? The measure if hablillāh, the divine laws and measures of Islam, and the measures of sharia (law).
Not following desires. Calling people to Islam. Incentive. “Those who wish to become a part of the ummah should follow he divine preconditions.”
Now, what did he say? What did Umar (r.a.) said here? He said, “Those who wish to become a part of the ummah should follow he divine preconditions.” This is the condition for becoming a part of the ummah. Everyone has to abide by the divine rules.
That said, the disputes among the mujtahids are only ease and mercy. The disputes of the mujtahids do not mean segregation, or division. These disputes are manifest sings that show the richness of Islam. That is why the ummah has to know their own characteristics and traits, and the very first trait of the ummah is monotheism, or rather tawhid.
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To come together in the unity of Allah, to unite under Allah’s command, to know Allah as One, to abide by the laws and commands, to bid what is right, and to forbid evil. These are the traits of the best ummah ever raised for mankind. These are the traits of Muhammad’s ummah. The obligation here is not only on ulu’l amr (the top brass) but it also encompasses all believers at least to some degree. The reason that this ummah is best is that the majority of them are good people. So, if the majority of the ummah are good people, and they are on the right way, then ultimately, you’ll see a good nation.
In the event that the majority of ummah consisted of good people, deniers and deviants cannot ever do any harm except for causing some hurt. We should also pay attention to this verse (111th). In that event, there will only be some annoyance caused by deniers and deviants. They cannot cause any harm other than that annoyance. The hurt mentioned here is caused by the ill speech of Christians and Jews. They speak in a way that does not conform to monotheism. Therefore, they cause annoyance by aggrieving the Muslims, and this is what we’re referring here. But people should know that the deniers and deviants cannot cause any harm except for some annoyance, which is minor annoyance. Now, what did they do throughout history? They organised crusades, and they learned their lesson every time, in the end they failed, and saw the sovereignty of the truth.
Muslims have established world domination for fourteen centuries, and Islam has been shedding light to the world for fourteen centuries, and it will continue to shed light to the world forever. But when? This is when Muslims hold fast to Islam.
Muhammad’s ummah is upright and good. This ummah is an equitable ummah. That said, another trait of Muhammad’s ummah is that it is an ummah qaimah [see 3:113] (upright/good nation). They are also equitable. These are the Muslims who rise up and overcome obstacles in the name of Allah. These are the Muslims, including those who believed in Musa and Isa. Also, the Jews who became Muslims. Figures like Abdullah ibn Salam, Saleb bin Said, and Husayn ibn Ubayd became Muslims, but they were Jews.
We see Janâb-i Haqq praising them in the 113rd verse. Now, Allah says they are “ummatun qāʾimatun – upright nation.” Allah says they are equitable people. Allah says they are equitable people who rise up for Allah, for the Real; and they are the ones who became Muslims.
Now, these are the Jews who have become Muslims for they believed in Musa and Isa in the correct way. Those who read Torah correctly all became Muslims. Those who knew Musa correctly became Muslims.
Now, these people are the Christians who became Muslims back then. 40 people from Najran, 32 people from Ethiopia, 3 people from Rome, and in total 75 people had become Muslims back then. These are people who believed in one god. These people are among the “ummatun qāʾimatun – upright nation” and they are worthy of praise. They became Muslims for they knew Isa correctly. They became Muslims for they read Bible correctly.
Time Stamp: 10:00
Hanīf people such as As’ad b. Zurara, Bera b. Ma’rur, Muhammed b. Mesleme, and Abu Qays are in this class. The verse makes mention of the good people among the People of the Book, these people are those who became Muslims later. The people who became Muslims, starting with Adam (a.s.) up to this day and up until Qiyamah, are all in this class. For the only religion of mankind, starting with Adam (a.s.) up until Qiyamah, is Islam. Therefore, people who lived in the past ages who became Muslims, and those who become Muslims today, are all attributed with these beautiful attributes. They are muvahhid people. Muvahhid people are those who believe in one Allah.
The word ‘goodness’ and ‘being visited by evil’, are denoted by the words ‘mes’ and ‘esabe’.
Disputations turned into debate wars, which then transformed into pitched battles, and wars in which various weapons are used. What we see here is that it started with disputations, which turned into debate wars, and then transformed into wars in which varius weapons are used.
So, what is the cause? This is because they did not accept the truth, and they did not accept the reality. Those who do not acknowledge the truth always hold fast to tyranny, war, and the weapon in their hands.
60 verses were sent down about The Battle of Uhud.
Al-biṭānatu (in 3:118) means ‘inmate/confidant”. The verse says, do not take deniers and hypocrites as confidants in personal affairs, and do not give them secrets. O, Muslims! Bear this in mind! Do not take deniers and hypocrites as confidants in personal affairs and do not give them secrets.
[3:119] “wa-lā yuḥibbūnakum,” – “They do not like you,”.
The verse says: O, Muslims! You bear love towards the entire world. You are friendly towards all people, but they do not like you. Their hearts are narrow, and are soiled. This is their mark. Now, what does it mean that their hearts are narrow and soiled? What is meant here is, they have disbelief (kufr), and they practice polytheism (shirk), and they are hypocrites (munafiqun).
So, that is why you should take the maxim of the deniers and hypocrites into consideration, and do not ever trust them in personal affairs, and do not give them secrets. These people do not work for the benefit of the humanity, Islam, or Muslims.
The maxim of the believer is to wish for the best for all people. So, what does a Muslim who bears the Islamic faith say? His maxim is wishing for the best for all people, because this is Islam. Besides, Islam was sent for the benefit of all people, it came for the salvation of all people.
Yet some escaped from the mercy of Allah for they did not believe, but where did they go once they escaped? They went towards the rage and wrath of Allah. The conscience of a Muslim is clear. The maxim of a Muslim is to wish for the best for all people, and his/her conscience is clear.
A Muslim should know how to be wary. So, another maxim of a Muslim is to be wary, but against whom? That is to be wary of, and fully abstain from disbelief (kufr), nifaq, polytheism (shirk), cruelty (zulm), and evil.
So, in the end a Muslim should prevail over all of it, which is an obligation of every Muslim. A Muslim cannot live in derogation and captivity. The entire humanity is doomed to become miserable when the Muslims are in derogation.
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This is because Islam and Muslims are friends of humanity. Bani Halise, and Bani Seleme, these are two tribes among the Ansar. They had shown signs of weakness for some time. Now, let us pay close attention to them. Muslims need to be firm and conscious all the time. There is no weakness or fear in Muslims.
In Battle of Uhud, our Prophet’s (asw) tooth which was between his incisors and canine teeth was broken. He was also wounded in the head. There are such savages in mankind. There is a brutal mindset that wanted to kill the Prophet who was sent upon the worlds as mercy. That mindset is filled with disbelief and polytheism, they wish to get rid of the mercy of Allah, and the Prophet of Mercy. Their mindset is set on making themselves and mankind devoid of this mercy.
Our Prophet (asw) said such a tribe cannot find salvation, and Allah (c.c.) told him there is nothing he can do in this matter.
[3:128] “laysa laka mina l-ʾamri shayʾun,” said Allah.
“Allah knows best who to guide or not to guide. Allah knows best who to punish, and whom to include into the mercy.”
Now, as recorded by Urwah ibn Zubayr, Al-Kashshaaf, and Al-Tabai: The angels came to the Battle of Badr to assist Muhammad’s army, riding mottled mounts with white turbans extending down from their shoulders. They were angels with signs who had weapons training. Now, when we see from this perspective, we see Allah Ta’ala created special angelic armies specifically for warfare.
They would raise interest rates several times as much in the jahiliyyah period. Islam came to remove all types of evil and all that is harmful, and riba (interest/usury) is one of them.
Now, the disaster visited them during Battle of Uhud was due to noncompliance with command, and this is the sunnah of life. Now, let us pay close attention. If people are opposing to the divine commands, that is the Prophet’s commands, then it is a sunnah of life that they are tested with disasters. So, do not oppose to the command of Allah. Get your mind together, and do not oppose to Quran or Sunnah.
Now, about the Battle of Uhud. The army arrived at Mount Uhud at Wednesday under the command of Abu Sufyan. Our Master (asw) consulted his entourage. Ibn Salul, and majority of the Ansar suggested they should stay in Madinah, but some wanted to go out and confront the enemy.
Our Master (asw) said, “I saw a dream. They were sacrificing an ox near me. I interpreted this symbolised something good. I saw my sword cracking, and I interpreted this symbolised defeat. I was wearing a coat of mail, and I interpreted this symbolized Madinah Al-Munawwarah. If you choose, then stay in Madinah and leave them. Those who could not fight in Battle of Badr, whose fate was to be martyrs, insisted they should to confront the enemy.
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That said, those who didn’t want to stay in Madinah and defend the city wanted a pitched battle. Then, our Prophet got dressed in his coat of mail, and those who insisted before started regretting. They realised they insisted to the Messenger of Allah, and they regretted doing it.
They said, “O, Messenger of Allah! Do as you know.” Our Master (asw) replied, “When a Prophet wears his armour, he will not take it off before fighting.”
They set out at Friday, and at Saturday they arrived at a place called ‘şiip’ near Mount Uhud with an army of one thousand. Our Master (asw) was on foot, and he was placing the soldiers into formation. He was organizing the formations, and if he spotted someone not in formation, he would order him to get into formation. The mountain of Uhud was at their back.
Abdullah ibn Jubayr (r.a.) was leading the archers, our Prophet instructed them to stay there so that the enemy cannot circle us, and if the enemy retreats do not follow them, and do not ever leave your position.
Ibn Salul told his men to break formation upon seeing the enemy, for they all will break formation when they see you retreat. Then, he took his 300 men and abandoned the battlefield. You see, Ibn Salul was the chief of the hypocrites. The enemy consisted of 3000 men, and there were only 700 men in the Islamic army.
They won the first phase of the battle with Allah’s help. The enemy formations were broken, and the believers forgot about the words of our Master (asw). They abandoned the formations, and some went after the enemy, others went after the loot.
The enemies of Allah saw the believers breaking formation. Allah took away fear from their hearts. Allah took away the fear from the hearts of the enemy, but why? This is because the believers opposed to the command, and they forgot about it.
Then, the enemy returned, and the Islamic army was not in formation. Only a few people such as Abu Bakr, Ali, Abbas, Talha, and Sa’d (r.a.) were with our Prophet. Our Master’s blessed face was wounded, and a tooth of his, called ‘rubaiyya’, was broken. Then, soldiers started shouting out death of Muhammad. Ansari Abu Sufyan started shouting that Allah’s Messenger was there and alive. Then the Islamic army recovered and defeated the enemy again. In this fight 70 believers were martyred, and many others were wounded.
“Rahimallahu racilen zebbean ihvanihi,” – “Allah bless he who defended his brother,” said our beloved Prophet (asw).
As for the enemy, they suffered a lot of causalities and many were wounded. Muslims prevailed over them with the help of Allah.
“Victory is from none but Allah,” 126th verse of Surah Ali Imran.
Now, bear this in mind! In this battle we see that taking a hypocrite as a confidant in an important matter, and giving him secrets is dangerous. We also see that opposing to command, neglecting the revelation, and diving into loot brings the danger of losing a battle that is won.
Time Stamp: 25:03
Bani Salama from Khazraj, and Bani Harise from Aws were visited by weakness of the heart. Now, this is important. Bani Salama from Khazraj, and Bani Harise from Aws were losing courage. But Allah consolidated their hearts.
[3:122] “ʾidh hammat ṭāʾifatāni minkum ʾan tafshalā wa-llāhu waliyyuhumā.”
Pay close attention to this verse as well.
“Ikbal” is confronting the enemy, and “itbal” is to retreat.
The strength of the hearts comes from Allah, so is the weakness of the hearts. That is, all is from Janâb-i Haqq. Victory and help come only from Allah. It all comes from Almighty Rabb. What is essential is obedience to the command of Almighty Allah, and his Messenger.
Time Stamp: 26:14
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